AP US History Flashcards Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Ninevah
The capital of Assyria
Legalism
Another Chinese religion, specifically during the shortlived Qin dynasty. Legalism believed that human nature was inherently evil and that tough laws and harsh punishment, strong central government, and unquestioned authority. The Qin's adoption of this led the the resentment that would topple their empire in a decade.
Alexander the Great
king of Macedon
Syncretism
The fusion of originally different inflected forms (resulting in a reduction in the use of inflections)
Hannibal
A Carthaginian General, considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all time
tax revenue
government income due to taxes
Glorious Revolution
the revolution against James II
Stoicism
an indifference to pleasure or pain
Cleopatra VII
tried to reestablish Egypt's independence; her involvement with Rome led to her suicide and defeat
Anti-Semitism
Discrimination against of prejudice or hostility toward Jews.
First triumvirate
The first Roman triumvirate was Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar. Caesar took control after ousting the other two.
fascism
a government where there is one dictator, harsh to lower class
Bronze Age
Period: Foundations: c.8000 B.C.E. - c. 600 B.C.E
{Economics & Trade}
*Metallurgy origin. w/ use of copper; copper combined w/ tin to make bronze (Neolithic); bronze tools & weap. 1st used in Mesopotamia (c.4000-3000 B.C.E.)
*(c.1500-1000 B.C.E.) Mesopotamian craftsmen developed iron tools & weap.; this tech. spread throughout SW Asia over time
"visible saints"
according to Puritans, only these individuals should be admitted to church membership
Horace Mann...
United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education
Maya
a family of American Indian languages spoken by Mayan peoples
Class Struggle
Conflict between different classes in a community resulting from different social or economic positions and reflecting opposed interests.
Sonni Ali
Songhai ruler conquered west Africa and established Songhai empire
Mandate of Heaven
The Zhou Dynasties justification of rule by claiming that heaven would grant the Zhou power as long as they were just. Important for being the first invokement of divine right to rule,
The Delian League
An alliance between several Greek city-states for mutual defense against aggression from their common enemies
Antigonid, Ptolemaic, Seleucid
The three divisions that Alexander made to his empire, the first represented Greece and Macedon, the second Egypt, and the last Bactria and Anatolia
nomadic
move with an animal as the animal migrates
Anne Hutchinson
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
Slave codes
laws in the southern states that controlled enslaved people
Gupta Empire
Golden Age of India; ruled through central government but allowed village power; restored Hinduism
Edict of Milan
313 CE Constantine makes Christianity the primary religion of the Roman Empire
Chivalry
The sum of the ideal qualifications of a knight, including courtesy, generosity, valor, and dexterity in arms.
Anatolia
A powerful empire in modern day Turkey where the Hittite people reside.
Zhou Dynasty
Ousters of the Shang dynastly; led by Wu Wang
The Iroquois Confederacy
A powerful alliance of Indian tribes that was the only one to remain neutral during the French and Indian War (Seven years' war). The tribe had previously been subject of a peace treaty with the British and were noted as one of three powers of North America. After the Seven Years' War the alliance with the Iroquois and the British diminished and they began contesting each other for power over the Ohio Valey.
Thomas Hooker
A Puritan minister who led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government.
Monroe Doctrine
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s. The doctrine was not always adhered to by british parlament.
Balance of Trade
The difference between the values of exports and imports of a country, said to be favorable or unfavorable as exports are greater or less than imports.
Great Royal Road
A long trade road established by the Persians
Patriarchal Society- Family, Public Life, Evidence
Period: Foundations: c.8000 B.C.E. - c. 600 B.C.E
{Society & People}
*Basis of Meso. & Egypt. soc. - men made decisions about division of household chores among fam. mem. & arranged marriages; women punished for adultery by drowning; men can engage in consensual sexual relations outside of marriage w/out penalty; can sell wife & kids to slavery to pay debts
*Dominated pub. life: Ruled as kinds & pharaohs & made decisions about pub. policy
*Evidence in Hammurabi's Code- entrused men w/ all maj. decision making * judgement; Confucian soc. w/ the 5 relationships
in his first inagural adress FDR fealt the economy would...
Fix it self
Middle Kingdom
2050 BC. - 1800 BC.: A new dynasty reunited Egypt. Moved the capital to Thebes. Built irrigation projects and canal between NIle and Red Sea so Egytian ships could trade along coasts of Arabian Penninsula and East Africa. Expanded Egyptian territory:Nubia, Syria.
Ben Franklin's oppinion of the colonies relation to England was?
They were very important to Brittan
Tariff Controversy of the late 1820's and early 1830's
It also demonstrated that Economic sectionalism was a serious threat to national unity.
Pax Romana
the Roman peace
trade goods
goods that were traded.
Dharma
basic principles of the cosmos
Inequality
When people are not treated equally
Neolithic Revolution
The agricultural revolution where humans began to settle down from their previously nomadic lifestyle
urban
referring to a city or town
Jeremiads
In the 1600's, Puritan preachers noticed a decline in the religious devotion of second-generation settlers. To combat this decreasing piety, they preached a type of sermon called the jeremiad. The jeremiads focused on the teachings of Jeremiah, a Biblical prophet who warned of doom.
Indo-European
the language almost all other languages came from
Conscription
Compulsory enrollment of persons for military or naval service; draft.
Textiles
Fabrics that are woven or knitted; material for clothing
Shang China
An early Chinese civilization that began in the Hwang Ho(Yellow) River Valley, creating a trade based society. Had very limited contact with external civilizations; famously ethnocentric. Developed the spoked wheel, and produced pottery and silk
Constantinople
A city built by Constantine, now called Istanbul
Republic
A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them.
John Cotton
prominent Mass minister, believed that only the spiritual "elect" should have any authority, to become "elect" they have a conversion experience, caused dissension in colony and would eventually lead to the founding of new colonies
patroonship
A vast Dutch feudal estates fronting the Hudson River in early 1600s. They were granted to promoters who agreed to settle 50 people on them.
Thomas Jefferson
was not at the contitutional convention because he was an embasador to France
TaNaKh
the Jewish scriptures which consist of three divisions--the Torah and the Prophets and the Writings
Torah
(Judaism) the scroll of parchment on which the first five books of the Hebrew Scripture is written
Han Dynasty
imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time) from 206 BC to 221 and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy
Hellenistic
relating to or characteristic of the classical Greek civiliHzation
Absolutism
The principle or the exercise of complete and unrestricted power in the government.
Paleolithic
The longest portion of the human experience on Earth, also referred to as the old ston age.
Medici Family
A ruling family in Florence that sponsored a great deal of art from famous painters and sculptists
Chandra Gupta
Distinct from the Mauryan founder, he revived the Mauryan Empire into the Gupta Empire
Enlightenment
A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions, a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions.
Roger Williams
English clergyman and colonist who was expelled from Massachusetts for criticizing Puritanism
Jacksonian Democracy
New form of government that emphasized suffrage, platforms and nominating conventions, and a political philosophy that puts its faith in the common people
Hegemony
the domination of one state over its allies
Triumvirate
a group of three men responsible for public administration or civil authority
Analyze
To examine critically, so as to bring out the essential elements or give the essence of.
Chichen Itza
A tiered Mayan temple which is similar in design to the Egyptian pyramids and the Mesopotamian ziggurats
Neolithic Era - Culture
Period: Foundations: c.8000 B.C.E. - c. 600 B.C.E
{Cultural & Intellect. Trends/ Tech. Innovations}
*Agri. gave food surplus & led to increase in pop.; perm. villa. appeared as hunting & gathering ended & farming started; Jericho- modern day Israel, 1 of world's 1st Neolithic villa.; villa. life encouraged devel. of specialized labor (every1 not dedicated to food production, encouraged accumulation of wealth & devel. of soc. classes)
*Early industries: pottery, metallurgy & textiles
*Sedentary agri. soc. saw role & stat. of women diminish compared w/ hunting & gathering soc.
Indentured servitude
person who agreed to work for a colonial employer for a specified time in exchange for passage to america.
Punic Wars
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.
slash and burn
A method of agriculture designed for the preparation of a field cultivation. They slash the bark on a stand of trees and burn the dead trees. This resulted in a weed free patch that was extremely fertile.
Golden Age of Pericles
The period after the Persian Wars where Greece entered a period of peace and relative prosperity.
Hominids- Appearance, Discovery, Major Differences w/ earlier primates
Period: Foundations: c.8000 B.C.E. - c. 600 B.C.E
{Society & People}
*Appeared 3-4 million yrs. ago in S. & E. Africa; humanlike creatures called primates
*Mary & Louis Leakey excavated hominid fossils in Great Rift Valley; "Lucy"- Australopithecine fossil found in 1974
*3 Maj. diff. from earlier primates: bipedalism, sizable brain (abstract thought & fine motor ctrl), & larynx (complex speech)
*thought processing ability led to alteration of natural environ. to suit needs
National Defense Education Act
Passed in response to Sputnik, it provided an oppurtunity and stimulus for college education for many Americans. It allocated funds for upgrading funds in the sciences, foreign language, guidance services, and teaching innovation.
The Proclamation of 1763
1763; protects the Native lands in the Ohio Valley (settlers are not allowed to buy land there)., This act was the result of Pontiac's attack on English Frontiersmen who were crossing the mountains into Indian territory. The British Govt. passed this act to forbid settlers from advancing beyond the mountains that divided the Atlantic Coast from the interior of North America. This agreement was supported by many Indian tribes but it was largely ineffective, soon White settlers were pushing across the boundary and it was relocated in a 1768 agreement, that was also eventually replaced.
Major Political Issues addressed with congressional legislation during 1877-1892
civil service reform, control of trusts, the coinage of silver and tariffs
Siddartha Guatama
founder of Buddhism
pastoral
the lifestyle of a sheared.
Conservative
Disposed to preserve existing conditions, institutions, etc. or to restore traditional ones and to limit change.
Guilds
Association of crafts people, assumed responsibility for casting, funding, rehearsing.
Sumerians
A civilization that originated in southern Mesopotamia. They developed cuneiform writing and the 12 month calendar
priesthood
the journey of becoming a priest
Chandragupta Maurya
founder of the Mauryan Empire
Hoplite
a heavily armed Greek foot soldier
Conflate
To fuse into one entity; merge.
Diasporas
The migration of religious or ethnic groups to foreign lands despite their continued affiliation with the land and customs of their origin
Aryans
A series of nomadic tribes that originated from north of the Caucaus Mountains that invaded the Indian subcontinent. Their beliefs were eventually modified to form the basis of Hinduism. Their name was exploited by the Nazi's and Hitler millennia later when he wished to describe his "pure" race.
Confucianism
A major religion developed for the Chinese by Confucius, it stresses Ren, kindness and humanity; Li, propriety and respect; and Xiao, filial piety(respect for family obligation)
Anti-Federalists
They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply Republican) party.
Peter Stuyvesant
the last Dutch colonial administrator of New Netherland
antinomianism
the theological doctrine that by faith and God's grace a Christian is freed from all laws (including the moral standards of the culture)
Karma
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
Oligarch
one of the rulers in an oligarchy
Athens
the capital and largest city of Greece
Archaic
Marked by the characteristics of an earlier period; antiquated
Coercive
The act or power of coercing, government by force.
Patriarchal Society
Societies that vested authority in public and private matters to adult males.
Persian Empire
One of the largest ancient empires, that is distantly related to the modern state of Turkey. Built the Great Royal Road.
Diocletian
A Roman emperor during the decline of Rome, who divided the Empire into two regions run by co-emperors
Common Sense
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain.
Mayflower
the ship in which the Pilgrim Fathers sailed from England to Massachusetts in 1620
Louisiana Purchase
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size, although president Jefferson violated his viciously asserted principle of limited interpretation of the constitution.
Ideograms
The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.
Shang Dynasty
the imperial dynasty ruling China from about the 18th to the 12th centuries BC
Atheism
The doctrine or belief that there is no god.
Martin Luther
A german monk who famously began the Protestant split in the church by nailing a list of 95 grievances to a church door. He advocated a more personal relationship with God, without the church as a middleman.
Divine Right
A similar concept to the Mandate of Heaven, European rulers used this, claiming they were ordained by God to lead, and that not following them was ungodly. Notably different from the Mandate of Heaven in that it had no clause for poor rulers.
Paleolithic Era - Economy
Period: Foundations: c.8000 B.C.E. - c. 600 B.C.E
{Economics & Trade}
*Called Old Stone Age (c. 10k - 2.5mil. yrs. ago)
*greatest concerns were steady & plentiful food supply & clothing; stone & bone tools (spears, bows, arrows, fishhooks, harpoons, clay pots)
*Humans were nomadic hunters & gatherers; predates agri. soc.
Middle Passage
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
Assyrians
They are the next group to take over the Fertile Crescent after the Sargon.Their king was king Ashurbanipal.They were defeated by the Medes and the Chaldeans.
Bubonic Plague
The plague was started in Asia in the 14th century, and was carried by trade routes to Europe, where it devastated the population
five-year plan
the soviet union and china set a 5 year plan to make big leaps in economic advance throughout 5 years
Bantu Migrations- Language, iron metallurgy, Society
Period: Foundations: c.8000 B.C.E. - c. 600 B.C.E
{Historical Connections}
*Movement of Africans across Afr. (3000 B.C.E.- 500 C.E.)
*Niger-Congo related lang. & compilations spoken by Kru, Wolof, Ibo, Mande & Yorba, all part of Bantu family of lang.
*Possession of iron metallurgy; tools used to clear land for agri. (Basis for soc.) & herding
*Bantus reached limits (1000 B. C. E.); est. decentralized govt. - (Segmentary soc.)- that gov. through fam. & kinship groups; each villa. ruled by council of male heads of fam. & village chief; group of villages formed district (usu. highest form of govt.), increased conflict among Bantus led to org. mili. & formal govt. institutions
Nye Commission Report
The Committee found under the head of sales methods of the munitions companies, that almost without exception, the American munitions companies investigated have at times resorted to such unusual approaches, questionable favors and commissions, and methods of "doing the needful" as to constitute, in effect, a form of bribery of foreign governmental officials or of their close friends in order to secure business. This Promoted isolationism; blamed US involvement in WWI on greedy businessmen; "Merchants of Death"
Hammurabi's Code- What, Death, Civil Laws, relied on, impact on later civilizations
Period: Foundations: c.8000 B.C.E. - c. 600 B.C.E
{Political Structures}
*Est. high standards of behavior & stern punishments for violators (c. 1792-1750 B.C.E.) in Babylon
*Death penalty for murder, theft, fraud, false accusation, sheltering runaway slaves, failure to obey royal orders, adultery, incest
*Civil laws regulated prices, wages, commercial dealings, marital relations. & conditions of slavery
*Relied on lex talionis ("Law of retaliation") & soc. standing; upper classes favored
*Concept of consistent written set of rules to gov. soc. instead of arbitrary rules impacted later civilizations
Code of Hammurabi
the set of laws drawn up by Babylonian king Hammurabi dating to the 18th century BC, the earliest legal code known in its entirety
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