Ap US History Key terms All Flashcards

Terms Definitions
discrete
separate; distinct
Thomas Malthus
Eighteenth-century English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because, in his view, population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production. (p. 867)
Arawak
Native group Columbus met.
Chester A. Arthur
1881-1885, 21st President
Serfs
peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system of the Middle Ages
vikings
seagoing scandinavian invaders who disrupted european life
globalization
enabling financial and investment markets to operate internationally as a result of deregulation and improved communications
ka'ba
most revered religious shrine in pre-islamic arabia
Black Hand
Pre-WWI secret Serbian nationalistic society; one of tis members, Gavrilo Princip, assassinated Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand and provided the spark for the outbreak of the Great War
Ernest Hemingway
innovative writer whose novels reflected the disillusionment of many Americans with propaganda and patriotic idealism
Tlaloc
god of Aztecs; associated with fertility and agricultural; god of rain.
Balkans
geopolitical and cultural region of southeastern Europe. Greece and the region North of Greece.
Constantine
Roman emperor (r. 312-337). After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion. (p.159)
ethiopia
only African kingdom that stayed Christian
New Federalism
Nixon's domestic program, which centered on returning some power to the states at the expense of he national government under the assumption that the federal bureaucracy had grown too large and unresponsive to local needs. Also endorsed by Reagan
divination
Techniques for ascertaining the will of the gods by interpreting natural phenomena.
modernization
The process of reforming political, military, economic, social, and cultural traditions in imitation of the early success of Western societies, often with regard for accommodating local traditions in non-Western societies. (p. 652)
Gentlemen's Agreement
In 1907 Theodore Roosevelt arranged with Japan that Japan would voluntarily restrict the emmigration of its nationals to the U.S.
Compromise of 1877
Compromise reached over the controversial Hayes-Tilden presidential election of 1876; Democrats agreed the Hayes (Republican) could take office if he withdrew federal troops from Louisiana and South Carolina; Republicans assured the Democrats support for a bill subsidizing the Texas and Pacific Railroad's construction of a southern transcontinental line; Hayes became president; compromise soon led to the Republican party quietly abandoning its commintment to racial equality
Vladimir Lenin
Leader of the Bolshevik (later Communist) Party. He lived in exile in Switzerland until 1917, then returned to Russia to lead the Bolsheviks to victory during the Russian Revolution and the civil war that followed. (p. 761)
Federalism
there is a federal governement and there are state governments; they have different powers
Japanese Americans
Korematsu vs. the United States, internment camps, many Americans were paranoid that Japanese Americans were spies
John Brown
(FP) , Well-known abolitionist. used violence to stop slavery immediately, involved in the Pottawatomie Massacre, he ws tried, convicted of treason and hung... he became a martyr.
Papermaking
What new industry transmitted to the Islamic world from China and was introduced during the Abassid period?
embargo
a government order imposing a trade barrier
Chester Allan Arthur
Republican; 21st president after Garfield was assassinated; had no apparent qualifications to be president (he was merely a spoils man for Conkling's NY political machine); abolitionist lawyer; passed civil service reforms in honor of Garfield (Pendleton Act - established merit system to office based on skill; set up Civil Service Commission; basically anti-spoils); Republicans turned against him because they didn't like his reforms; better president than expected
Muhammad Ali
Leader of Egyptian modernization in the early nineteenth century. He ruled Egypt as an Ottoman governor, but had imperial ambitions. His descendants ruled Egypt until overthrown in 1952. (p. 652)
abraham
Founder of Judaism who, according to the Bible, led his family from Ur to Canaan in obedience to God's command.
shi'a
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
georgia
james oglethorpe, founded as a buffer to protect SC from indians, no plantations, no slavery, no alcohol, no catholics
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Jay's Treaty
treaty that offered little concessions from Britain to US and greatly upset Jeffersonians
 
Britain would leave posts on US soil and pay for damages to US ships, while America still owed merchant debts
Tavern
Name for a pool, hotel, restaurant, bar, etc. Almost always located by a river
arbitrate
to decide as arbitrator or arbiter; determine.
Freedman's Bureau
helped slaves after war, gave food, edu., health
John Rockefeller
Creator of the Standard Oil Company who made a fortune on it and joined with competing companies in trust agreements that in other words made an amazing monopoly.
What emperor of Ethiopia defeated the Italians at the Battle of Adwa?
Menelek II
42. Charleston
1690 - The first permanent settlement in the Carolinas, named in honor of King Charles II. Much of the population were Huguenot (French Protestant) refugees.
Incas
A Native American people who built a notable civilization in western South America in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The center of their empire was in present-day Peru. Francisco Pizarro of Spain conquered the empire.
The Enlightenment
A philosophical movement in the 18th century characterized by belief in rational, scientific, logical reason.
Hagia Sophia
the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Constantinople, built by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian
Queen Isabella
queen of Castile (1474-1504) and of Aragon (1479-1504), ruling the two kingdoms jointly from 1479 with her husband, Ferdinand II of Aragon (Ferdinand V of Castile). Their rule effected the permanent union of Spain and the beginning of an overseas empire in the New World, led by Christopher Columbus
Jacksonian Revolution of
When Andrew Jackson was elected president from humble beginnings, people thought he could make the American Dream come true. Jackson appointed common people to government positions. Jefferson's emphasis on farmers' welfare gave way to Jackson's appeal to city workers, small businessmen, and farmers. Jackson was the first non-aristocrat to be elected president. Jackson's election was the revolution of the "Common Man".
Hanseatic League
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century
Hadith
(Islam) the way of life prescribed as normative for Muslims on the basis of the teachings and practices of Muhammad and interpretations of the Koran
Basil II
The Byzantine ruler who led a resurgence of power in the eleventh century by crushing the Bulgars was
Dirty War
War waged by the Argentine military (1976-1982) against leftist groups. Characterized by the use of illegal imprisonment, torture, and executions by the military. (p. 857)
Harriet Tubman
worked alongside Josiah Henson to make repeated trips to get slaves out of the South into freedom
Bank War
erupted in 1832 when Daniel Webster and Henry Clay presented Congress with a bill to renew the Bank's charter. Clay pushed to renew the charter in 1832 to make it an issue for the election of that year. He felt that if Jackson signed off on it, then Jackson would alienate the people of the West who hated the Bank. If Jackson vetoed it, then he would alienate the wealthy class of the East who supported the Bank. Clay did not account for the fact that the wealthy class was now a minority. Jackson vetoed the bill calling the Bank unconstitutional.
Second Continental Congress
Who adopted the Articles of Confederation in 1777?
louisana purchase
territory in the western us purchase from france in 1803 for 15 million extends from the mississippi river to rocky mountains
Indian removal
Jackson fought for the relocation of Native Americans.
Mao Zedong
Leader of the Chinese Communist Party (1927-1976). He led the Communists on the Long March (1934-1935) and rebuilt the Communist Party and Red Army during the Japanese occupation of China (1937-1945). (789)
26th Amendment
(RN) , lowered the voting age to 18
Nullification Crisis
South was mad about the Tariff of Abominations. John C. Calhoun supported States' Rights and said they had a right to nullify a law. In 1832 the tariff was lowered. South Carolina passed the Nullification Act, and threatened to secede; Jackson was furious, so he passed the Force Bill which said that Jackson can use the army to enforce the tariff
Christmas trees
To set an example of conservation, TR banned these from the White House in 1902.
Lowell System
This was a new system of manufacturing through the rise of factories (many textile). This system used domestic labor, like mill girls, who lived in boardinghouses under a very regimented schedule.
Walter Raleigh
suitor of Elizabeth who tried his hand at colonization
Constitution: Majority leader
The person elected, by the majority party of Congress, to be leader of the majority party in Congress.
Alexander the great
son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world
The Half-way Covenant
designed to ease the problem of declining church attendance and greater demand for political freedom
"Dust Bowl"
What: Dust storms as a result of droughts that ravaged from Texas to the Dakotas
When: beginning in 1930
Where: TX and Dakotas
Significance: Even through these dust storms, agriculture produced more than Americans could afford to buy, resulting in no profit for farmers. The farmers became nomads searching for better work, but like their suburb counterparts, no work could be found.
Theodore Roosevelt
was vice president and became known as the "accidental president after sudden death of Pres. William McKinley. Youngest man to assume presidency, Allied with progressives who urged regulation (not destruction) of trusts,"SQUARE DEAL"- 1904 election, Roosevelt promised everyone a "square deal" to win re-election 7: 1934-1941
f.D/R foreign polivities
f- britian, d/r felt they needed france
Contrast Puritan colonies with others
Puritan colonies were self-governed, with each town having its own government which led the people in strict accordance with Puritan beliefs. Only those members of the congregation who had achieved grace and were full church members (called the "elect," or "saints") could vote and hold public office. Other colonies had different styles of government and were more open to different beliefs.
Boston Tea Party
A "revolt" on the Tea Act passed by Parliament; Sons of Liberty dressed up like Indians raided English ships in Boston Harbor. They dumped thousands of pounds of tea into the harbor. Led to Coercive Acts. (1773)
Populist Party
(BH) , Founded 1891 - James B. Weaver, problem was overproduction, called for free coinage of silver and paper money, national income tax, direct election of senators, regulation of railroads, and other government reforms to help farmers
54. Leisler's Rebellion
1689 - When King James II was dethroned and replaced by King William of the Netherlands, the colonists of New York rebelled and made Jacob Leiser, a militia officer, governor of New York. Leisler was hanged for treason when royal authority was reinstated in 1691, but the representative assembly which he founded remained part of the government of New York.
Brown vs. Board of Education
1954 court decision that declared state laws segregating schools to be unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Causes of the War of
These included: British impressment of sailors, British seizure of neutral American trading ships, and the reasons given by the War Hawks (the British were inciting the Indians on the frontier to attack the Americans, and the war would allow the U.S. to seize the northwest posts, Florida, and possibly Canada).
National Labor Union
1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor - attempt to unite all laborers
Dominion of New England
1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros
639. Northern blockade
Starting in 1862, the North began to blockade the Southern coast in an attempt to force the South to surrender. The Southern coast was so long that it could not be completely blockaded.
House of Burgesses
The House of Burgeses was the first representative assembly in the New World. The London Company authorized the settlers to summon an assembly, known as the House of Burgeses. A momentous precedent was thus feebly established, for this assemblage was the first of many miniature parliaments to sprout form the soil of America.
669. General Oliver O. Howard
Service as director of the Freedmen's Bureau.
Alien and Sedition Acts
These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.
What did the interstate commerce act do?
banned rate discrimination + injustice, Interstate Commerce Commission formed
treaty of ghent
ended the war of 1812 between the us and britain
restored relations between 2 nations
2 weeks to reach america
864. Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
A group of women who advocated total abstinence from alcohol and who worked to get laws passed against alcohol.
998. Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935), Women and Economics
She urged women to work outside the home to gain economic independence. Attacked the traditional role of homemaker for women.
what was the source of western vitalitly during the 1300 and 1400
the growth of cities and urban economies
"All we ask is to be left alone"
The famous quote that Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederacy, declared to his congress. Reflected the South's lack of desire to fight. They believed that the North would just let them secede because they lacked the will and/or ability to fight, and their economy was dependant on southern agriculture.
What was the last point to which the US gave into war?
the attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese in December of 1941
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