AP US History Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Monastic
monks
robert fulton
created steamships
1st Slaves to Americas
1441
end of Umayyad dynasty
750
Boddhisatvas
Buddhist concept regarding individuals who had reached enlightenment but who stayed in this world to help others
Indra
chief deity of the Aryans
scholasticism
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century. (p. 408)
tacit
understood without being openly expressed; implied:
New York
Dutch Republic. Protestand England. Found by Henry Hudson in 1609. Lots of rules.
aqueduct
a conduit, either elevated or underground, using gravity to carry water from a souce to a location that needed it
mercantilism
economic theory that believes that wealth was power and is measured in gold/silver; to gain gold/silver, country had to export more than it imported; colonies supplied raw materials to mother country (no need for foreign imports) and provide a guaranteed market for exports; colonists had to refrain from making certain products to buy them from Britain
Wendi
Member of prominent northern Chinese family during period of Six Dynasties; proclaimed himself emperor; supported by nomadic peoples of northern China; established Sui dynasty.
Senate
power to impeach trial, ratify treaties
Sanskrit
became the language of educated people.
Sir Walter Raleigh
(1552-1618) English courtier, navigator, colonizer, and writer. A favorite of Elizabeth I, he introduced tobacco and the potato to Europe. Convicted of treason by James I, he was released for another expedition to Guiana and executed after its failure.
NGOs
Civic and religious organizations not directly sponsored or funded by their home governemnts who work to improve the health, safety, rights, and education of peoples around the world. The International Red cross, Human Rights Watch, Doctors Without Borders, and Amnesty International are all NGOs.
liberalism
A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes. (713)
Spoils System
(AJ) system in which incoming political parties throw out former government workers and replace them with their own friends
cleisthenes
An aristocrat, created a council of 500 and helped from Athenian democracy
holocene
a warming period in the neolithic age
Forty-Niners
people that flocked to the Californian gold fields in 1849.
Bunker Hill
June 1775: colonials seized this place. Insdead of flanking them, the Redcoates launched a frontal attack, and the heavily entrenched colonieal sharpshooters mowed them down until meager gunpoder supplies ran out and they were forced to retreat. After this, George III slammed the door for all hope of reconciliation and declared the colonists to be in open rebellion, a treasonous affair.
Fort Necessity
Location at which George Washington was forced to surrender his entire command
Continental Association
Created by the First Continental Congress, it enforced the non-importation of British goods by empowering local Committees of Vigilence in each colony to fine or arrest violators. It was meant to pressure Britain to repeal the Coercive Acts.
Nikita Krushchev
Soviet premier after Stalin's death; led U.S.S.R. during many major Cold War events.
Cherokee "Phoenix"
Indian newspaper about the Indian Removal Act in 1830?
British North american slavery
discouraged economic divisification that cracterised the development of industry
William Tennant
A strong Presbyterian minister and leader during the Great Awakening. Founded a college for the training of Presbyterian ministers in 1726.
northwest ordinace
territories could petition to become states when they had a population of sixty thousand
nullification
theory advanced by calhoun in response to the tariff of 1828/ states, acting through a pop convention, could declare a law passed by congress ''null and void''/ roots of the idea go back to jefferson's compact theory of govt/ SC/ Threatened to secede/ clay's compromise tariff of 1833
Common Sense
A propaganda pamphlet published in Jan. 1776 by Thomas Paine. He argued not only for independence, but also for republicanism over mob democracy. In a nation of only 2 million, it sold 100,000 copies in 3 weeks (5% of a mostly illiterate nation).
Neutrality Proclomation 1793
issued by George Washington, established isolationist policy,proclaimed government's official neutrality in widening European conflicts also warned American citizens about intervening on either side of conflict
revivalism
the form of religious activity that manifests itself in revivals.
Jane Addams
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
Forbidden City
The walled section of Beijing where emperors lived between 1121 and 1924. A portion is now a residence for leaders of the People's Republic of China. (p. 355)
freedmans bureau
The bureau's focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned and confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools.
collectivization
process beginning in the late 1920s by which Stalin forced the Russian peasants off their own land and onto huge farms run by the state; millions died in the process
reserve
In finance, the portion of money held back from circulation by a bank or treasury, which provides backing for its notes or loans.
38th Parallel
line of latitude that separated North and South Korea
Atlantic Slave Trade
Traingulare Trade, Lasted from 16th century until the 19th century. Trade of African peoples from Western Africa to the Americas. One part of a three-part economical system known as the MIddle Passage of the Triangular Trade.
Spanish Inquisition
In the Middle Ages, a judicial procedure that was used to combat heresy... in Spain, authorized by Sixtus IV in 1478; the pope later tried to limit its powers but was opposed by the Spanish crown...the grand inquisitor Tomás de Torquemada was responsible for burning about 2,000 heretics at the stake
Black Power
A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community.
Ayatollah Khomeini
leader of the Iranian revolution and religious leader of the Shiites who when Shah Pahlavi's regime fell established a new constitution giving himself supreme powers
committees of correspondence
Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies
Tuthmosis III
Stepson of Hatshepsut, he lead the military expeditions during her reign. When he became Pharaoh, he enlisted thousands of men to help him capture more land than any other Pharaoh before him. At the time, he ruled the largest empire ever ruled by one king.
Council of the Indes
The institution responsible for supervising Spain's colonies in the Americas from 1524 to the early eighteenth century, when it lost all but judicial responsibilities. (p. 476)
Seneca Falls
The site of the women's rights convention that met in July in 1848. They met in the Wesleyan Chapel, and 300 men and women attended. At the convention, they vote in the Seneca Falls Declaration, which was signed by 32 men.
Foraging Societies (Hunter-Gatherers)
Hunter-gatherers that were at the mercy of nature.
Women gather. Men hunt.,
George Catlin
student and painter of Native American life
 
among 1st Americans to push for national policy advancing the preservation of nature
(national park system)
First President to send troops to fight on foreign soil?
Thomas Jefferson
Intolerable (Coercive) Acts
Passed following Boston Tea Party. Considered unfair because they were designed to chastise Boston in particular, yet effected all the colonies by the Boston Port Act which closed Boston Harbor until damages were paid. (1774)
Shi Huangdi
Founder of the short-lived Qin dynasty and creator of the Chinese Empire (r. 221-210 B.C.E.). He is remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states and standardization. (163)
Frederick the Great
Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy.
The Mexican Revolution
Young reformer Francisco I. Madero was a firm supporter of democracy and of making government subject to the strict limits of the law. The success of Madero's movement made him a threat in the eyes of President Diaz. Shortly before the first democratic elections of Mexico in 1910, Madero was apprehended in Monterrey and imprisoned in San Luis Potosi. Learning of Diaz's re-election, Madero fled to the United States in October of 1910. In exile, he issued the ''Plan of San Luis,'' a manifesto which declared that the elections had been a fraud and that he would not recognize Diaz as the legitimate President of the Republic. Diaz had been the dictator of Mexico the previous 31 years and young reformers wanted him out.
Instead, Madero makes the daring move of declaring himself President Pro-Temp until new elections could be held. Madero promised to return all land which had been confiscated from the peasants, and he called for universal voting rights and for a limit of one term for the president. Madero's call for an uprising on November 20th, 1910, marked the beginning of the Mexican Revolution.
On November 14th, in Cuchillo Parado in the state of Chihuahua, Toribio Ortega and a small group of followers took up arms. On the 18th in Puebla, Diaz's authorities uncovered preparations for an uprising in the home of the brothers Maximo and Aquiles Serdan, who where made to pay with their lives. Back in Chihuahua, Madero was able to persuade Pascual Orozco and Francisco Villa to join the revolution. Though they had no military experience, Orozco and Villa proved to be excellent strategists, and they earned the allegiance of the people of northern Mexico, who were unhappy about the abusive ranchers and landlords who ran the North.
In March of 1911, Emiliano Zapata led the uprising of the peasants of Morelos to claim their rights over local land and water. At the same time, armed revolt began in many other parts of the country. The "Maderista" troops, and the national anger which inspired them, defeated the army of Diaz within six months. The decisive victory of the Mexican Revolution was the capture of Ciudad Juarez, just across the river from El Paso, by Orozco and Villa. Porfirio Diaz then resigned as President and fled to exile in France, where he died in 1915.
With the collapse of the Diaz regime, the Mexican Congress elected Francisco Leon De La Barra as President Pro-Temp and called for national popular elections, which resulted in the victory of Francisco I. Madero as President and Jose Maria Pino Suarez as Vice-President.
Woodrow Wilson
President of the US and the leading figure at teh Paris Peace conference of 1919. He was unable to persuade the U.S. Congress to ratify the Treaty of Versailles or join the League of Nations
"Lafayette, we are here"
Famous saying of soldiers at Lafayette's grave 1917
Tenth Amendment
written by Madison as an amendement to the Constitution; reserves all rights not explicity delegated or prohibited by the federal Constitution "to the States respectively, or to the people"
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Suez Canal
Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882. (p. 726)
Treaty of Nanjing
1842, ended Opium war, said the western nations would determine who would trade with china, not china, so it set up the unequal treaty system which allowed western nations to own a part of chinese territory and conduct trading business in china under their own laws. This treaty set up 5 treaty ports where westerners could live, work, and be treated under their own laws. One of these were Hong Kong.
mayan empire
lived in southern Mexico, had the only written language in America prior to European explorers, ate mainly corn
Tenure of Office Act
Federal judges serve for life, although they can be removed by congressional impeachment 5: 1865-1900
Battle of Quebec
who?
why important?
historic British victory over french forces on the outskirts of Quebec.  The surrender of Quebec marked the beginning of the end of French rule in North America.
152. Gaspée Incident
In June, 1772, the British customs ship Gaspée ran around off the colonial coast. When the British went ashore for help, colonials boarded the ship and burned it. They were sent to Britain for trial. Colonial outrage led to the widespread formation of Committees of Correspondence.
Law that divided the ex-Confederacy into five temporary military districts.
Reconstruction Act of 1867
Francis Bacon
(22 January 1561 - 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, author, and scientist. He was an influential member of the scientific revolution, and is best known for work on the scientific method.
1545. Recognition of China
Nixon established a trade policy and recognized the People's Republic of China, which surprised many because China had been an enemy during the Korean and Vietnam Wars.
Eisenhower Doctrine
policy of the US that it would defend the middle east against attack by any communist country
Code of Hammurabi
A collection of 282 laws which were enforced under Hammurabi's Rule. One of the first examples of written law in the ancient civilizations.
Neolithic Age
The New Stone Age between 8000 BC and 5000 BC; period in which adaptation of sedentary agriculture occured; domestication of plants and animals accomplished.
League of Nations
The League of Nations (LON) was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended World War I, and it was the precursor to the United Nations. The League was the first permanent international security organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members. The League's primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing war through collective security, disarmament, and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. Other issues in this and related treaties included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, trafficking in persons and drugs, arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe.
632. Fort Sumter
Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.
Civilian Conservation Corps
this employed young men on projects on federal lands and paid their famillies small monthly sums
43. Staple crops in the South
Tobacco was grown in Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina. Rice was grown in South Carolina and Georgia. Indigo was grown in South Carolina.
Frame of government
1701 - The Charter of Liberties set up the government for the Pennsylvania colony. It established representative government and allowed counties to form their own colonies.
Treay of Versailles
the 1919 peace treaty at the end of WWI which esta. new nations borders and war reparetions
What 2 competing theories are for gov't involvement in economics?
1. Keynesian Economics
2. Supply-Side Economics
Second Bank of the United States
chartered in 1816, much like its predecessor of 1791 but with more capital; it could not forbid state banks from issuing notes, but its size and power enabled it to compel the state banks to issue only sound notes or risk being forced out of business.
196. Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, John Jay
They were the American delegates who signed the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
What were signicant things about Nara?
-The city of Nara was modeled after Changan
-There was a great deal of conflict during this period
961. Secretary of State John Hay, Open Door notes
September, 1899 - Hay sent imperialist nations a note asking them to offer assurance that they would respect the principle of equal trade opportunities, specifically in the China market.
EXPLORERSRAIDERSANDTRADERS
VIKINGS
boycott
refusal to trade
Hammurabi
cuniform, Epic of Gilgamesh
Shi
Probably originally priests; transformed into corps of professional bureaucrats because of knowledge of writing during Zhou dynasty in China
Henry George
Controversial reformer
Wrote Progress and Poverty
Pushed for solving problems of economic inequality by a tax on land
Confucianism
Chinese ethical and philosophical teachings of Confucius which emphasized education, family, peace, and justice
Loyalists
Wealthy, educated, Anglican based, anywhere but NE, and 16% of American population during Rev. war
Pinkertons
detectives hired by employers as private police force, often used to end strikes
Tariff of 1824
35% tax on imports
Homo Erectus
hunter-gatherer, "Out of Africa" migrations
1683
Charter of Liberties and Priveleges drafted by NY assembly
Islam
Major world religion originating in 610 CE in the Arabian peninsula; literally meaning submission; based o prophecy of Muhammad
the "merchantable commodity" which the virginians finally identified was
tobacco
Mali
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade.
Toltecs
Powerful postclassic empire in central Mexico (900-1168 C.E.). It influenced much of Mesoamerica. Aztecs claimed ties to this earlier civilization. (p. 305)
NSDAP
The National Socialist German Workers' Party, the full title of the Nazi Party. The party grew rapidly in support from 1928 onwards, to become the most popular political party in Germany at the time when Hitler came to power.
pyramids
Gigantic tombs designed to provide resting place for pharoahs after they died.
George Whitefield
Most influentian new light speaker during first great awakening
John Rolfe
Pocahontas' husband- killed in Indian attacks- father of the tobacco industry
freeport doctrine
Doctrine developed by Stephen Douglas that said the exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. It was unpopular with Southerners, and thus cost him the election.
717. Stalwarts
Republicans fighting for civil service reform during Garfield's term; they supported Cleveland.
lyman beecher
speaker about the evils of alcohol
5-5-3
Ratio of US, English, and Japanese ships proposed by Secretary Hughes at the Washington Disarmament Conference.
Margaret Sanger
American sex educator and control activist
Ho Chi minh
Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969).
WTO
The initials of the international body established in 1995 to foster and bring order to international trade.
Hittites
A people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze Age; first people to master iron working; fought with Egypt over possession of Syria
Shang
The dominant people in the earliest Chinese dynasty for which we have written records (ca. 1750-1027 B.C.E.). Ancestor worship, divination by means of oracle bones, and the use of bronze vessels for ritual purposes were major elements of Shang culture.
Rendezvous system
the principle marketplace of the Northwest fur trade, which peaked in the 1820s and 1830s. Each summer, traders set up camps in the rocky mountains to exchange manufactured goods for beaver pelts.
Shakers
Founded by "Mother" Ann Lee. Believed in celibacy. Separated man and women so relied on adult converts. Protestant religious sect during 2nd awakening. They also believed that their lives should be dedicated to pursuing perfection and continuously confessing their sins and attempting a cessation of sinning. Elevated position of women to equals of men.
Kitchen Cabinet
Jackson used personal friends as unofficial advisors over his official cabinet
Wilberforce
Anti-slavery reform; 1807 end of slave trade; 1833 end of slavery.
 
 
 
 
182. Mercy Otis Warren
 
 
 
 
A 19th century American historian who wrote a 3-volume history of the American Revolution.
Martin Luther
This German monk posted his "Ninety-Five Theses" in protest of church abuses, especially the sale of "indulgences," a process in which priests would forgive sins in exchange for goods and money. Luther said salvation could be won only through faith in Christ and a direct relationship with God.
sees
the seat, center of authority, office, or jurisdiction of a bishop.
Embargo Act
a. Jefferson asked congress to suspend all US trade with foreign countries and promoted "peaceful coercion" (Europe needed America, more than America needed Europe) i. Failed— British found other markets and encouraged smuggling ii. US ships left port to do a task, and would just go trade with GB b. Slowed commerce
William Harrison
the Whig Party candidate who was elected President in 1840; died after only one month of being President
Douglas MacArthur
An American General who fought in three major wars (World War I, World War II, Korean War) and was one of only five men ever to rise to the rank of General of the Army.
In 1185 the Minimoto clan defeated their rival the Tyra clan and created what?
Kamakura Shogunate
Mason-Dixon Line
line was perceived as a divider between free and slave states before the Civil War
Fidel Castro
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba.
american system
James Madison suggested it to congress 1815
ended up changing mind and vetoed internal improvements part#3
Bonus March
Group of WWI veterans who were supposed to be given economic relief from the government due to their involvement in the war. However, in 1932 the deadline for the veterans was pushed back by the government to a latter date thus causing the group to march onto Washington to demand their money. Excessive force was used to disband these protesters, and because they were veterans and heroes of this country, Hoover's popularity plummeted because of it.
Jainism
a religion founded in India in the sixth century BC, whose members believe that everything in the universe has a soul and therefore shouldn't be harmed. Mahavira founded this religion.
electricity
A form of energy used in telegraphy from the 1840s on and for lighting, industrial motors, and railroads beginning in the 1880s. (p. 702)
Islamic Fundamentalism
Belief held by some Muslims the relgious rules should govern political as well as private behavior; characterized by opposition to materialism and to other aspects of Western culture
War of 1812
Resulted from Britain's support of Indian hostilities along the frontier, interference with American trade, and impressments of American sailors into the British army (1812 - 1815)
Charles Coughlin
Catholic priest who used his popular radio program to criticize the New Deal; he grew increasingly anti-Roosevelt and anti-Semitic until the Catholic Church pulled him off the air
William Tecumseh Sherman
United States general who was commander of all Union troops in the West he captured Atlanta and led a destructive march to the sea that cut the Confederacy in two (1820-1891)
Lexington and Concord
"shot heard around the world", defended by minutemen, Paul Revere warned colonists that the British were coming
888. "The Crisis"
The NAACP's pamphlet, which borrowed the name from Thomas Paine's speech about the American Revolution.
Sea Dogs
were the English pirates who stole gold from Spaniards when opportunity arose
Powhatan Indians
early 17th century, what the English colonists called all te local Indians. in reality, a few dozen small tribes
Glorious Revolution 1688
Bloodless overthrow of King James II. established William and Mary as the new leaders.
blue blood
a member of the aristocracy, of noble or upper-class descent
Quebec Act
After the French and Indian War, the English had claim the Quebec Region, a French speaking colony. Because of the cultural difference, English had a dilemma on what to do with the region. The Quebec Act, passed in 1774, allow the French Colonist to go back freely to their own customs. The colonists have the right to have access to the Catholic religion freely. Also, it extended to Quebec Region north and south into the Ohio River Valley. This act created more tension between the colonists and the British which lead to the American Revolution.
Florida Purchase Treaty
1819 - Under the Adams-Onis Treaty, Spain sold Florida to the U.S., and the U.S. gave up its claims to Texas. gave american southwest to spain
Stamp Act
an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Skanda
Gupta Last of the able rulers of the Gupta dynasty; following his reign the empire dissolved under the pressure of nomadic invasions.
Republic
A state that is not ruled by a hereditary leader (a monarchy) but by a person or persons appointed under the constitution
ethnic cleansing
Effort to eradicate a people and its culture by means of mass killing and the destruction of historical buildings and cultural materials. Ethnic cleansing was used by both sides in the conflicts that accompanied the disintegration of Yugoslavia (883)
Boxer Rebellion
1900 - Nativist rebellion in China - tried to get rid of all of the foreigners
benjamin franklin
printer whose success as an author led him to take up politics
Sir Richard Grenville
Leader of an expedition when he destroyed an entire Indian village.
64. Lord Baltimore
Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
What were the years of the war?
1914 to 1918
Who was Clara Barton?
Founder of the American Red Cross
great wall of china
a fortification 1,500 miles long built across northern China in the 3rd century BC
Mali became the wealthiest kingdom in Sub-Saharan Africa because of what?
Gold Copper and Salt
Baron von Steuben
German who helped to whip the Amerian fighters into shape for fighting the British
Mikhail Gorbachev
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe. (p. 863)
Bartolome de Las Casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor, (476
Venezuela Boundary dispute
British was imposing on the land of Venezuela and America came in to intervene.(we invoked the monroe doctrine) After all was settled the British still took most of the land anyways.
Battle of Wounded Knee 1890
Battle fought over the "Ghost Dance"
Pearl of the Antilles
Refers to Cuba. Rich in sugar and right off the souther doorstep of the US, it was the prime objective of Manifest Destiny in the 1850s. Fought over by Spain and US. Emphasizes the remaining hunger for land in the US, even though it already stretched from sea to sea and dominated all land in-between. Dispute over land resulted in the Ostend Manifesto
40 acres and a mule
a temporary plan, also known as Special Field Orders, No. 15, issued by Union general William Tecumseh Sherman in 1865 that granted each freedmen family forty acres of tillable land on islands and the coast of Georgia. The army had a number of unneeded mules which were also granted to these settlers. Although the federal government had confiscated some Confederate lands and given them to freed slaves, it never did this on a massive scale.
Treaty of New Echota
To move Indians 4.5 miles (trail of tears began) in 1835, but many didn't sign.
1132. Robert M. LaFollette (1855-1925)
A great debater and political leader who believed in libertarian reforms, he was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin.
The "tricle down" Theory
If the rich become richer then the money will "trickle down" to the middle and poor classes making them more wealthy.
The Great War
Known as World War I and the War to End All Wars: a global military conflict that embroiled most of the world's great powers from 1914 to 1919.
1111. Article 231 of the Versailles Treaty
One of the more controversial articles, it dealt with the legal liability of Germany vs. the moral liability.
July 4, 1776 and the Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence was signed by the Second Continental Congress on July 4. It dissolved the colonies' ties with Britain, listed grievances against King George III, and declared the colonies to be an independent nation.
What was the reason for early rapid military expansion in the Islamic Empire?
The early rapid military expansion of the Islamic Empire was not motivated by a desire to win converts, but rather by political, economic, and military goals.
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