Rocks And Minerals Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
inorganic
non-living
sphalerite
...
fracture
irregular breaking
Tectonic Plates
ores
a valuable mineral.
silicates make up
92%
Limestone
made up of calcite
Igneous, felsic, coarse-grained rock
Granite
curst
Earth's solid outer layer
pyrite
brassy, yellow color
greenish/black streak
Feldspar
Pinkish white. Hardness of 6.
Rocks
are made up of minerals
Sedimentary
Formed under water
Made from sediments.
Layers
fosssils may be found in rocks
bauxite
another name for aluminum ore
mineral
any naturally, occuring, crystalline, inorganic material
Melted rock that occurs underground
Magma
Foliated
when pressue aligns minerals into layers that are easy to split
One of 5 mineral characteristics
naturally occurring
streak of nonmetallic minerals
light colored streak
abrasion
physical weathering - rocks scratching each other (e.g. river)
clastic
sedimentary rock that forms when dissolved rock parts are squeezed together
What do we use Halides for?
Detergents
circumference
the distance around a circular object
3 main typess of rock
-Igneous
-medemorphic
-sedimentary
Name the three kinds of rocks
-igneous
-sedimentary
-metamorphic
Minerals are _____ substances which means they are not alive
Inorganic
Pumice
Vesicular Extrusive Igneous
SI, O, Al, Fe
Sedimentary Rock
Rock formed from weathering and erosion of sediments
silicate
made of silicon and oxygen, tetrahedra form
Weathering
Gradual breaking down and wearing away of exposed rock
steak plate
unglazed porcelain used in observing color of powdered minerals; not all streak
Minerals
solid in organic from element or compounds
Erosion
The destructive process in which water or wind loosens and carries away fragments of rock
minerals everyday uses
batteries, pillows, make-up, soil, tables, floor
compaction
the process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight
Extrusive
1. Forms from volcanos
2. smaller crystals
3. shorter cooling time
4. igneous rock
ex: basalt
metallic
A mineral can have __________ or nonmetallic luster.
Angular Uncomformity
If the uncomformity is between horizontal layers and inclined
crust
the solid outside layer of the Earth
Texture
the look and feel of a rock's surface
extrusive (volcanic)
formed by solidification of magma at or above Earth's surface (lava)
Fossils
Remain or traces of an organism that lived long ago.
How are detrital rocks classified?
By their particle size
fossil
the remains and traces of past life, found in sedimentary rock
planets
9 objects that travel around the Sun and reflect its light
Regional Metamorphism
The movement of one tectonic plate against another
Crystal
The solid, geometric form of a mineral produced by a repeating pattern of atoms
Rhombohedral Cleavage
Similar to cubic except cubes are pushed over.
olivine (m)
green mineral- found in basalts and are mainly from lava flows
What is energy resources formed from the plants and remains of plants and animals that lived long ago.
Fossil Fuels
Igneous Rock
rock formed when magma or lava cools and hardens
What is ore?
Mineral deposit large enough and pure enough to make a profit
rock
a solid mixture of crystals of one or more minerals or other materials
What is a foliated metamorphic rock?
rocks have fine layers
hardness
a measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched
what within the Earth's surface can turn igneous and sedimentary rocks into metamorphic rocks
heat and pressure
Specific Gravity
a minerals mass relative to mass of an equal volume of water, allows you to tell "light" from "heavy"
Metamorphic rock
rock that has been changed by heat or pressure. Ex: marble
Native Metals
Metals found in their pure form as the Metals themselves
What are the four properties scientistsuse to identify minerals
Color, Luster Streak and Hardness
magma and lava, erupts, igneous, eroded, sediment, deposited, compacted and cemented, sedimentary, heat and pressure, metamorphic
rock cycle and ways they form
What are two reasons that petroleum oil, mined from deep in the earth, is not a mineral?
It's a liquid.
It's organic.
No crystalline structure.
What is a carbonate?
A compound made of one carbon atom and three oxygen atoms, an example is calcite.
Name the 3 soil horizons and what they are made of
A horizon - topsoil: a crumbly, dark brown soil that is a mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals
B horizon - subsoil: usially consists of clay and other minerals, little humus
C horizon - only contains partly weathered rock
solution
crystal light
luster
a minerals reflection of light
(glassy, pearly, earthy, metallic)
base
a substance that produces hydroxide ions, OH-, in water.
what are 3 crystalline elements
copper
silver
gold
properties
A way to describe something, like traits.
stratification
the process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers
molecule
The smallest complete unit of a compound that has the properties of that compound
table salt
Halite is another name for ____________.
Is a geometrid among a geologist's equipment?
No
crystal systems
the organization of atoms in each mineral crystal is divided into 6 groups
Metamorphic
rock formed as heat or pressure causes existing rock to change in structure, texture, or mineral composition.
diamond
Which mineral would be the hardest on Moh's scale?
nonsilicate minerals
a mineral that does not contain compounds of silicon and oxygen
gemstone
a hard, colorful mineral that has a brilliant or glassy luster
ore
a mineral that contains enough of a useful substance that can be sold for profit
metamorphic rocks origin
changed form another rock by extreme heat and pressure
clastic sedimentary rock
forms when rock or mineral fragments, called clasts, are cemented together
gems
minerals that are rare, and can be cut and polished, giving them a beautiful appearance
What happens when soil that is already saturated gets wet?
There is run-off.
Name some ways we use materials taken from the Earth.
Buildings, Roads, and Glass
a fossil of a plant would probably be formed where?
forest or the woods
Why might a sedimentary rock have rounded edges?
It may have been worn down in a river.
/ 86
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online