Rocks 13 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Gypsum
sandstone
sed
Pyrite
fools gold
metamorphism
change form
Cenozoic Era
recent life
clay
less than 1/256 mm
weathering
Breaking down of rocks.
Nonfoilated
the grains are random
Extrusive
describes fine-grained igneous rock that forms when magma cools quickly at or near Earth's surface
plutons
large, irregularly shaped intrusive bodies.
Cementation
Dissolved minerals glue sediments together
Mantle
The thickest layer of earth
HALITE/ROCK SALT
A chemical sedimentary rock
igneous
produced under conditions involving intense heat, as rocks of volcanic origin or rocks crystallized from molten magma.
felsic
igneous rock containing silicon and aluminum (light color)
Sediment
fragments that result from the breaking of rocks, minerals, and organic matter
clay stone
comes from clay detrital/clastic sedimentary
Sedimentary
formed from the compaction and cementation of sediments
Harry Hess
Princenton,1960's Sea floor spreading. Explanation for oceangraphy discoveries.
Sediments
Rock fragments, mineral grains, and bits of animal and plant remains moved by wind, water, ice or gravity
Garnet Mica Schist
Rock type: Metamorphic
Texture: porphyoblastic
Precursor: phylite
rock
to break without complete separation of parts; become fissured:
geode
sedimentary rock (chemical) that is a hollow, ball-like object with crystals lining the inside
soda straw
hollow translucent tube; form before stalactite
cenementation
occurs when minerals such as quartz, calcite, and hematite are deposited between the pieces of sediment
the process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers
stratification
composition
the chemical makeup of a rock; describes either the minerals or other materials in the rock
lava
Magma reaching the surface flows from a volcano as _________.
chemical rock
sedementary rock that forms when minerals crstallize form a soltion
nonfoliated
the texture of metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are not arranged in planes or bands
metamorphic rock
rock created when igneous or sedimentary rock is changed by heat and pressure.
permeable
Characteristic of a material that is full of tiny, connected air spaces that water can seep through.
streak redish browncolor: black to dark brownno clevage5.0-6.0
Hemitite (Metallic)
proper
adapted or appropriate to the purpose or circumstances; fit; suitable:
Model showing processes that create and change rock
Rock cycle
Sedimentary.
In figure 3-1, what type of rock should occur in the part of the rock cycle labeled F?
Sedimentary Rock
Rock formed when layers of sediments harden over millions of years.
In a concept map, would you list intrusive rocks under rocks that form above the ground or below?
below
rock cycle
process where rock change from one type to another
cleavage
the tendency of a mineral to break along flat surfaces.
Crystal grains
Help identiy igneous rock, small are extrusive, large are intrusive
sedimentary rock used from decaying animal
breaf lime stone
streak
a long, narrow mark, smear, band of color, or the like:
What type of rock forms due to heat and pressure?
metamorphic
texture
- the size, shape and pattern of a rock's grain.
Foliated metamorphic rocks
mineral grains (sand size) flatten and line up in parallel bands
slate formed from sedimentary rocks
shale and gnesis
igneous rocks
Rocks formed by the cooling of magma and lava
Basalt
- A Dark Colored Rock That Has Lower Silica
Content .
Fracture
the way a mineral looks when it is broken in a unnatural way
hollow space a person can fit in that was created naturally
Cave
Why does pumice have a lot of holes in it?
gases
Foliated Metamorphic
Grains are aligned the the pages of a book
chemical composition
What a substance is made up of at the basic chemical level.
What can melting do?
Can change all 3 rock types into LAVA or MAGMA
the zig zag pattern of rock units that can be observed while flying over pennsylvania
erosion of plunging (tiltied) anaclines and synaclines
basaltic
mafic
galena
Conglomerate
Sedimentary Detrital
gray slate
metamorphic, foliated
Rocas metamórficas
Metamorphic rock
Shale
Rock Type: Sedimentary
Type: clastic
Texture: very fine
Composition: clay
Environment of Deposition: near shore
magma
molten rock within Earth.
2nd characteristic
minerals are inorganic
Granitic
light-colored and lower density igneous rocks that is rich in silica
chalk
fossil-rich limestone with microscopic shells.
an example of volcanic rock
lava
Andesite
Igneous
They typical intermediate arc lava
3 Major Rock Groups
Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic
aphanitic limestone
massive, slightly conchoidal fracture, slightly sharp edges, hardness of 3, aphanitic
un cairn
tumulus constitué de pierre; l'envelope en pierre (pas terre)
metamorphic rocks
changes from pressure, temperature, composition
formed from igneus, sedimentary, other metamorphic rocks
if not neough heat or pressure, mineral grains flatten and exchange atoms with surrounding minerals to form other materials
Gneiss
Type or Rock: Metamorphic
Formed by: Heat & Pressure
Fact: Foliated
what determines silicon content?
level of viscosity
Mineral
a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition
which of the following depositional events generally results in graded beds?
rivers
compaction
The process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight.
When an ingeous rock is formed UNDERGOUND it is called...
intrusive
Intrusive (igneous)
rocks that form UNDERGROUND (IN ground) from cooled magma.
Metamorphic
Rock formed when exposed to extreme heat and pressure.
Coarse Grained
The rough texture of a rock
Where does marble come from
limestone - non-foliated
__ rocks form when sediments are pressed and cemented together or when minerals form from solutions
sedimentary
slower inside
the ________ water drops sediment along the _______ bank.
fissures
large crack on the erarth's surface open up lava oozes (lava flow) onto land or in water
Karlheinz Stockhausen
- musique conrete - juxtaposing electronic and acoustic sounds
lithosphere
the solid portion of the earth (
Rhyolite is an example of an ________ igneous rock
Extrusive
_______ rocks are the most abundant at the Earth's surface.
(sedimentary)
clastics
sedimentary rocks made up of pieces of rock.
erosion
- the process by which water, ice, wind or gravity moves fragments of rock and soil
chemical weathering
the breakdown of rocks by chemical reactions that change the rocks composition
Ice Wedging
Process that splits rock when water seeps into cracks, then freezes and expands.
core
a dense ball with liquid outer part and a solid inner part.
hard
to cease to live; undergo the complete and permanent cessation of all vital functions; become dead.
Feslic (granitic) composition
What type of composition do igneous rocks that crystallize from magma and are almost completely made up of quartz and feldspars have?
Igneous Rock
Igneous rock are made in fire and formed by magma.
organic sedimentary rock
fromed from remains of plants and animals
s waves
travel more slowly than p waves and can pass only through solids not through liquids or gases.
CONVERVATION OF MATTER
ROCK CYCLE NEVER DESTROYS ELEMENTS OF ROCKS BUT JUST REDISTRIBUTES THAM
In igeous rock, there is two classification
extrusive and intrusive
extrusive igneous rock
igneous rock that forms as lava cools on Earth's surface
naturally occuring, inorganic, solid, crystal structure, definite chemical composition
a mineral must be...( 5 things)
light colored rocks
magma that is high in silica usually forms what colored rocks
What are the 3 types of magma an igneous rock can form from?
Basaltic, Granitic, Andesitic
What is high medium grade metamorphism?
the rick has clear layers and the mineral crystals are just visible and the rock has a hogh mica content
If a fault offset a layer of volcanic ash that is 15,000 years old and was buried by a landslide deposit that is radiocarbon dated at 12,000 years old one can infer that the faulting event ______________.
Occurred prior to 12,000 years ago AND occurred after 15,000 years ago.
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