Rocks Minerals 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Sandstone
12
olivine
...
transparent
transmitting light
plutonic; intermediate
Diorite
Veneer
outer layer coating
Galena
Sulfide Mineral
PbS (lead)
Cementing
Hardening of the sediment
atomic number
number of protons
sectile
can be easily cut
Rock
Any solid mass of mineral
One of 7 physical properties
hardness
Extrusive
Formed outside of earths surface
cementation
sedimentary rock-forming process in which minerals precipitate out of water and fill the spaces between clasts.
Aphanetic Basalt
Color: Black
Composition: Mafic
Texture: Aphanetic
Cooling/Crystallization History: Extrusive and Fast
Tectonic Setting: Hot Spots, Divergent Plates, Mid Ocean Ridges
Determining Factor: Basalt is Aphanetic and has Small Crystals
*Saw these at Mary's Peak
Oxide
Nonsilicate mineral containing oxygen combined with one or more metals.
pigment
The distinctive colour of a mineral.
carbonate
contains oxygen, carbon and metal (mostly in ocean)
luster
The way a surface reflects light.
Properties
characteristics used to describe a substance
heat,pressure,chemically active fluids
3 agents of metamorphism
buttes
like mesas but are even smaller
weathering
wind, water, ice, sunlight, and gravity all cause rock to break into fragments
petrology
Petrology is the study of rocks
mineral
a naturally formed, inorganic solid with a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition
hardness
the resistance of very minute particles of a mineral to being pushed around; scratch- doesnt go away, mark does; mohs scale- tells how hard a rock is on a scale from 1-10- softest to hardest
crystal
solid, geometric forms of minerals produced by a repeating pattern of atoms that is present throughout the mineral
lava
hot liquid material that reaches earth’s surface
What is granite that has been metamorphized?
Gneiss
Calcite
Soft (3), rhombohedral cleavage (3 not at 90), vitreous to dull, many colors, white streak
compound
composed of two or more parts, elements, or ingredients
erosion
the destructive process in which water or wind loosen and carry away fragments of rocks
caldera
after an eruption, the volcano falls into the empty magma chamber, creating something looking like a crater
pegmatite
very coarse rock which contains large crystals
more common, 2 or more elements (eg.)
sodium
Mafic
A type of igneous rock composition that is made mostly of dense, dark minerals like olivine and pyroxene
granite
a light colored rock with high viscotsity
Sediment rock formation
Erosion > deposition> compaction> cemenatation
Fracture
A physical property that causes a mineral to break with rough or jagged edges
Minerals
A natural subject in which particles are arranged in patterns.
uses of diamonds
jewelery, abravsies, drill bits/saw blades
Metamorphic Rock
Rock that forms from other rock
What are thin latyers of alternating minerals found in a metamorphic rock?
banding
igneous
rocks from hot liquid inside the earth
geology
The study of the Earth, its rocks, minerals, volcanoes, earthquakes and fossils.
Silicates
The most frequent mineral group on the earth's surface.
marble
is made manly of the mineral calcite, it is a metamorphic rock formed by heat or pressure on limestone.
Sediment
Pieces of shell, rock and/or parts of plants and animals
Streak
The color of the powder of a mineral
Gemstone
A hard, colorful mineral that has a brilliant or glassy luster and is valued for its appearance.
fossil
Remains or traces of an organism that lived long ago that are preserved in the earth.
Translucent
Able to somewhat pass light through so than an object can be seen, yet blurry
Rocks
__________ are made of two or more minerals.
the _______ of a mineral can be different than the color
streak
What type of rock is formed when weathering and erosion cause sediments to press together in layers
Sedimentry
The rock on the right didn't fizz. Which rock might it be: quartzite, marble, limestone
quartzite
Metamorphism
the process in which one type of rock changes into metamorphic rock because of chemical processes or changes in temperature and pressure.
Porphyry
A rock which is formed when a melt begins to crystallize slowly at depth, and then is subjected to rapid cooling (volcanic eruption). This results in coarse crystals embedded in a fine-grained groundmass.
sedimentary rock
A rock formed by layers of sediments squeezed and stuck together over a long time
two types of sedimentary rocks
clastic (sediments compacted together) non clastic (made by chemical or organic process)
Mohs hardness scale
scale ranking 10 minerals from softest to hardest; used in testing the hardness of minerals
density
the amount of matter in a given space; mass per unit volume
igneous rock
rock that was once melted but has cooled and hardened
imprint
Tracks or other marks of an animal or plant left behind in mud
fossils give clues to the ____
past (history of earth)
magma
Look at the rock cycle on page 185 in your book. In this diagram what does igneous rock change into when it melts?
Clastic sedimentary rocks?
are made up of fragments of other rocks
What are some causes of erosion
wind, rivers, glaciers, waves, gravity
Acid (vinegar)
One way to learn about rocks is to put this on them.
How are sedimentary rocks classified?
By their texture and how they were formed
What makes all metamorphoc rocks alike and some ways they are grouped?
all made from heat and pressure; nonfoliated- lack of alligned mineral grains and foliated
diorite
...
organic
living organisms
limestone (crystalline)
...
chemical sedimentary
halite, gypsum
albite (plagioclase group)
...
conglomerate
when gravel-sized particles predominate the rock
Chert
Non-clastic Sedimentary
Hard, dense masses or beds
SiO2
Plagioclase
MINERAL; AKA FELDSPAR, Non-metallic, scratches a glass plate, cleavage, white grey or black; striations
silicates of Earth's crust
feldspar; quartz
Rock Cycle
erosion (sedimentary rock), deposition, compaction/cementation, metamorphism (metamorphic rock), melting magma, cooling (igneous rock), solidification, weathering
what changes sedimentary
tempeture and pressure
core
the center of the Earth
Foliated, Metamorphic rock, matte, grainy, unnatural colors, metamorphosed
Slate
magnetism
Some minerals have special properties. This property causes some minerals to stick together.
acid test
test for presence of calcite
Ores
minerals or combinations of minerals from which metals and nonmetals are extracted
Feldspar
It is a kind of mineral.
rock cleavage
split or break in rock
Octahedron
A geometric solid with 8 sides
basalts
extrusive igneous rock generally found in lava flows, more dense than intrusive rocks
Volcanic
igneous rock produced by eruption and solidified on or near the earth's surface
Some ingredients can be ____ by breaking rocks apart.
identified
Nonfoliated
Category of metamorphic rock that has NO bands or layers.
characteristics
Each mineral has unique __________ you can use to identify it.
small crystals
quick cooling result in __________ crystals
evaporites
the sea water has dissolved minerals within it. the sea water evaporates leaving the minerals behind
clastic
formed by broken pieces or fragments of other rock. e.g. conglomerates(large round) sandstone(small round) mudstone or shale(very small fragments)
graph
a diagram used to show the relationship between things.
phosphorescence
minerals that continue to glow after the UV light is turned off
inorganic materials
Are minerals that don't contain material that was once living
What kinds of cleavage are present here?
platy
conchoidal
rhomboidal
cuboidal
Compaction
This is when the bottom layers of sediments get compressed from layers deposited on top. Sometimes this changes the bottom of the sediment to be rough
cleavage
the tendency of a mineral to break along flat surfaces
A _____ will scratch very soft minerals. AND medium-hard minerals.
aluminum nail
True
Rocks are made of minerals: T or F
biological organisms
critters die and decay, leaving behind skeletal remains and chemicals from their shells
intrusive
the type of igneous rock that forms when magma cools and solidifies beneath the Earth's surface
what is lava
melted rock that reaches Earths surface
Conglomerate (Sedimentary)
Clastic rock, made of many particles, smoothish
Inorganic
A process by which all minerals must be able to form from
element
substance that can be broken down into simplar substances by chemical means- consists of only one type of atom
Solution
a mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another.
Geologists
People who study rocks and how they were formed
Contact metamorphism
process in which older rocks come in contact with the magma of an intrusion or lava of an extrusion and the heat and mineral fluids of the liquid rock alter the older rock by recrystallization
Metamorphic rocks
Rocks formed when other rocks are put under extreme heat and pressure
Sedimentary Rock.
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
Sand
Soil with grains of rock that you can see with your eyes, feels gritty
Coral Reef
A structure under water that is formed when coral animals die,their skeletons remain, and more corals build on top of them.
the rock cycle
a model of the interrelationships of the different rock types, the materials they form from and the processes that produce the rocks
Fossils
The remains or marks of a living thing from long ago
What is the hardness scale called?
Moh's Scale of Hardnesses
Eight most common rock forming minerals
oxygen, silicon, alumininum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnensium
Grain size
the size of the grains that make up a rock, which helps to classify the type of rock
inner core
a ball of solid metal is at the center of the earth
What are metamorphic rocks?
Rocks that form as a result of the recrystallization of existing rock minerals
Why is rock like a "chocolate chip cookie"?
It is made of ingredients called minerals
solute
crystal light powder
Foliation
arrangement of minerals within rocks into flat or wavy parallel bands; characteristic of metamorphic rocks. (p. 100)
electrons
subatomic particle with a negative charge
cleavage/fracture
the way a mineral breaks apart
smooth breaks are cleavage
rough breaks are fracture
Recrystalization
bonds between atoms in minerals break and re-form in new ways during metamorphisism. (p. 97)
metalloids
have some properties of metals and non-metals
eight properties to identify minerals
color
luster
streak
hardness
special properties
density
crystal systems
cleavage and fracture
natural resource
materials found in nature that are used by living things
When we tested minerals using our fingernails, a paper clip, and a nail what question were we trying to answer?
The Hardness
Igneous Rocks
form when melted rock (magma) from Earth cools and hardens
non-metals
are on the right side of the line, they are dull, brittle and are poor conductors or heat and electricity.
Name some natural earth materials.
Water, Rocks, Minerals, and Soil
what are the three phases of matter
solid, liquid and gas
What is a geologist?
A person who looks for logic in rocks
the differerence between rocks and minerals
a rock is made out of different minerals and minerals are made out of itself
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