Rocks and Minerals 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
native elements
diamonds,copper,gold,silver
Is Ice a mineral?
Yes
Galena
Economic Mineral
PbS
Sulfide
Pyrite
Economic Mineral
FeS2
Sulfide
Which mineral has striations?
Plagioclase
sulfides
pyrite - "fools gold",galena,copper sulfide
Scoria
Igneous Rock
Volcanic
Mafic
Aphanitic
Actinolite
Rock Forming Mineral
Ca-Mg-Fe Amphibole
Chain Silicate
Gabbro
Igneous Rock
Plutonic
Mafic
Phaneritic
Marble
Metamorphic Rock
Non-foliated
Low Schistosity
(Sedimentary Rocks) Is graywacke sandstone clastic or non clastic?
clastic
What minerals have lower crystallization and lower melting points?
lighter minerals
What is a rock?
solid,naturally occurring,cohesive aggregate of minerals
Chlorite
Rock Forming Mineral
Mg-Fe Mica
Sheet Silicate
Sandstone
Sedimentary Rock
Clastic
Sand Grain Size
(metamorphic rocks) is pink metaquartzite foliated or non foliated?
non foliated
(Metamorphic rocks) is gneiss foliated or non foliated?
foliated
What is a sedimentary rock?
Lithification of sediments.
Lithographic Limestone
Sedimentary Rock
Organic
Very Fine Grain Size
(sedimentary rocks) is soft coal clastic or non clastic?
non clastic
What does crystal size depend on?
rate of cooling
Silicone is made up of what structure?
Tetrahedron triangle
The texture that is described as when crystals cool slowly and are easily seen with the naked eye is
Phaneritic
The way that minerals reflect light is called
luster
About how many minerals are common in Earth’s crust?

a) 10
b) 20
c) 100
d) 2,000
 
 
B) 20
What causes melting?
1. change in pressure,2. change in composition or water content,3. heat generation
Is gold a mineral?
yes because it fits all criteria
The color of crushed powder left by a mineral when it is crushed on a piece of unglazed porcelain is called
streak
name the 6 qualities of halite
luster:non metallic, color:light, hardness:softer than glass, cleavage:3 directional at 90, streak:white, special:salty
name the 4 types of foliated
gneiss, schistose, phyllitic, slaty
tell the luster, color, hardness, cleavage and streak of calcite
luster:non metallic, color:light, hardness:softer than glass, cleavage:3 directional not at 90, streak:white
foliated are named by
texture with accessory minerals in front
Double Chain Silicates
two sets of single chains share an oxygen. Amphibole or hornblende asbestos (several minerals)
name the 6 qualities of kaolinite (don't worry about cleavage)
luster:non metallic, color:light, hardness:softer than fingernail, cleavage:n/a, streak:cream, special:no
tell the luster, color, hardness and streak of smoky quartz
luster:non metallic, color:light, hardness:harder than glass, streak:white
Silicon oxygen ratio
one silicon to one oxygen - 25% for isolated terahedraonly 1/4 is silica poorone silica and 3 oxygen - 33% single chain is averageone silicon to two oxygen - 50% this is quartz. Silicon rich
What are the names of the two minerals that look flat?
Muscovite and Biotite
oolitic is a special type of breakage meaning what?
has small, concentrated spheres, bb size or smaller.
Minerals
1
ulexite
...
salt
rock salt
Shale
Non-Clastic Metamorphic
Sedimentary, detrital rock
Breccia
Opaque
cannot see through
Quartzite
Metamorphic form of sandstone
rock
a mixture of minerals
Mineral
A naturally occurring, inorganic, solid, that has a crystal system and a definite chemical composition
fossils
any evidence of former life
luster
The shininess of a mineral
pumice
fine grained extrusive igneous rock
• Intrusive igneous rocks include
granite
stratification
forming of layers (sedimentary rocks) big settle, then small
Lava
Liquid magma errupting onto the earth's surface
Ionic Bonding
The electrical attraction between oppositely charged ions cause elements to become chemically bonded together.
silicate
mineral that contains silicon and oxygen and usually one or more other elements.
The largest intrusive igneous rock bodes that form when magma bodies that are being forced upward from inside the Earth cool slowly and solidify before reaching the surface
Batholith
Compression/Compaction
pressure of overlying layers that drives out water
senses
Touch, taste, smell, sight, and hearing.
Muscovite
Color: Greenish Clear with some Orange
Streak: White
Luster: Vitreous, Pearly
Hardness: 2-2.5
Cleavage: Perfect, 1 Direction
Crystal Habit: Thin Sheets
ELEMENTS FOUND: K, Al, Si, O, F
FOUND IN WHICH IGNEOUS ROCKS: Granite, Diorite
*Thin, Plastic Feeling Sheets, Pearly with Green Tint
intrusive
rocks that cooled in the ground
Red/White glassy interlocking grains, chemical sedimentary rock, yucky
Rock Salt
bauxite
The ore from which aluminium is extracted.
texture
the sizes, shapes, and positions of the grains that a rock is made of
Magma
a naturally occurring hot molten rock material
Volcanoes
openings in Earth's crust from which molten rock, dust, ash, and hot gases flow or erupt
three examples of sedimentary rocks
shale, limestone, sandstone
sediment
igneous rock at the Earth's surface that is weathered and wears away
clay
soil with smallest grains of rock, feel s like cinnamon
cementation
The formation of large rocks from particles of sediment that occurs as pressure is applied.
nonfoliated
Metamorphic rocks that do not have distinct layers or bands but are one solid color care called __________ rocks.
____ fracture is when the mineral breaks into smooth bowl depressions.
Conchoidal
periodic table
arrangement of the elements according to the atomic number
conchoidal fractuce; brassy yellow; greenish to brownish black streak; maybe cubic; fools gold; metallic; 5.5
Pyrite - FeS2
Chemical Sedimentary
Rocks that form from solutions of minerals and water
focus
a point beneath earth surface where an earthquake starts.
Percent error
the numerical amount, expressed as a percent, by which a measurement differs from a given standard or accepted value
regional metamorphism
change of rock when directed pressure and high temps create mountains; greatest volume of metamorphic rock
flood basalt
very mafic rock (i.e. very runny) pours out of a gap in the ground, creating an enormous plain
streak
the color of the powred left behind when you rub a material againts a white tile called a streak plate.
Gem
Rare, valuable mineral that can be cut and polished.
seimentry rock
rock made when materials settle into layers and get squeezed until they harden into rock
dull
Not bright or shiny; not able to reflect light.
deposition
the process in which material is laid down
Ore
A mineral or rock that contains a useful substance that can be mined for profit
Most rocks are made of one or more.?
Minerals
physical weathering
Type of weathering that breaks down rocks by natural processes like waves, wind and rain (chemical or physical weathering?)
cast
A fossil that forms when mud or minerals later fill a mold
Four requirements of a mineral
naturally occurringsolid inorganic compounddefined chemical compositionordered internal structure
natural resource
material on Earth that is necessary or useful to people
Weathering and Erosion
process that breaks rock into smaller pieces
rock cycle
a series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another
2. luster
how light is reflected off the surface of the mineral (metallic or nonmetallic)
What are some common Silicate Minerals?
Quartz, Feldspar, and Mica
sort
To put things together on the basis of a property, such as color or size.
Metamorphism
Is the process by which any kind of rock is changed into metamorphic rock.
Define abrasion
The grinding away of rock by rock pastides catrried by water, ice, wind, or gravity
law of superposition
younger rock layers are under older layers (older layers are deposited first)
Geologists study what 3 characteristics of rocks?
mineral composition, color, and texture
Crystal Structure
As a mineral forms into a solid, a repeating pattern of the mineral's particles takes on a certain shape.
What is erosion?
The process in which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another.
• Metamorphic rocks form
the effects of heat, pressure, or chemical action on other rocks.
Three ways sed. rock is formed
1. erosion & weathering2. accumulation of skeletal debris3. precipitation from solution
What are Clastic sedimentary rocks?
Formed by broken pieces or fragments of other rock.
What is tetrahedron?
It is a four sided solid each side being a triange.
What can Scientists lean from fossils
1) what ancient plant and animal life was like,
2) what an animal looked like
3)what the environments were like and how they have changed
silica
chert
hematite
...
5
scratch steel
Strata
Layers of rocks
sulfur
non metal ore
talc
1 on moh's scale
mantle
hot,dense rocks flow slowley
Phaneritic
"big"; coarse grained, crystals identifiable to the naked eye; formed by slow cooling
Polymineralic
Rock made from many minerals
peat, lignite, bituminous, anthracite
coal (types)
Crystal
Book definition:The repeating pattern of a mineral's particles forms a solid.
My definition: A pattern in a crystal shape.
Discomformity
Uncomformity between parallel layers of rocks
sedimentary
igneous
metamorphic
3 main types of rocks
crust
The outer-most later of the Earth.
cleavage
how a mineral splits or breaks
conchoidal
Quartz (mineral) and obsidian (rock) have __________ fracture which means they fracture in a circular pattern.
Hardness
A mineral's resistance to being scratched
foliated
the mineral crystals have been squeezed in parallel layers. the rock breaks easily along these layers. e.g. slate and gneiss
Granite (Igneous)
Course grain (1mm-1cm), intrusive, many particles and colors
Specific gravity
__________ __________ compares the weight of a mineral with the weight of an equal volume of water.
Which layer is the mantle?
the middle
Crystal Shape
the shape of a mineral
feldspar
yellow, white, gray, red, brown, glassy, pearly, hard
fracture
the property of a mineral that describes an irregular pattern of breakage in a direction other than along cleavage lines
Halite
Fast ice melter. Salty taste. Clear, colorless. Perfect cleavage.
magnetism
This property causes this mineral to be attracted to some other minerals.
recrystallisation
the crystals in metamorphic rocks grow as the rock experiences heat; the crystals grow perpendicular to the stress
Felsic
A type of igneous rock composition that is made mostly of light minerals such as quartz and feldspar
Pegmatite (Igneous)
largest grain size (1-3 cm), intrusive
Compaction and cementation
How do sedimentary rocks form?
The process by which the lithospheric plates are moved
Convection
Anion
An ion with a net negative charge
geologists
people who study the earth’s rocky crust
Quartz
Makes up sand. Hardness of 7. Pinkish to colorless.
mineral silicates
These form when metals combine with silicon and oxygen.
Crystal form
an essential inherent property of a mineral.
how a rocks breaks down
by cleavage and fracture
Solution
A mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another.
weathering
a gradual wearing away or changing of rock and soil caused by water, ice, temperature changes, wind, chemicals, or living things
five
The mineral Apatite has a hardness of __________.
What are the organisms that break down and digest the remains of dead organisms?
Decomposers
Sedimentary Rock
Rock made from particles of other rocks that have been broken down and moved by natural forces
Sedimentary rocks
formed from pieces of rocks cemented and compacted together
Rocks that have been changed by pressure, heat over lots of time are....
metamorphic rocks
Potassium Feldspar
Hard (6), cleavage= 2 at 90, vitreous, color=pink to red usually, white streak
Plutonic Rock
A rock formed from slow cooling. An example would be granite.
metamorphic rock
A rock changed by hear or pressure, but not completely melted.
Bedrock
solid rock when you dig deep into the earth
mining
Ores are extracted from the Earth by a process called __________.
What is any marks trace, or remanis of an organism called
fossil
what are 3 layers of our Earth
crust, mantle, core
meander
a large bend in a river - becomes more exaggerated with time
What are four major forming minerals?
quartz, feldspar, calcite, and mica.
What is the crust
Earth's outer layer made mostly of rock
How can people be responsible miners?
Mining can destroy habitats of plants and animals, so we should recycle product so people don't have to constantly be digging up the ground. Also Reclamation can be done.
What are grains of a rock?
the tiny particles that make up a rock
beryl
...
vesicular
gas pockets
amazonite (microcline)
...
Solidifying
Magma forming rock
have flat surfaces(faces)
crystal
Selenite
translucent
CaSO4 * 2H2O
Hardness: Soft
Luster: Resinous
Description: Domes and Pinacoid
foliated or unfoliated?
Metaphorphic rock
Limestone
Non-clastic Sedimentary
Fine grained lime mud
CaCO3
Pegmatite
IGNEOUS; Pegmatitic texture, plutonic origin, felsic composition (light colored)
Basalt
The most common volcanic rock
natural resources
resources supplied by nature
andesite
extrusive igneous, intermediate type between basalt and dacite
(hardness 5-6)
named from the Andes, used in construction (in tiles b/c of slip resistance)
Non Foliated, Metamorphic rock, fizzes, can be scratched, WHITE
Marble
banding
thin layers of alternating minerals found in metamorphic rocks
tenacity
mineral's toughness or resistance to breaking or deforming
Metamorphic
Rock that has under gone transformation by heat, pressure, or other natural agencies
composition
the chemical makeup of a rock
erosion
The movement or transportation of sediment to new locations
three groups of rocks
igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
Long cooling causes ________ crystals to form.
large
Compression
the process or result of becoming smaller or pressed together
One of 7 physical properties
cleavage and fracture
nonmetallic
A mineral can have metallic or __________ luster.
lithification
process where sediments turn into rock through weight of overlaying or when compacted by the weight of overlying layers or cemented
fossil
any remains or imprint of living things of the past
graph
A diagram used to show the relationship between things.
siltstone
A detrital sedimentary rock that is made of silt-sized grains is called a __________.
solid
It has definite shape and definite volume.
What kind of cleavage on the quartz?
conchoidal
Coarse Grained
texture consisting of large grains in a rock that are easy to see, take longer to form
When calcite is put with acid, they will _____ when they come in contact with each other.
fizz
carbon
If a mineral is a carbonate it contains the elements __________ and oxygen.
Non-foliated
does not consists of minerals that are aligned
composition and texture
Scientists study rocks using what important criteria?
Characteristics of Minerals
solid, found in nature, inorganic, definite crystal pattern, definite chemical composition
orderly arrangement of atoms (in a pattern)
Crystalline Structure
Igneous rock
rock that forms when melted, or molten, rock from deep below Earth's surface cools and hardens
Inorganic
not formed from living things or the remains of living things.
Transparency
the amount of light that can pass through a substance
give 3 examples of sedimentary rock
shale, sandstone, limestone
Layers
rows on the timeline that are used for organization
Wthat is the tiltle of the book?
Rocks and minerals
Rock's texture
The look and feel of the rock's surface.
Moh's Hardness Scale
a scale ranking ten minerals from softest to hardest; used in testing and comparing the hardness of minerals
regional metamorphic rocks
formed by forces acting over wide areas, such as extreme conditions of temperature and pressure at great depths within the earth's crust.
It is associated with mountain-building processes.
What are silicates?
a combination of silicon and oxygen with other elements. largest rock froming minerals
outer core
The layer of the Earth just below the mantle.
What 2 elements do most minerals in the crust contain?
Oxygen and silicon
Mohs hardness scale
used to test minerals for softness and hardness
Moh's Scale of Hardness
The scale in which a minerals ability to resist scratching is measured
What physical properties are used to identify a mineral?
Color, streak, luster, hardness, cleavage, fracture, magnitism, ability to bend light rays, fluorescence, taste, crystal shape and acid reactions.
What is a foliated rock?
A metamorphic rock that is easy to spilt
Why are dead weeds and stalks of the previous year's crop left in the ground in conservative plowing?
They help to return soil nutrients, retain moisture, and hold the soil in place
Mineral for salt?
Halite
Mineral for double refraction?
Calsite
Fluorite
Mineral, nonmetallic luster, four cleavages
What is foliation?
Can form stripes
metallic luster
Usually if a mineral shines
chemical properties
the chemical composition of minerals
___________ crystals help us keep accurate time.
Quartz
Basaltic
of or relating to or containing basalt, a dark, dense, extrusive rock. Makes up most of the ocean floor.
Igneous
most common types of rocks on Earth
rock formed when
melted rock material cools
igneous rock
Sedimentary rocks precipitated by water that evaporates are called?
chemical sedimentary rocks
What does the Powder test test for?
Streak
Compaction
the reduction in volume of sediments in the formation of sedimentary rocks
What is lava?
magma that reaches the Earth's surface
color
one of the properties of minerals used in their identification
intrusive rock
igneous rock that forms when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface
Surface Mining
takes place when the minerals are close to the surface
Which has smaller crystals intrusive or extrusive rocks?
extrusive have fine-grained rocks
Changes in rock caused by the heat of a nearby magma body is called?
contact metamorphism
A scale that ranks from 1-10 a rock's hardness
Mohs Hardness Scale
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