Rocks Flashcards

Terms Definitions
intermediate-minerals
plagoclase+amphibole
4
fluorite
basalt
micro, amphibole
Cover/Basement
Sedimentary CoverIgneous/Metamorphic Basement
si02 less than 45
ultramefic
sparkly yellowish, white, brown
Barite
Lithographic limestone
sedimentary, organic, calcium carbonate mud, extremely fine grained, reacts with HCl, smooth
conglomerate
rock fragments with rounded edges.
Calcite
Color: colorless, white, yellow, green, pink, browncleavage: 3 cleavages that don't intersect at 90 degrees, rhombohedronshardness: 3
plutonic rocks
intrusive
solidify beneath the surface
muscovite
rock forming mineral, sheet silicate, K-mica: description: pearly, soft, 1 direction cleavage, very light, white streak, platey appearance
anthracite coal
metamorphic, non foliate, carbon, grey-black, shiny, ligh, conchoidal fracture and or parting banding
Clastics
formed from fragments of weathered rocks.
Gabbro
a mafic rock with large grains
Non-Foliated Rock-Quartzite
Contains compositional layering often manifest as light and dark banding.• Represents separation of felsic minerals (light layers) with mafic minerals (dark layers).• High temperature and pressure rock.
shiny gold veins, brown, heavy/smooth, large and small pieces
Sphalerite
Carbonate minerals:
calcite, aragonite and dolomite. Typically precipitate from water.
felsic
Describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in feldspars and silica and that is generally light in color.
Erosion
when sediment, rocks, or soil are moved
Expanding Universe
• 1920s astronomers measured light spectra of distant galaxiesThese light spectra displayed pronounced ‘red shifts’•Astronomers concluded that these red shifts were the result of the Doppler effect!–“Phenomenon in which the frequency of wave energy appears to change when a moving source of wave energy passes an observer.”
looks like quartz mixed with Galena, some silver andgolden metallic luster, metallic parts streak
Molybdentite
Physical weathering
causes rocks to disintegrate into smaller rocks or into even smaller mineral grains.
Confining Pressure
Pressure upon rock deep beneath the surface. This pressure is equal in all directions
3 major groups of Rocks
Igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
Lateral movement
when plates move back and forth parallel to each other
Big Bang Theory
•! Approximately 13.7 billion years ago, the universe was packed into an infinitesimally small, infinitely dense, infinitely hot point of pure energy....•! The Big Bang marked the beginning of the expansion of this point–!Within one second the Universe had expanded and cooled to the point where subatomic particles (protons and electrons) could form–!Within 3 minutes, with a diameter of 60 billion miles, and a temperature below 1 billion degrees, nuclei of new atoms began to form from hydrogen fusion–!Termed “big bang nucleosynthesis”, this process is capable of forming very light elements (H, He, Li), and all nuclei capable of forming by this process would have done so within 5 minutes
Inclusion
parts of an older rock unit enclosed in an igneous rock body are inclusions
Crystal faces are..
smooth, flat surfaces with regular geometric outlines. Ex: Calcite and Quartz both six sided but with different crystal faces.
Rock Salt
composed of halite with a find to coarse crystalline structure.
Sedimentary rock type: Chemical
Chemical: composed of minerals that precipitate from water solutions. Usually talking about carbonates, e.g., limestone!–! Biochemical: made up of shells of organisms.!
Dacite and tonalite
igneous rocks
have compositions that fall between andesite and rhyolite
aeration
to expose to the action or effect of air or to cause air to circulate through:
What is porosity?
The amount of a rock that is air.
Formation of Clastic Rocks
•! Sedimentary rocks form in five steps:!–! Weathering creates sediment.!–! Erosion removes sediment from source.!–! Transportation moves sediment by wind, water, or ice to a new location.!–! Deposition allows sediment to settle from its transporting medium.!–! Lithification transforms loose sediment into rock.!
How to categorize magma and igneous rocks:
Felsic, Intermediate, Mafic, Ultramafic
Metamorphic processes: phase change
transforms a grain of one mineral to another mineral of a different crystal structure but the same composition (polymorphs)
Name three families of igneous rocks.
The granite family, the gabbro family, and the diorite family.
What are nodules? Give an example.
A mineral mass that has a different composition or is more weathering resistant than its surrounding rock. These are normally rounded in shape. Example: chert masses in a limestone rock unit.
How is a volcano with sloping sides formed?
LAVA that is LOW in SILICA flows in thin sheets. It builds huge volcanoes with sloping sides; Ex. Hawaiian Islands
obsidian
glassy--mafic
Diorite
Extrusive, Intermediate
porphyritic felsic
porphyoritic rhyolite
andesite
intermediate, aphanitic extrusive igneous rock, medium to dark grey, abundance of plagioclase feldspar and ferromagnesian mineral crystals
Scoria
Vesicular, Plagioclase, Augite, Olivine, Hornblende
Below the earth
where is magma
Crystallization
process by which crystalline structures are built as magma cools
vesicular basalt
is olivine and dark
vesicular
has holes in it, sponge
Andesite and Diorite
intermediate rocks mineral composition
mafic
Dark-colored igneous rocks that are rich in iron and magnesium.contains plagioclase, biotite, amphible, proxene, and olivine. Gabbro is an example
extrusive
igneous activity that occurs at Earth's surface
lowers
At constant pressure and temperature, the addition of fluids (raises/lowers) the melting temperature. This process is fluid-induced melting.
Dike
intrusion that cuts across rock layers
Kimberlites
Ultramafic rocks where diamonds are found..
ash
the residue that remains when something is burned
Charnockite
- Orthopyroxene bearing acid plutonic rock
- Typically archean
- Job Charnock's tombstone
Pumice
A felsic to intermediate, extrusive, vesicular, glassy, non-crystalline igneous rock.
above
are extrusive rocks above or below earth's surface
stratovolcano
A composite volcanic cone built of interlayered lava flows and pyroclastic materials
porphyry
an igneous rock with a porphyritic texture
Phenocrysts
the large crystals in a porphyritic rock
Magma
material of igneous rocks. Formed by process called partial melting inside earth.
Iceland
North Atlantic Ocean
Made of Basalt by diverging plates filled in with basalt
**Bring $100 for Mr. Fox to go to Iceland
pyroclastic igneous rock
is anything w/ vesicles (holes)
Basalt and gabbro are (light-, dark-) colored igneous rocks.
dark-
igneous rocks
rock formed from the crystallization of magma
describe intermediate magma
53 - 65% (intermediate) silica composition between the other two, intermediate viscosity, quiet to explosive eruptions
stratovolcanoes
Aphanitic
igneous rocks that form at the surface of as small masses within the upper crust where cooling is relatively rapid, possessing a very fine-grained texture.
basaltic composition/ mafic
dark silicate minerals and calcium rich plagioclaste feldspar
Pegmatite
a type of granite with large minerals, and exotic minerals. INTRUSIVE
Phaneritic
A texture that allows the crystals to be seen while making up an igneous rock
concordant
a term used to describe an intrusive igneous mass that formed parallel to the bedding of the surrounding rock
vesicular texture
a term applied to aphanitic igneous rocks that contain many small cavaties
convergent boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move toward each other
Gabbro, diorite, granite
Name three intrusive igneous rocks in order from mafic, intermediate, felsic.
Cascade Range
A mountain range in the NW USA (Washington, Oregon, and N. California)- has stratovolcanos
A - alkali feldspar
- albite up to An5
- kspar
phaneritic texture
an igneous rock texture in which the crystals are roughly equal in size and large enough so the individual minerals can be identified without the aid of a microscope
intermediate rock or magma
rock with a chemical content between felsic and mafic compositions
granite
is the most common rock in CA and its igneous
molten rock
rock that is so hot it is a very thick, slow-moving liquid.
What is the texture of gabbro, diorite and granite?
phaneritic and mostly intrusive plutonic
When magma cools too quickly ......
mineral crystals do not form so we have a glassy texture like obsidian
sedimentary
gypsum
minerals:14
orthoclase
olivine
halite
calcite
kaolinite
galena
muscuvite
pyrite
hematite
quartz
magnetite
biotite
gypsum
talc
Slate
Metamorphic Foliated
boulders
more than 256mm
YES
ARE YOU SHORE
futile
(adj) useless; hopeless; pointless
course-grained
slow rate of cooling
Schist
Metamorphic rock, mica, garnets
marks on paper greasy
Graphite
Grateful Dead
bluegrass--> rock 65
-anti-establishment (non-radio friendly)
"dead heads" cult of fans
sandstone
sedimentary rock (detrital / clastic) that is a mixture of sand-sized grains of quartz, basalt, or calcite cemented together
Lava
Magma that reaches the Earth's surface
sedementary
compaction and cementation forms this rock
Examples of igneous rock
obsidian, pumice, granite
baslitic
dense, dark colored igneous rock formed from magma, rich in magnesium and iron and poor in silica
cross-bedding
a primary structure of sedimentary rocks where the layers and not parallel, but cut across each other indicating that the rock was formed in a sand dune
Sun Ra
alien superhero saving Ghetto Oakland
astro-Egyptianism
What are pieces of solid material deposited on Earth's surface by precipitation?
sediments
inner core
the solid innermost layer of Earth
coquina
pieces of shells; organic sed rx; reacts with HCl
coral animals
tiny relatives of jellyfish, their dead skeletons form to grow a coral reef.
metamorphism
the process in which metamorphic rock is formed
Metamorphic
Rock formed when exposed to extreme heat and pressure; rock that has changed form
Definate chemical compostion
(5) characteristic of a mineral
compaction
the process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight
Rock Cycle
To show how rocks change slowly
Hydrothermal solutions
hot, metal-rich fluids associated with cooling magma bodies
regional metamorphism
in large scale deformation (bigger changes) directed high temps and pressure creating the greatest volume of metamorphic rock
Los Angeles
racial tensions, crime, poverty vs. glitz and glamour
dark, cynical
folk, jazz, country, psychedelic
crust
the brown, hard outer portion or surface of a loaf or slice of bread (
hardness
the resistance of a mineral to being scratched
Sediments
small pieces of rock, soil, and other materials
conglomerate, sandstone
What are 2 examples of sedimentary rocks?
heat & pressure
Two processes that form metamorphic rocks (in alphabetical order).
igneous rock
"fire formed", made from cooled magma or lava
organic rock
sedimentary rock that forms from the remains of plants and animals
What is the most common type of sedimentary rock?
Limestone
Rusty Nail
1 1/2 oz Scotch
1/2 oz Drambuie
Rusty Nail
Mix: Build On Ice
Glass: Single Rocks Glass
Garnish: None
luster
the state or quality of shining by reflecting light; glitter, sparkle, sheen, or gloss:
Organic rocks
Rocks that are made up of accumulated organic matter e.g. Fossiliferous limestomes and coal.
Nonfoliated Metamorphic Rock
rock with one or few mineral grains
How does sedimentary rock change to metamorphic
Heat and pressure
mould
a type of fossil in which the hard parts of the organism have dissolved, leaving a cavity in the rock.
foliated texture
has a banded or layered type texture (metamorphic)
sedimentary rock
rockl formed as pieces of older rocks and other loose materials get pressed together (or as dissolved minerals) re-form and build up inlayers
There is no special ___ place to the rock cycle.
starting
Difference between intrusive and extrusive igneous rock?
Intrusive below earth surface slowing cooling magma
Extrusive above earth surface rapid cooling of lava
magma cooling at or near the earths surface forms small grained
extrusive igneous rock
chert generally precipitates in deep ocean water because
calcium carbonate precipitates in cold water
What are 4 processes that are part of the formation of sedimentary rock? List the correct order and what each means.
Erosion, Deposition, Compaction, and Cementation.
Erosion- Water or wind that carries away the fragments of rock.
Deposition- The process by which sediment settles out of the water of wind carries it (relating to erosion)
Compaction- The process that presses sediments together. (relating to deposition)
Cementation- The process in which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together. (realting to Compaction) Making Sedimentary rock.
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