Rocks Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
cementation
glue
Meta
change
Diorite
Intermediate Intrusive
sed
lime stone
morphed sandstone
is quartzite
rock cycle
break down
Phaneritic
What texture is gabbro?
Fossiliferus Shale
Sedimentary Organic
Child: Slate
Characteristics: Bits of Shells + Holes
Slate
Rock type: Metamorphic
Texture: slatey cleavage
Precursor: Shale
mineral
a natural occurring, inorganic, crystalline, solid, and has a definite chemical composition
Sandstone
Composition: Quartz (silica) feldspar Origins: Clastic, sedimentary, coastlines
Basaltic
igneous rock/ dense/ dark-colored/ rich in iron and magnesium
from basalt, phyllite, shale
to schist
magma
hot rock under the earth
igneous
produced under conditions involving intense heat, as rocks of volcanic origin or rocks crystallized from molten magma.
Stratification
the arrangment of visible rock layers
atoms
smallest particles of matter, retain all the characteristics of an element
regional
high temperatures and pressure affect large regions of earths crust
Farenheit (F*)
Boiling point=212 degrees/ Freezing point=32 degrees/ Absolute zero= -459 degrees
solution
Limestone forms from __________ which was calcium carbonate in solution.
Weathering
the chemical and physical processes that break down rock at Earth's surface
basalt
formed from lava; most common extrusive; makes up most of the ocean floor
metamorphic
pertaining to or characterized by change of form, or metamorphosis.
Sediment
Rock particles that settle in a liquid.
Clastic
A sedimentary rock (such as shale, siltstone, sandstone or conglomerate) or sediment (such as mud, silt, sand, or pebbles). An accumulation of transported weathering debris.
Sedimentary Rock
made of pieces of other things/rocks
conglomerates
clastic rocks made up of rounded pebbles and gravel
Organic Rock
sedimentary rock that forms from remains of organisms deposited in thick layers
Chemical weathering
breaks down minerals through chemical reactions
erosion
the movement of sediments by water, wind, ice, gravity
Mineral Composition
What it is made out of
properties
something that can be observed, such as size, color or texture
nonfoliated structure
a rock structure without visible layers or bands
crust
the brown, hard outer portion or surface of a loaf or slice of bread (
eruptions
explosions of lava and steam from a volcano
chemical rock
A sedimentary rock that forms when minerals crystallize from a solution
intrusive
describes a type of igneous rock that generally contains large crystals and forms when magma cools slowly beneath Earth surface
Sediments
small pieces of broken rock, such as pebbles and sand, shells, mineral grains and other materials
Magma chamber
An underground holding pool of melted rock
igneous rock
rock that is make from cooling lava/magma
Crystal
solid in which the atoms are arranged in a repeating pattern
extrusive rock
igneous rock formed when lava hardens above earths surface
igneous rock formed at the earth's surface
Extrusive rock
luster
the state or quality of shining by reflecting light; glitter, sparkle, sheen, or gloss:
Rocks that form when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface
Intrusive igneous rocks
Chemical rocks
derived from material that was once in solution and precipitates to form sediment, directly precipitated as a result of physical processes, or through life processes
fracture
how a mineral looks when it has been broken apart
chemical sedimentary rock
forms when minerals crystallize out of a solution, such as sea water, to become rock
Rock is heated by nearby magma during this process
Contact Metamorphism
vesicular texture
rock that has gas pockets and air that was trapped during the rock's formation
Flotatied Metomorphic Rocks
have the mineral grains lined up in bands or parallel layers
BARRIER
Coral reef far out at least 10 km from land
Any rock can be a metamorphic rock if it undergoes what 2 things?
Heat and pressure
How does volcanic glass form
it cools so quickly that no crystals form
How do geologists describe a rock's texture?
by grain size, grain shape and grain pattern
foliated
quartzite
conglomerate
karpaty
łupek ilasty
"Cave Lovers"
Troglophiles
rhyolite
fine grained, felsic
Extrusive
To be outside,space
Heat Stages
Composition
Ultramafic (peridotite)
Mafic (bassalt)
Intermediate (diorite)
Felsic (granite)
half life of Carbon-14
5730
Breccia
Rock Type: Sedimentary
Type: Clastic
Texture: Coarse "Angular"
Composition: gravel
Environment of Deposition: turrengenous
schist
medium grade metamorphism, micas sparkle, crystals, foliation in lines
Quartz Sandstone
Rock Type: Sedimentary
Type: clastic
Texture: medium sized particles
Composition: sand sized particles
Environment of Deposition: near shore
nonfoliated
Term used to describe metamorphic rocks whose grains are arranged randomly.
hydrogenous sediment
seafloor sediment consisting of minerals that crystallize from seawater
Mica Schist
Composition: Mica, quartz. Origins: foliated (pressure), metamorphic
folitated
desecibes metamorphic rock such as slate and gneiss which the minerals line up in an parallel order
Melting
the process whereby heat changes something from a solid to a liquid
seismic waves
the energy waves (either primary,secondary, or surface) that are released by an earthquake and travel outward from its focus.
granite
forms when magma cools slowly underground
sandstones
______are generally made of rounded to angular grains the size of sand particles
shale
the most common sedimentary rock, very fine grained
un dolmen simple
dolmen composé d'une chambre seulement
gneiss
A banded or foliated metamorphic rock, usually of the same composition as granite.
lava
molten rock that reaches a planet's surface through a volcano
which of the following transport agents generally results in oscillation?
ocean waves
lithosphere
the solid portion of the earth (
What type of metamorphic rock has fine layers?
foliated
classtics
sedimentry rocks made up of pieces of rock
metamorphism
change in the structure of rock by natural agencies such as pressure or heat of introduction of new chemical substances
crystal settling
when the solid, and liquid components are separated during crystallization
clastic rock
sedimentary rock that forms when rock fragments are squeezed together under high pressure
rough smooth
_______ water wears away the stream bed faster than _______ water.
CRYSTAL SIZE
HELPS IDENTIFY AN IGNEOUS ROCK AS INTRUSIVE OR EXTRUSIVE
contact metamorphism
the type of metamorphism that occurs along the edges of igneous intrusions when the magma bakes the surrounding rock
geode
is a rounded, hollow rock, that is often lined with mineral crystals.
pumice
this rough surface rock makes it a good abrasive for cleaning and polishing
Cold Sweat
James Brown 67
Funk (first funk song)
streak
a long, narrow mark, smear, band of color, or the like:
Anthracite
Very hard rock that burns with a high heat and little smoke. A metamorphic rock formed from coal.
name all 5 sedimentary rocks and tell if their organic,clastic, or chemical
conglomerate;clastic- sandstone;clastic-shale;clastic-limestone;chemical- coquina limetone; organic
Igenous Rock
Rock formed when magma or lava cools and hardens.
extrusive igneous cool quickly
have small crystals and fine texture
Sedimentary rocks
Rock that forms from pieces of other rocks or the remains of once-living things
four most common minerals in dark colored rocks
biotite, honrblende, augite, olivine
Metomorphic Rocks
1- Rock has to get buried by sediment on top of it
2- Several layers of sediment can cause the rock to have EXTREME heat and a TON of pressure to be placed on the rock
**It takes a lot of time for it to form
coarse grained
when all the grains in a rock are large and easy to see.
top of magma
did rhyolite cool at the bottom or top of the magma?
Most important factor in metamorphism
heat, b/c is provides the energy to drive chemical reactions that result in the recrystallization of existing minerals and/or the formation of new minerals
T or F. Since coal is naturally occurring and a solid, it is a mineral.
False! It is not inorganic because coal was once made from dead plants and animals.
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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