AP US History Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
JFK
1961-1963
Jamestown
1st English settlement
parliaments
bodies representing privileged groups
1884 election
grover cleveland won
Kulaks
land-owning Russian peasants who benefited under Lenin's New Economic Policy and suffered under Stalin's forced collectivization.
Ashoka
grandson of Chandragupta Maurya; converted Buddhism and helped to spread it throughout India
Neo-conservatives
Supported free-market capitalism free from government restraints, a return to traditional values of individualism with the family as the center, and anti-Soviet foreign policies, but not liberal welfare programs and affirmative-action policies.
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)
Barbados Slave Code
slaves had no rights
Untouchables
Members of the lowest casteof traditional Indian society or those outside the caste system;the Untouchable groups were those in polluting activities
Charlemagne
Charles the Great; Carolingian monarch who established substantial empire in France and Germany c.800
Mugwumps
Republicans who changed their vote during the 1884 election from Blaine to Cleveland. Mugwump is the Algonquin Indian word for "chief" and was used in a N.Y. Sun editorial to criticize the arrogance of the renegade Republicans.
United Nations
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
Creole Slaves
American born descendants of salt-water slaves
Oliver Cromwell
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
Loose construuction
constitution is broadly interpreted, recognizing that it could not possibly anticipate all future developments/ relies on idea of implied powers and the necessary and proer clause/ both views on how to interpret the constituion came up during the debate on chartering the bank of the united states
Bantu Migrations
Bantu-speaking peoples developed in the region between the Niger and Congo rivers. Their master of iron smelting and slash-and-burn agriculture enabled them to expand their populations and migrate south and east throuhgout sub-Saharan Africa.
Habsburg
A powerful European family that provided many Holy Roman Emperors, founded the Austrian (later Austro-Hungarian) Empire, and ruled sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Spain. (p. 449)
21st Amendment
(FDR) , 1933, repeal of prohibition
stirrup
showed flow of trade through silk road
Janissaries
Members of the Ottoman army, often slaves, who were taken from Christian lands. Their control of artillery and firearms gave them prominence over the aristocratic Turkish cavalry. Their extreme conservatism frustrated reform of the Ottoman Empire.
theater-state
holds public rituals and ceremonies to attract people and gain power
Industrial revolution
created factory system and transformed agricultural production, communication and transportation across the U.S.
Shakers
a member of the Millennial Church, originating in England in the middle of the 18th century and brought to the U.S. in 1774, advocating celibacy, common ownership of property, and a strict and simple way of life: so called from their practice of shaking during religious services.
Strict Constructionist Interpretation
particular legal philosophy of judicial interpretation that limits or restricts judicial interpretation. In the United States the phrase is also commonly used more loosely as a generic term for conservatism among the judiciary.
Non-importation
A movement under which the colonies agreed to stop importing goods from Britain in order to protest the Stamp Act.
Viet Cong
Common name for the National Liberation Front.
Max Planck
German physicist who developed quantum theory and was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1918. (p. 774)
Rice
very important foundation & food of China
Benjamin Franklin
leading spirit of the Albany Congress
New Harmony
Name for Owen's social experiment; inspired others to create other experiments like it.
Heavy Plows
(6th century) could turn heavy northern soils, & increased production during the 8th c; cultivation of new lands, watermills and rotating crops
Settlement Houses
Houses that became community centers, providing schools, childcare, and other cultural activities. In Chicago, Jane Addams founded Hull House to provide such a center, since the government would not do it.
Strict Constitution
Jefferson and his states' right disciples believed the Constitution should be interpreted "literally" or "strictly". The reason why was to protect individual rights. Jefferson did not want the Bank of the United States,Hamilton thought it would not only be proper, but also necessary. Jefferson thought it was up to the states and Hamilton thought it was up to Congress. The Bank was created by Congress in 1791. Having a strong central government made people fear that theeir rights would be taken away from them.
strategic
pertaining to, characterized by, or of the nature of strategy:
Neutrality Act
1939 allowed sale of weaponry to democracies on "cash-and-carry" basis, avoided full-blown war; danger zones proclaimed; solved American unemployment crisis
Pearl Harbour
Naval base in Hawaii attacked by Japanese aircraft on December 7, 1941. The sinking of much of the U.S. Pacific Fleet brought the United States into World War II. (p. 793)
gettysburg address
Speech given by Abraham Lincon which catured the spirit of liberty and morality ideally held by citizens of a democracy. That ideal was threatened by the Civil War.
Manors
large estates of the nobles during the European middle ages, home for the majority of the peasants.
Timbuktu
Port city of Mali; located just off the flood plain on the great bend in the Niger River
Nixon Doctrine
During the Vietnam War, the Nixon Doctrine was created. It stated that the United States would honor its exisiting defense commitments, but in the future other countries would have to fight their own wars without support of American troops.
New World
the hemisphere that includes North and South America
moldboard plow
plow invented during the Middle Ages to improve farming effeciency
Manifest destiny
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Charles Martel
unified Spain and Italy against Muslim Invasions and led Christian forces in the Battle of Tours
Middle Passage
Slave voyage from Africa to the Americas; generally a traumatic experience for black slaves, although it failed to strip Africans of their culture.
citizenship
the status of a citizen with rights and duties
Memphis
The capital of Old Kingdom Egypt, near the head of the Nile Delta. Early rulers were interred in the nearby pyramids. (p. 43)
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
American poet that was influenced somewhat by the transcendentalism occurring at the time. He was important in building the status of American literature.
7 years war
England vs. France. Conflict over colonies. England wins, France pays huge costs-eventually supports the Americans in our revolution for revenge-further hampers French economy.
Whiskey Rebellion
Importance of?
Importance of?- The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794, challenged the new government.  Washington organized a militia and ended the rebellion.  Proved Washington's government commanded respect.
Who was jailed for their criticism of the Mexican-American War?
Thoreau
Hudson's Bay Company
A British company that maintained outposts in the interior of Canada, for the purchase of furs.
Paleolithic
The period of the Stone Age associated with the evolution of humans. It predates the Neolithic period. (p. 11)
Broad Acre Plantation System
farming method- increased demand for labor- encouraged by tobacco
Nagasaki
Only city in Japan open to the outside world where only Dutch merchants
were permitted to trade.
"witch hunting"
the legal lynching in 1692 of twenty individuals, ninteen of whom were hanged and one of whom was pressed to death; two dogs were also hanged; in Salem, Massachusetts; represented the widening social stratification of New England and the fear of many religious traditionalists that the Puritan heritage was being eclipsed by Yankee commercialism
manorialism
a type of social structure in which a lord has control over the labor on his estate, serfs are bound to the land
puritan movement in britain
sent 102 "pilgrims" in mayflower-blown off course-make pact
"Corrupt Bargain"
The charge make by Jacksonians in 1825 that Clay had supported John Quincy Adams in the House presidential vote in return for the office of Secretary of State. Clay knew he could not win, so he traded his votes for an office.
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II. (p. 795)
Epic Of Gilgamesh
An epic poem from Ancient Mesopotamia and is among the earliest known works of literary fiction.
Wilmot Proviso
Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico (1846)
Federal Reserve Act
one of the most significant economic measures of the 20th century, discount rate, federal reserve board, controls monetary supply
Hartford Convention
What was it?
Interestingly important because?
Conventions of Federalists from five New England states who opposed the War of 1812 and resented the strength of Southern and Western interests in Congress and in the White House. They didn't do anything.
Anti-Federalists
appalled by the absence of a bill of rights in the Constitution
Trails that headed out west, mostly to California or Oregon, characterized by tough work and even on rare occasion, cannibalism.
Overland Trails
Feminine mystique Betty Freidon
Wrote the book about women working outside the house
906. Bland-Allison Act
1878 - Authorized coinage of a limited number of silver dollars and "silver certificate" paper money. First of several government subsidies to silver producers in depression periods. Required government to buy between $2 and $4 million worth of silver. Created a partial dual coinage system referred to as "limping bimetallism." Repealed in 1900.
New Look
A term used to describe the shift in foreign policy from containment to massive retaliation. This was the new way to look at foreign policy and aimed to roll back communism.
Serfdom in Russia
feudal system, the use of serfs to work the land in return for protection against barbarian invasions
Benjamin Wade
Senator of Ohio who wanted to use the war to abolish slavery immediately and completely
Political Structure; Reason for Collapse: Aztec
emperor rigid class system tributary states lack of immunity to AfroEurasian diseases like smallpox tributary states allied with Spanish
848. Edwin Lawrence Godkin (1831-1902), editor of The Nation
Political writer who founded The Nation magazine, which called for reform.
Judiciary Act of 1801
Created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices, signed by John Adams in the last day of August
527. Stephen Kearny
Commander of the Army of the West in the Mexican War, marched all the way to California, securing New Mexico.
Prince Henry The Navigator
Explorer of West Africa in the 15th century, making many new discoveries there about Africa.
Gen George Custer
led his command to death at the battle of little big horn in his attempt to clear the Black Hills
what does the Philips Curve illustrate?
the tradeoff between inflation and unemployment.
Second Bank of the United States
chartered in 1816, much like its predecessor of 1791 but with more capital; it could not forbid state banks from issuing notes, but its size and power enabled it to compel the state banks to issue only sound notes or risk being forced out of business.
387. Growth of industry in New England, textiles
The industrial revolution had occurred in England in the 1700s, but it was not until the period industrial growth after the War of 1812 that the U.S. began to manufacture goods with the aid of factories and machines. New England, rather than the South, emerged as a manufacturing center because New England had many rivers to supply water power, plus a better system of roads and canals. The first major industry in New England was textiles.
as a gift from Ahura Mazda that should be enjoyed
Zarathustra viewed the material world
1590. Supreme Court: Escobedo v. Illinois, 1964
Court ruled that there was a right to counsel at the police station. This was needed to deter forced confessions given without the benefit of counsel.
strangulation
to strangle.
Hernando de Soto
Missippissi/Arkansass river
suffrage
the right to vote
Fundamentalism
Extremely conservative and literal
interpretation of religion
Stalwart
Republican party faction
led by Senator Roscoe Conkling (of New York)
Opposed all attempts at civil-service reform
Muscovy
Russian principality that emerged gradually during the era of Mongol domination. The Muscovite dynasty ruled without interruption from 1276 to 1598. (p. 551)
scorn
open or unqualified contempt; disdain:
Great Wall
Chinese defensive fortification built to keep out northern nomadic invaders; began during the reign of Shi Huangdi.
Hijra
Muhammad's "migration" or flight from Mecca, where his life was in danger, to Medina where he was welcomed as a potential leader in 622 BC
Marshall Plan
Program of American economic assistance to rebuild Western Europe, and strength Democratic Gov't (prevent communism)
solar
cycle Calendrical system based on solar year; typical of all civilizations; variations of solar calendars in Western civilization are Julian and Gregorian calendars; Mayas also constructed solar calendar.
Adam Smith
Established liberal economics (Wealth of Nations, 1776); argued that government should avoid regulation of economy in favor of the operation of market forces
John Rolfe
married Pocohontas, first interracial union in Virginia; later became father of tobacco industry and economic savior of Virginia colony; by 1612, perfected methods for raising and curing the plant, improving taste
Deists
(Great Awakening) believed that God created the universe to act through natural laws; Franklin, Jefferson, Paine
 
(C)
that Copernicus was right in arguing that the Earth revolves around the sun
(C)
Ghana
First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E. Also the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast. (p. 215)
Old Republicans
(TJ) thought he deserted Republican principles
agricultural revolution
The transformation of farming that resulted in the eighteenth century from the spread of new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants were expelled (600)
Kamikaze
The "divine wind" credited by the Japanese with preventing the Mongol invasion of Japan during the thirteenth century
Chandragupta
the founder of the Maurya Empire. Chandragupta succeeded in bringing together most of the Indian subcontinent. As a result, Chandragupta is considered the first unifier of India and the first genuine emperor of India.
Eli Whitney
devised mechanism for removing seeds from cotton fiber that was more efficient than handpicking. Cotton gin. Hoped it would reduce slavery but actually had opposite effect. Also made machine tools to make the parts of musket so they were identical allowing them to be interchangeable. Basis of assembly-line
Radical Whigs
a group of British political commentators, made attacks on the use of patronage and bribes by the king's ministers. they warned citizens to be on guard for possible corruption.
Fascist
Referring to a political system or philosophy that advocates a mass-based party dictatorship, extreme nationalism, racism, and the glorification of war.
Charleston
1690 - The first permanent settlement in the Carolinas, named in honor of King Charles II. Much of the population were Huguenot (French Protestant) refugees.
Anti-Masons
Emerged in 1820s in response to widespread resentment against the secret, exclusive, and supposedly undemocratic, Society of Freemasons. Jackson and Van Buren are both Masons.
monasticism
Living in a religious community apart from secular society and adhering to a rule stipulating chastity, obedience, and poverty. (Primary Centres of Learning in Medieval Europe) (261)
proprietary colonies
colony created when the english monarch granted huge trat land to an individual or a group of individuals, who became lord propietor
"third rome"
what russia was trying to be
louisiana purchase
territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million
Iroquois Nation
Northeastern tribes that formed a political confederacy, the League of the Iroquois, which withstood attacks from opposing Native Americans and Europeans during much of the 17th an 18th centuries.
Townshend Acts
In 1767 "Champagne Charley" Townshend persuaded Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts. These acts put a light import duty on such things as glass, lead, paper, and tea. The acts met slight protest from the colonists, who found ways around the taxes such as buying smuggled tea. Due to its minute profits, the Townshend Acts were repealed in 1770, except for the tax on tea. The tax on tea was kept to keep alive the principle of Parliamentary taxation.
militarization
to equip with armed forces, military supplies, or the like.
Cult of domesticity
belief that married women should restrict their activities to their home and family
Babylon
The largest and most important city in Mesopotamia. It achieved particular eminence as the capital of the Amorite king Hammurabi in the eighteenth century B.C.E. and the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar in the sixth century B.C.E. (p. 29)
The Enlightenment
a philosophical movement of the 18th century, characterized by belief in the power of human reason and by innovations in political, religious, and educational doctrine.
Kuwait
an Arab kingdom in Asia on the northwestern coast of the Persian Gulf
Pax Romana
The Roman Peace; the period of prosperity and stability throughout the Roman Empire in the first two centuries C.E.
Taj Mahal
beautiful mausoleum at Agra built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan (completed in 1649) in memory of his favorite wife
annus mirabilis
The miraculous year 1759, during which Great Britain secured an empire "on which the sun never set."
Pope Innocent III
Supported Otto, believing Otto will give church back power but Otto betrayed and seized church's land and distributed among vassals
Triangular Trade
The backbone of New England's economy during the colonial period. Ships from New England sailed first to Africa, exchanging New England rum for slaves. The slaves were shipped from Africa to the Caribbean (this was known as the Middle Passage, when many slaves died on the ships). In the Caribbean, the slaves were traded for sugar and molasses. Then the ships returned to New England, where the molasses were used to make rum.
Diamyo
a Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai
Van Buren
president. he established the 10 hour workday for federal employees on public works, 8th President of the United States (1782-1862)
Iron Age
the period following the Bronze Age; characterized by rapid spread of iron tools and weapons
Cultural Revolution
Campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation.(p. 848)
five pillars
The obligatory religious duties of all Muslims; confession of faith, prayer, fasting during Ramadan, zakat, and hajj. (p. 286)
Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva
The creator, the preserver, the destroyer
Lincoln/ 1860 presidential election
Democrates split:  North - Douglas
South - John C. Breckinridge
 
Republicans:  Lincoln
 
Lincoln's election results in SC seceding
James Slidell
sent to Mexico to purchase CA, failed
"Cross of Gold Speech"
Responsible for gaining Bryan popularity. To supporters of gold: "You shall not crucify mankind upon this cross of gold."
mass deportation
Removal of entire peoples used as terror tactic by Assyrian and Persian Empires. (95)
Tale of Gengi
written by Lady Murasaki; first novel in any language; relates life history of prominent and amorous son of the Japanese emperor; evidence for mannered style of Japenese society
patting the eagle's head
British policy after the Great Rapprochement with America; Britain was determined to cultivate American friendship. Began around the start of the 20th century.
King Williams War (1697):
first series of conflicts between england and frecnh settlers, forntiers of New England and New York
(Harry F.) Sinclair
Oilman involved in the Teapot Dome scandal; he bribed Albert Fall with about $300,000, but was not convicted with this. He was sentenced to several months in jail for "shadowing" jurors and for refusing to testify before a Senate committee.
Taft-Hartley Act
passed 1947, tried to reduce the power of unions, Truman Vetoed
Bill of Rights,
Drawn up by Parliament and presented to King William II and Queen Mary, it listed certain rights of the British people. It also limited the king's powers in taxing and prohibitted the maintenance of a standing army in peacetime.
Roman Republic
The period from 507 to 31 B.C.E., during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate. (p. 148)
the Sasanid emperors
Up through the eighth century, the chief foreign threat to the eastern Roman Empire was
social darwinism
"survival of the fittest" - the idea that only the strong survive.
Institutional Revolutionary Party
the most powerful political party in Mexico from the 1920s to 2000, which won every presidential election during that time (Partido Revolucionario Institucional)
Presidential Election of 1824
candidates:  John Q. Adams, Henry Clay, William Crawford and Jackson
 
 Jackson pop. but goes to House.  Clay eliminated so makes deal with Adams, who is elected
National Grange Movement
tried to fight against the middlemen, trusts, and railroads-established cooperatives run by farmers to save costs associated with middlemen- successfully passed laws but were later struck down by the Supreme Court
Salem Witch Trials
The hysteria began in 1691 when adolescent girls accused a number of women of being witches, resulting in the deaths of several residents. Explanations of the hysteria include longtime feuds and property disputes or just relief from everyday life. New thinking suggests the accused, all women, had defied the roles of society and were perceived as a threat to the conventional traditions.
dawes severalty act 1887
attempt to turn plains indians into farmers
144. Sam Adams (1722-1803)
A Massachusetts politician who was a radical fighter for colonial independence. Helped organize the Sons of Liberty and the Non-Importation Commission, which protested the Townshend Acts, and is believed to have lead the Boston Tea Party. He served in the Continental Congress throughout the Revolution, and served as Governor of Massachusetts from 1794-1797.
Divorce Bill
A bill passed by Van Buren in 1837, that divorced the government from banking altogether, and established an independent treasury, so the government could lock its money in vaults in several of the larger cities.
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
Fort Pitt, Fort Duquesne
Fort Duquesne became one of the principal French outposts in the northern Ohio Valley, and, in 1754 the French troops in Fort Dusquesne destroyed nearby British Fort Necessity, after Washington and the colonial army surrendered it to them. The British rebuilt Fort Necessity as Fort Pitt in 1758.
Pact of Steel
What was another name for the Berlin Axis in 1939?
1393. Election of 1952: candidates & issues
Republicans - Eisenhower/Nixon, Democrats - Adlai Stevenson. Issues were conservatism and containment of Communism. Republicans won by a landslide.
John Steinbeck
early to late 19th century, was one of the best-known and most widely read American writers, a winner of the Nobel Prize for literature, wrote Of Mice and Men & Pulitzer-prize winning Grapes of Wrath, both of which examine the lives of the working class
1466. Geneva Conference, 1954
French wanted out of Vietnam , the agreement signed by Ho Chi Minh France divided Vietnam on the 17th parallel, confining Minh's government to the North. In the South, an independent government was headed by Diem.
Supreme Court: McCulloch vMaryland
1819 - This decision upheld the power of Congress to charter a bank as a government agency, and denied the state the power to tax that agency.
Frame of government
1701 - The Charter of Liberties set up the government for the Pennsylvania colony. It established representative government and allowed counties to form their own colonies.
Henry Clay was a Candidate in which elections?
1824, 1832, and 1844
the fledgling idealism of the Founding Fathers was sacrificed to political expediency. a fight over slavery would be bad
The Founding Fathers failed to eliminate slavery because...
772. E.C. Knight Company case
1895 - The Supreme Court ruled that since the Knight Company's monopoly over the production of sugar had no direct effect on commerce, the company couldn't be controlled by the government. It also ruled that mining and manufacturing weren't affected by interstate commerce laws and were beyond the regulatory power of Congress.
Espionage Act of 1917 & Sedition Act of 1918
reflected fears about Germans and anti-war Americans
399. New England's opposition to cheap land
New England was opposed to the federal government's liberal land policy because they did not feel that their region was benefitting from the money made off the land sales.
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