rocks vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Sandstone
sedimentary
breccia
sedimentary
detrital
Diorite
Phaneritic, Intermediate
Quartz
glassy, cubic
Process
Mechanical Deformation
Re-crystalize, recombine
ex: Garnets
vesicles
openings in rocks
Gneiss
META rock, quartz/feldspar composition, foliated/banded texture
Breccia
large rough, jagged edges
Star Mica
glitter very hard
72 (1)
Take It Easy
sulfur
Obtained by the Frasch process
mafic
rocks with a basaltic composition
white to gray and fizzes
marble--metamorphic
(Sedimentary rock group) Made of weathered bits of rocks and minerals
Clastic
Granite
light-colored igneous rock with grains large enough to be visible with the unaided eye. It forms from the slow crystallization of magma below Earth's surface, composed mainly of quartz and feldspar with minor amounts of micas, amphiboles and other minerals.
Extrusive
fine-grained igneous rock that forms when magma cools quickly above the earth's surface... cools quickly
Cross Bedding
inclined layers of sediment move
Foliated
describes metamorphic rock, such as slate and gneiss, whose meneral grains line up in parallel layers.
glassy texture
no crystals, randomly distributed ions, igneuous
Silica cement
produces the hardest sedimentary rocks
metamorphic rock
igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rock that has been changed by heat and pressure
fusion
commonly referring to combination of jazz and rock, but can be a combination of western and non-western styles
intrusion
an igneous rock layer formed when magma hardens beneath earth's surface
plutonic
rock that forms below the Earth's surface (intrusive)
Intrusive
HUGE, inside the earth (under the surface)
Chemical rock
Sedimentary rock that forms when minerals crystallize from a solution.
Porphyritic
igneous rocks that have large well formed crystals surrounded by finer-grained crystals
sediment
small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or organisms: Earth's minerals deposited by erosion
magma
hot, molten rock within the earth's crust and mantle
rock cycle
the cyclic connection between the three major groups of rock in which weathering products at the surface are converted to sedimentary rocks and then to metamorphic and igneous rocks by an increase in temperature and pressure
felsic
light colored, high in silica, less dense
geode
a hollow rock inside which minerial crystals have grown
schist
very highly changed, mica squeezed to the surface
tabular crystal form and has hardness of 2 (can be scratched with fingernail) usually transparent
gypsum--mineral
hardness
the state or quality of being hard:
foliation
A term for a linear arrangement of textural features often exhibited by metamorphic rock
marble, gneiss, slate, quartzite, schist
examples of metamorphic rocks
Unconformity
where there is gap in the rock layers
intrusive rocks
Rocks that form from magma trapped below the earths surface and form large grained igneous rock when it cools
sedimentary rock
Rock formed when layers of sediments harden over millions of years.
fine-grained
What is the grain of igneous rock formed when magma cools QUICKLY?
Metamorphic
Rock that is already made but changes with heat, pressure, and other natural changes
causes of erosion
gravity, running water, wind, ocean weaves, glaciers
Extrusitve rock
lava erupts onto the earth's surface, cools quickly, forming small crystals.
scene
the place where some action or event occurs:
Subsoil
the soil in the B-horizon or middle layer of soil
chemical sedimentary rock
forms when minerals precipitate from a solution or settle from a suspension
extrusive rock
igneous rock the forms from lava on Earth's surface
ice age
one time in the past when continental glaciers covered large parts of earth's surface
rock is covered in cavaties and has a sponge-like apperance
vesicular
What are two differences between extrusive and intrusive igneous rock?
Smooth and shiny grains
joints facilitate weathering because
-permit water and other chemical agents to penetrate below surface area
-provide more surface area for the weathering front to attack
weathering
to wear or diminish, as water does by flowing over or against a surface (often fol. by out or away):
regional metamorphism
what is the result of large pieces of rock deep within the Earth's crust colliding?
fine-grained, coarse-grained, and medium-grained
What are the three kinds of textures for rocks?
What are biocastic sedimentary rocks?
rocks that are made of shels are previous living plants and animals (fossils)
What are the tools/tests to test the mineral composition of a rock?
Rock hammer, texture, color, mineral comp.
Rhyolite
Igneous
extrusive
propagate
multiply; spread
Strata
Layers of rocks
Obsidian
black/ very smooth
Phaneritic
What texture is diorite?
examples of sedimentary
sandstone, limestone
How is sedimentary rock formed
WEDCC
dolomite
nonmetallic; streak: white; colors: white, gray, cream, or pink, usually opaque; excellent cleavage; will react in HCL when scratched
solid
very close together, move slowly
igneous
produced under conditions involving intense heat, as rocks of volcanic origin or rocks crystallized from molten magma.
slate
comes from shale; denser (makes noise)
size
Crystal ____________ large or small can help identify an igneous rock as intrusive or extrusive.
Talc
softest rock in the world/ smooth
diameter
the distance across a circular object
ex. of igneous rocks
basalt, pumice, obsidian
clastic
solid sediment such as pebbles, sand, and silt
Stock
2nd largest intrusion / branches off of the Batholith
nonclastics
sedimentary rocks made up of dissolved minerals, or the remains of living things
depositon
the process by which sediment settles out of water or wind carring it
Grains
the particles of minerals or other rocks that give a rock its texture
Cleavage
Breaks along smooth, flat surfaces, or planes .
compaction
process that occurs when layers of sediments are compressed by the weight of layers above
igneous rock
"fire-formed", made from cooled magma or lava
a metamorphic rock made from slate that has been subjected to heat and pressure
phyllite
crust
the brown, hard outer portion or surface of a loaf or slice of bread (
Erosion
The physical removal of rock by an agent such as running water, glacial ice, or wind.
Organic Sedimentary
sedimentary rocks that are formed from once-living things or processes
intrusive ign rx
cool inside volcano; cool slowly; display large crystals
interior Earth
is the power source for igneous rocks
gem
a mineral that is rare and valuable and can be cut and polished
Igneous Rocks
FORMED: from cooling and hardening of lava or magma OR
Magma cooling in the Earth's surface
Two well-known evaporites mentioned in the text
1.) gypsum
2.) salt
Solution
A mixture containing a solvent and at least one solute that has the same proprieties throughout; A mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another
intrusive rock
igneous rock that formed when magma hardened beneath earth's surface
Metamorphic rock with no layers or splits
Unfoliated rock
bituminous coal
What is the parent rock of anthracite coal?
properties of mineral formation
crystal form, color, luster, streak, cleavage, hardness, density and specific gravity
How does heat and pressure change a rock into metamorphic rock?
Different minerals
compaction and cementation
In the picture above, what process or processes would be happening in the part of the rock cycle labeled "E"?
rocks that are formed when lava cools on the surface of the earth is called
extrusive igneous rocks
What are some of the uses of igneous rocks?
Building and gravel.
how they were made
and how they were formed
How are sedimentary rocks classified?
What does foliated rock have that nonfoliated rock dosen't have?
Foliated rocks are thin and flat. They may split apart in bands. Nonfoliated rocks do not split into layers or bands.
Scoria
another rock
Pumice
Rock Type: Igneous
Texture: Vesicular
Composition: Felsic
Type: Extrusive
Sandstone Arkose
Rock Type: Sedimentary
Type: Clastic
Texture: Medium Grained
Composition: Medium Particles
Environment of Deposition: Near shore
rock
A solid made of minerals
13. shell limestone
speckled black, white, gold
lava
magma that flows onto earth's surface
cementation
The process by which dissolved minerals crystalize and glue particles of sediment together into one mass.
texture can be....
fine grained,medium grained,coarse grained
sedimentary rock to sediment...
weathering, erosion, deposition
Coal
is a black combustible rock consisting of over 50% carbon
vein
Mineral filled crack that cuts across preexisting rock
mineral
a natural solid materal with particals arranged in a repeating pattern
streak
its the mineral's color when its ground into powder
silicate
type of mineral that contains oxygen and silicon
clastic rock
sedimentary rock that forms when rock fragments are squeezed together under high pressure
chemical sedimentary rocks
rocks formed when dissolved minerals come out of solution
oxidation
a chemical change in which a substance combines with oxygen, as when iron oxidizes, forming rust
Metamorphism
process in which an existing rock is changed by heat or pressure, or both
Captivate
to hold the interest of, to gain the attention of
Uplift
The process in which any type of rock is moved to the Earth's surface by underground forces
What if a rock is made up of one mineral?
The rock is homogeneous
Example: Dunite
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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