AP US History II Midterm Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
1453-1922
ottoman empire
Crusades
1095-1204 Led to Renaissance
Washington Gladden
Congregationalist minister who followed the social gospel and supported social reform. A prolific writer whose newspaper cloumns and many books made him a national leader of the Social gospel movement.
Taj Mahal
mughal architecture, islamic influence
Sargon of Akkad
first Sumerian king-conqueror.
Babur
founder of the Mughal empire
catherine the grreat
expansionist, westernizing, enlightened
Walter Reed
Discovered that the mosquito transmitted yellow fever and developed a cure. Yellow fever was the leading cause of death of American troops in the Spanish-American War.
Wickersham Commission
National Law Enforcement Commission, so named after its chair, George Wickersham, it was a national commission on law observance and enforcement created by Hoover in 1929. Its 1930 report recommended the repeal of Prohibition.
Che Guevera
an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author, intellectual, guerrilla leader, diplomat, military theorist, and major figure of the Cuban Revolution.
english civil war
parliament vs. king, 1640s
Mexican Revolution
Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapato, Ponciano Arriaga- land reforms- tierra y libertad
"Trustbuster"
Nicknamed for Teddy Roosevelt, this is a federal official who seeks to dissolve monopolistic trusts through vigorous enforcement of antitrust laws.
Florence Kelley, consumerism
Founded the National Consumer's League, which wanted legislation to protect consumers from being cheated or harmed by big business.
Arbitration Treaties
Negotiated by U.S. using arbitration, the mediation of a dispute, Taft promoted these agreements as an alternative to war in Latin America and Asia.
Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839-1903)
America's greatest theoretical scientist, he studied thermodynamics and physical chemistry.
Company unions
People working for a particular company would gather and as a unit demand better wages, working conditions and hours.
William Sylvis
Leader of the National Labor Union.
Pierpont Morgan
Financier who arranged the merger which created the U.S. Steel Corporation, the world's first billion dollar corporation. Everyone involved in the merger became rich. (Vertical consolidation).
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Lazaro Cardenas
President of Mexico (1934-1940). He brought major changes to Mexican life by distributing millions of acres of land to the peasants, bringing representatives of workers and farmers into the inner circles of politics, and nationalizing the oil industry
Kwame Nkrumah
Worked to remove British imperialists from Africa; became the first Prime Minister of Ghana
Simon Bolivar
1800s revolutionary in South America, wanted to unite the region
extraterritoriality
granted to Europeans in Ottoman Empire and China
Brain trust
Many of the advisers who helped Roosevelt during his presidential candidacy continued to aid him after he entered the White House. A newspaperman once described the group as "Roosevelt's Brain Trust." They were more influential than the Cabinet.
Panic of 1873, depression
Unrestrained speculation on the railroads let to disaster - inflation and strikes by railroad workers. 18,000 businesses failed and 3 million people were out of work. Federal troops were called in to end the strike.
Twentieth Amendment
Written by George Norris and also called the "Lame Duck Amendment," it changed the inauguration date from March 4 to January 20 for president and vice president, and to January 3 for senators and representatives. It also said Congress must assemble at least once a year.
Hatch Act (1939)
Prohibited federal office holders from participating actively in political campaigns or soliciting or accepting contributions.
Elanor Roosevelt
A strong first lady who supported civil rights.
Laissez-faire
A theory that the economy does better without government intervention in business.
Reparations
As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.
Wartime manpower losses
WWI involved violent, modern weapons and old fighting styles. With so many men at war, nations needed other people to work in the factories and other wartime industries.
Greenbacks
Labor Party - Founded in 1878, the party was primarily composed of prairie farmers who went into debt during the Panic of 1873. The Party fought for increased monetary circulation through issuance of paper currency and bimetallism (using both gold and silver as legal tender), supported inflationary programs in the belief that they would benefit debtors, and sought benefits for labor such as shorter working hours and a national labor bureau. They had the support of several labor groups and they wanted the government to print more greenbacks.
Creel Committee
Headed by George Creel, this committee was in charge of propaganda for WWI (1917-1919). He depicted the U.S. as a champion of justice and liberty.
Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy
Cabinet members who had fought over conservation efforts and how much effort and money should be put into conserving national resources. Pinchot, head of the Forestry Department, accused Ballinger, Secretary of the Interior, of abandoning federal conservation policy. Taft sided with Ballinger and fired Pinchot.
Billy Sunday (1863-1935)
Baseball player and preacher, his baseball background helped him become the most popular evangelist minister of the time. Part of the Fundamentalist revival of the 1920's.
Bimetalism
Use of two metals, gold and silver, for currency as America did with the Bland-Allison Act and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. Ended in 1900 with the enactment of the Gold Standard Act.
Free Silver
Movement for using silver in all aspects of currency. Not adopted because all other countries used a gold standard.
Alice Paul
A suffragette who believed that giving women the right to vote would eliminate the corruption in politics.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(1815-1902) A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.
Mark Twain
Master of satire. A regionalist writer who gave his stories "local color" through dialects and detailed descriptions. His works include The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, "The Amazing Jumping Frog of Calaverus County," and stories about the American West.
Pragmatism
A philosophy which focuses only on the outcomes and effects of processes and situations.
Bourbons / Redeemers
A religious movement in the South.
Walter Rauschenbusch
New York clergyman who preached the social gospel, worked to alleviate poverty, and worked to make peace between employers and labor unions.
Boss Tweed
Large political boss and head of Tammany Hall, he controlled New York and believed in "Honest Graft".
Vladimir Putin
elected president of Russia in 2000, launched reforms aimed at boosting growth and budget revenues and keeping Russia on a strong economic track.
Winston Churchill
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
opium wars
war between Great Britain and China, began as a conflict over the opium trade, ended with the Chinese treaty to the British- the opening of 5 chinese ports to foreign merchants, and the grant of other commercial and diplomatic privileges
Nestorian Christianity
branch of Christianity popular in Asia which emphasized the human nature of Christ.
Han Wudi
ruled 141-87 BCE, the Martial Emporer. Established the Confucian education system and expanded into northern Vietnam and Korea and central Asia.
Unrestricted submarine warfare
This was the German practice of attacking any and all shipping to countries it was at war with. It annoyed neutral countries.
Clark Memorandum
1928 - Under Secretary of State Reuben Clark, 286 pages were added to the Roosevelt Corollary of 1904.
Indian Reorganization Act (1934)
Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.
Dr. Francis Townsend
Advanced the Old Age Revolving Pension Plan, which proposed that every retired person over 60 receive a pension of $200 a month (about twice the average week's salary). It required that the money be spent within the month.
Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917
Lessened the tension in the feuds between the U.S. and Japan by recognizing Japan's sphere of influence in China in exchange for Japan's continued recognition of the Open Door policy in China.
Esch-Cummins Transportation Act
Provided for the return of railroads to private control, widened powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Twenty-One Demands
Name for Japan's demands to the U.S., including its threat to close China to European and American trade. Resolved by the 1917 Lansing-Ishii Agreement, a treaty which tried to settle differences between the U.S. and Japan.
Cecil B. DeMille (1881-1959)
Motion picture producer and director, he was famous for Biblical films and epic movies.
Mississippi Plan
1890 - In order to vote in Mississippi, citizens had to display the receipt which proved they had paid the poll tax and pass a literacy test by reading and interpreting a selection from the Constitution. Prevented blacks, who were generally poor and uneducated, from voting.
Carry A. Nation (1846-1901)
A prohibitionist. She believed that bars and other liquor-related businesses should be destroyed, and was known for attacking saloons herself with a hatchet.
Spheres of influence
Region in which political and economic control is exerted by on European nation to the exclusion of all others. Spheres of influence appeared primarily in the East, and also in Africa.
Teller Amendment
April 1896 - U.S. declared Cuba free from Spain, but the Teller Amendment disclaimed any American intention to annex Cuba.
Cleveland and Hawaii
President Cleveland did not want to forcibly annex Hawaii, so he waited five years to do so. McKinley finally did it. Cleveland felt the annexation overstepped the federal government's power.
Ignatius Donnely
A leader of the Populist Party in Minnesota.
Henry James (1843-1916)
American writer who lived in England. Wrote numerous novels around the theme of the conflict between American innocence and European sophistication/corruption, with an emphasis on the psychological motivations of the characters. Famous for his novel Washington Square and his short story "The Turn of the Screw.".
Payne-Aldrich Tariff, 1909
With the fear of foreign competition gone, it lowered rates to 38%. Democrats felt it did not go far enough and passed the Underwood Tariff in 1913 to further lower taxes.
William Howard Taft
27th President (1908-1912), he was the only man to serve as both President of the U.S. and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Overweight, he was the only president to get stuck in the White House bathtub. Roosevelt supported he in 1908, but later ran against him.
Chinese Exclusion Law
1882 - Denied citizenship to Chinese in the U.S. and forbid further immigration of Chinese. Supported by American workers who worried about losing their jobs to Chinese immagrants who would work for less pay.
Spanish-American War
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
Salvador Allende
President of Chile from 1970 to 1973, a member of the Socialist Party, he attempted to institute a number of democratic reforms in Chilean politics. He was overthrown and assassinated in 1973 during a military coup lead by General Augusto Pinochet.
Origin of the Species
Written by Charles Darwin, a scientific literature which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology.
Assyrians
1300-612 BCE, had an empire in SW Asia and Egypt.
Suleyman the Magnificent
1500s Ottoman who made laws, laid siege to Vienna, and made the ottomans a naval power.
Granger Movement
1867 - Nation Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry. A group of agrarian organizations that worked to increase the political and economic power of farmers. They opposed corrupt business practices and monopolies, and supported relief for debtors. Although technically not a political party, local granges led to the creation of a number of political parties, which eventually joined with the growing labor movement to form the Progressive Party.
Disenfranchisement, Williams v. Mississippi
1898 - The Mississippi supreme court ruled that poll taxes and literacy tests, which took away blacks' right to vote (a practice known as "disenfranchisement"), were legal.
Meat Inspection Act
1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.
Harding scandals: Charles Forbes
Forbes served time for fraud and bribery in connection with government contracts. He took millions of dollars from the Veteran's Bureau.
American Railway Union
Led by Eugene Debs, they started the Pullman strike, composed mostly of railroad workers.
LaFollette Seaman's Act
LaFollette was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin. He protested the cruel treatment that sailors received and led the fight for this act.
Archangel Expedition (1917)
U.S. sent troops to the Soviet cities of Murmansk and Archangel to reinforce White Russians (non-Communists). The U.S. troops did not fight Communists, but instead defended the ports.
Senator George Norris (1861-1944)
Congressman from Nebraska, he was a reformer Republican who helped lead the rules change of 1910 which ended the arbitrary power of the Speaker. Known as the father of the Tennessee Valley Authority, he was author of the 20th Amendment. Later, while in the Senate, he was an isolationist who tried to keep the U.S. out of WW I.
American Protective Association
A Nativist group of the 1890s which opposed all immigration to the U.S.
Root-Takahira Agreement
1908 - Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door policy in China.
Scopes trial, Clarence Darrow, William Jennings Bryan (1925)
Prosecution of Dayton, Tennessee school teacher, John Scopes, for violation of the Butler Act, a Tennessee law forbidding public schools from teaching about evolution. Former Democratic presidential candidate, William Jennings Bryan, prosecuted the case, and the famous criminal attorney, Clarence Darrow, defended Scopes. Scopes was convicted and fined $100, but the trial started a shift of public opinion away from Fundamentalism.
Dawes Plan, Young Plan
Post-WW I depression in Germany left it unable to pay reparation and Germany defaulted on its payments in 1923. In 1924, U.S. Vice President Charles Dawes formulated a plan to allow Germany to make its reparation payments in annual installments. This plan was renegotiated and modified in 1929 by U.S. financier Owen Young.
Washington Disarmament Conference, 1921-1922
The U.S. and nine other countries discussed limits on naval armaments. They felt that a naval arms race had contributed to the start of WW I. They created quotas for different classes of ships that could be built by each country based on its economic power and size of existing navies.
revolution of 1905
a historical term describing a wave of political terrorism, strikes, peasant unrests, mutinies, both anti-government and undirected, that swept through vast areas of the Russian Empire, leading to the establishment of the State Duma of the Russian Empire, multi-party system and the Russian Constitution of 1906.
Eisenhower doctrine
countries can ask for help from US if threatened, especially by communism.
Russian Revolutions, 1917, March and Bolshevik
After years of oppression, the peasants rebelled against the czars. The first government was democratic and weak, so another revolution overthrew that government and instituted a Communist government lead by the Bolshevik party under Lenin. Lenin pulled Russia out of WWI (The Germans may have aided his rise to power so they would not have to fight on two fronts).
Bruce Barton, The Man Nobody Knows, 1925
Advertising executive Barton called Jesus the "founder of modern business" because he picked men up from the bottom ranks and built a successful empire.
Russo-Japanese War, Treaty of Portsmouth
Japan had attacked the Russian Pacific fleet over Russia's refusal to withdraw its troops from Mancharia after the Boxer Rebellion (1904-1905) War fought mainly in Korea. Japan victorious, the U.S. mediated the end of the war. Negotiating the treaty in the U.S. increased U.S. prestige. Roosevelt received a Nobel Peace Prize for the mediation.
Harding's death, Coolidge takes over
August 2, 1923 - President Harding died and Vice President Calvin Coolidge took over.
McNary-Haugen Bill, vetos
The bill was a plan to raise the prices of farm products. The government could buy and sell the commodities at world price and tariff. Surplus sold abroad. It was vetoes twice by Coolidge. It was the forerunner of the 1930's agricultural programs.
Public Works Administration (PWA), Harold Ickes
Under Secertary of the Interior Harold Ickes, the PWA distributed $3.3 billion to state and local governments for building schools, highways, hospitals, ect.
Woodrow Wilson, New Freedom
He believed that monopolies had to be broken up and that the government must regulate business. He believed in competition, and called his economic plan "New Freedom.".
Article 10 (Article X) of the Versailles Treaty
Created the League of Nations.
Rural Electrificaion Committee (REA)
May 1936 - Created to provide loans and WPA labor to electric cooperatives to build lines into rural areas not served by private companies.
Election of 1920: candidates, issues, vice-presidential candidates
Republican, Warren G. Harding, with V.P. running mate Coolidge, beat Democrat, Governor James Cox, with V.P. running mate, FDR. The issues were WW I, the post-war economy and the League of Nations.
Federal Trade Commission, Cease and Desist Orders
A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy.
Scientific Management, Frederick W. Taylor
1911 - Increased industrial output by rationalizing and refining the production process.
Black migration to northern cities
During WWI, southern Blacks began to move north, where there were more jobs and less racism. The increased number of Blacks led to a White backlash and conditions like Southern racism.
Rule of Reason: Standard Oil case, American Tobacco case
1911 - Supreme Court allowed restrictions on competition through the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
Ida Tarbell (1857-1944), History of the Standard Oil Company
This 1904 book exposed the monpolistic practices of the Standard Oil Company. Strengthened the movement for outlawing monopolies. A muckraker novel.
Union Pacific Railroad, Central Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific: Began in Omaha in 1865 and went west. Central Pacific: Went east from Sacramento and met the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory Point, Utah on May 10, 1869, where the golden spike ceremony was held. Transcontinental railroad overcharged the federal government and used substandard materials.
Frank Norris (1870-1902), The Octopus
A leader of the naturalism movement in literature, he believed that a novel should serve a moral purpose. Wrote The Octopus in 1901 about how railroads controlled the lives of a group of California farmers. A muckraker novel.
David Graham Phillips, The Treason of the Senate
A muckraker novel, it publicized corruption in the Senate after doing research on government leaders.
Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms
He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954 and the Pulitzer Prize in 1952. A Farewell to Arms was written in 1929 and told the story of a love affair between an American ambulance driver and a British nurse in Italy during WW I.
Captain Alfred Thayler Mahan
In 1890, he wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon History. He was a proponent of building a large navy. He said that a new, modern navy was necessary to protect the international trade America depended on.
Anthracite Coal Strike, 1902, George F. Baer
Large strike by coal miners. Baer led the miner's union at the time.
Supreme Court: Legal Tender cases
1870, 1871 - A series of cases that challenged whether the paper "greenbacks" issued during the Civil War constituted legal tender, i.e., whether they were valid currency. The Supreme Court declared that greenbacks were not legal tender and their issuance had bee unconstitutional.
Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives
Early 1900's writer who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. Muckraker novel.
Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois
1886 - Stated that individual states could control trade in their states, but could not regulate railroads coming through them. Congress had exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Founded in 1909 by a group of black and white intellectuals.
Recognition of the U.S.S.R (November 1933)
In an effort to open trade with Russia, mutual recognition was negotiated. The financial results were disappointing.
John Spargo, The Bitter Cry of the Children
Journalist and novelist, he wrote of the unfair treatment of children used as child labor. Stressed better education, better schools and teachers. A muckraker novel.
Uncle Joe Cannon (1836-1926), Old Guard
Speaker of the House, he could make or break legislation form 1903 to 1910. He represented the Old Guard, which controlled Congress, and his arbitrary tactics led to the adoption of resolutions in 1910 limiting the power of the Speaker.
Pollock v. Farmer's Loan and Trust Company, 1895
The court ruled the income could not be taxed. In response, Congress passed the 16th Amendment which specifically allows taxation of income (ratified 1913).
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