Roman Art Flashcards

Art
Terms Definitions
Tetrarchs
305
taberna
tavern
Tetrachs
4c
patrician
wealthy landowners
tepidarium
warm water
coffers
Public treasury
Tessurae
Clay tickets
arcade
multiple arches together
Cancellaria Reliefs
93 AD
palastra
gym for excercise
Dido
Aneas's 2nd wife
Basilica of Maxentius, Rome
306
Good Shepherd
5th century AD
Mosaic
Decorate floors; Tessarae-small shapes; marble, limestone, glass
Portrait of Hadrian
117 AD
Barrel Vault
round arch ceiling
Pax Romana =
Roman Peace
Atrium
Opening in roman house
Roman sculpture embodied ____________ portrayals of people
realistic
Constantine
-huge (head is 8'6")
-idealized
-hair sits on head like a hat
basilica
Roman public building, generally located in the town's forum
Gemma Augustea
early 1st c AD
maze-like system of underground funerary sites, excavated from granular tufa:
catacombs
The republic style was _______
veristic
Basilica Aemilia
Forum Romanum, 55-34 BCE
1st Triumverate
Crassus, Pompey, and Caesar
insula
a multistory apartment ouse, generally made of a brick-faced concrete; also refers to an entire city block
Basilica of Constantine (=Basilica of Maxentius), remodelled
315
Roman Republic
Artists considered skilled laborers, arts reflected etruscan influence, expansion brought exposure to other arts
Hadrian
ruler at time of Pantheon construction; inscription on Pantheon was for another ruler
emperor
supreme male ruler of an empire
Augustus' busts and portraits were shown ___less.
ageless
Portland vase
Rome?, early 1st c. CE
Baths
social event for Romans, bathhouses, were well decorted, could work out, soak in warm or hot bath, business sometimes conducted here
Amulius
Overthrows Numator as last Alban king
frigidarium
The cold-bath section of a Roman bathing establishment
Portrait of Caracalla
early to mid 3rd century
iconographic
The symbolic meaning of forms depicted in art
tondo
circular work of art; either a painting or a sculpture
Encaustic
ancient method of painting that uses colored waxes burned into wooden surface
Tomb relief of the Gessius Family
30 BC
Rome became a _________ in 509 BC
republic
Pier
mass and masonry that supports the arch; holds most of downward pressure for individual arch; more vertical
Etruscan
Culture before Roman Empire; ways were incorporated in Roman Art
stucco
roman plaster used on walls or ceilings for decorations
Buttress
outer support because no beams att time
The Rape of Ganymede
Hagesandros, Athanadoros, and Polydoros of Rhodes, beginning of 1st c. CE
aqueduct
a structure that carries water over long distances
oculus
The round central opening or "eye" of a dome
Pont-du-Gard
aqueduct in South of France built by the Roman empire
if several arches are placed next to each other, they form an ______
arcade
Mt. Vesuvius
erupted in Pompeii and cities were buried under ash of volcanoe
The subject of a sarcophagus ____s at the veiwer
looks
apse
the semicircular area at the end of the end of the church opposite the main entry. It was here that the altar was placed
impluvium
In a Roman house, the basin located in the atrium that collected rainwater (and mosquitoes)
drilled eyes
style of statue carving where the eyes are drilled into
1st Wall Painting Style
Marble of various colors; depicted gods, mortals, heroes
Clerestory
walls of nave that are higher to let in light/ windows
the sun rays into the pantheon symbolize...
Jupiter's all-seeing eye
mural
a painting that is applied to a wall surface
Column of Trajan
Column is the main thing that remains, military campaigns. Rome, Italy, which commemorates Roman emperor Trajan's victory in the Dacian Wars
Forum of Augustus
the second of the Imperial Fora and built to rival (and surpass) that of Julius, the forum of Augustus (forum Martis) and the Temple of Mars Ultor (the avenger) were vowed by Augustus on the eve of the battle of Philippi (42 BC), in which Brutus and Cassius died, to commemorate his avenging the death of Ceasar, his adoptive father. The site was purchased from the spoils of war, but not all the land could be acquired, which may account for its broad proportions and ittegular rear wall.
Greek sculptors who built sculptures at Sperlonga
Hagesandros, Athanadoros, Polydoros of Rhodes
what 5 forms of roman art are there?
Architecture, sculpture, painting, mosaics, metal work/glass/jewelry
Erotes playing with war spoils
frieze on Temple of Venus Genetrix, Forum of Caesar 54-29 BCE
Villa of the Mysteries Frescoes (II style)
the term mysteries refers to secret initiation rites of the classical world. The Greek word for rite means to grow up. Initiation rites, then, were originally ceremonies to help individuals grow up. The rites are not celebrations for having passed certain milestones, such as high school grad, but promote psychological advancement through stages of life. Often a drama is enaced in which the initiates performs a role. The drama may include a simulated death and rebirth: the dying of the old self and the birth of the new self. Occasionally the initiate was guided through the ritual by a priest or priestess and at the end of the ceremony the initiate was welcomed into the group. The rites we see in the Villa of Mysteries seem to be aimed at preparing piviledged, protected girls for the psychological transistion to life as married women.
What is Commodus holding and what is the symbolic meaning?
Apples of Hesperadis which signify a conquering of death
Augusti
Senior
Vomitorium
Colosseum
72-80 CE
porphyry
purple marble
Anchisus
Aneas's father
Balneum
private bath
Arch of Titus
Influences
Etrustcans, Archaic Greece
Venus Venetrix
"victorious venus"
Trajen's Forum
2c AD
Arch of Galerius, Thessalonica
300
St. Peter's Basilica, Rome
320
Republican Portraiture, Republic, Roman Empire
Panthen
125 - 28 CE
Flavian Amphitheater
Collosseum's original name
Caligula
Asia Minor?, 37-41 CE
Theatre of Pompey
1c BC
Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, Rome
359
manuscript
a document written by hand
tumulus
Mound where estruscan burial sites
Temple of Hadrian, Ephesus
130 AD
penates also known as:
household gods
forum
public square, business activites, everday life
The word Augustus means?
Supreme Ruler
Mausoleum of Augustus
Rome, 28-25 BCE
Julio-Cladian Family
Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero
St. Matthew from Coronation Gospel
Purple outline
Painting
Portrait and mural; survived through wall painting; Fresco-plaster walls, ceilings
birds (peacock), vegetation, vine harvest scenes; transition between pagan Roman and Christian imagery:
Mosaic decoration
Maxentius
Competed for position of emporer against Constantine; he was in charge for beginning then Constantine for finish of Basilica
Augustus
Established prosperity of Pax Romana, promoted trade, commissioned many public works; eternally young and powerful, used propaganda
Hadrian's portraits were like _____'s portraits in that they never aged
Augustus'
Pont du Gard
Nimes, France, 16 BCE
Antinous
Homosexual lover of Hadrian; 2c; Osirus
caldarium
The hot-bath section of a Roman bathing establishment
Pantheon
Dedicated to the gods, emperor who built it: Hardrian, Augustus' relative. Marble roman construction. Meaning "Every god") is a building in Rome, commissioned by Marcus Agrippa as a temple to all the gods of Ancient Rome, and rebuilt by Emperor Hadrian in about 126 AD
spandrel
the triangular area between a) the side of an arch and the right angle that encloses it, and b) two adjacent arches—i.e., the wall areas adjacent to arches
Narrative Sculpture
Specific historical events; Ars Paces (Altar of Peace); Arch of Titus-conquest of Jerusalem
Roman Coinage
Emperor's faces and ships and charriots: Gold, Silver and bronze
Types of paintings
portraits, murals, wall paintings-4 styles, and mosaics
groin vault/cross vault
intersection of 2 barrel vaults
atmospheric perspective
create illusion of distance by decreasing color intesity and blurring objects as they get farther away from the viewer.
toga picta
purple toga embroidered with gold thread worn by a victorious general during a triumphal parade and later adopted by emperors for state occasions.
Philosophers were inspired by ______, and were visited like _________.
Christ, therapists
satyr
half human half animal; devotees of Dionysus
Marcus Aurelius
Antoninus: Emperor of Rome; nephew and son-in-law and adoptive son of Antonius Pius
Greek artisans
Much of Roman art was created by
2nd style
1st century BC, Roman wall painting, fresco artists imitated architectural forms by useing perspective (3D), used flat plaster
continuous narrative
one unmarked visual field; figures are show multiple times but in different stages of a story.
Oligarchy
power rests with a small portion of the society
Ara Pacis (Altar of Augustan Peace)
Rome, 13-9 BCE
niche
an enclosure that is set back or indented
fourth style
in Roman mural painting, it marks a return to architectural illusionism, but the architectural vistas of this style are irrational fantasies
Portrait of husband and wife, Pompeii
mid 1st c AD
Temple of Mars Ultor
the temple is octastyle peripteral sine positco, that is, eight Corinthian columns on three sides with a plain back wall, and raised on a high podium.
One of the _______ in Roman politics made himself ruler at a(n) _____ age.
Senates, old.
Gracchi Brothers
Civic humanism at the max; both died for state
Etruscan death mask tradition
The use of portraiture in ancient Roman sculpture is thought to have been influenced by
Augustus of Prima Porta
the statue of Augustus from Livia's villa at Prima Porta is a marble copy of a bronze statue that celebrates the return in 20 BCE of the military standards captured by the Parthians in 53 after the defeat of Crassus at Carrhae. It was probably set up in 15CE, the year after Augustus' death and shows him as a young man (perhaps on the model of Alexander the Great, who died when he was 33), in military uniform. He is barefoot (a sign of divine status) and Cupid (riding on a dolphin besides his right foot) reminds the viewer of Venus, the divine ancestress of the family of Augustus, the gens Iulia. His stance is that of the Doryphoros (spear-bearer) by the fifth century Greek sculptor, Polyclitus.
What does the arch of titus commemorate?
The defeat of Jerusalem
Temple Portunes
The god of the river port, is one of the two temples on the Forum Boarium ("cattle market") that have survived to the present day
The Gemma Augustea
made in about 10-20 CE, is a cameo of onyx with a white and a bluish-brown layer. The cameo refers to military victories won by Tiberius over the peoples of the Alpone and Danube areas (the Roman provinces of Rhaetia and Pannonia) but the triumphs belong to Augustus, on whom Roma gazes with admiration.
Cupid with his torch faced down means...
whoever the lady in the sarcphagus was, she mirrored of rivaled Venus' beauty
Pont
bridge
Cubiculum
Bedroom
funerary niches
luculi
collonnetes
small column
Alimentaria
Food welfare
Extended arch
barrel vault
Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus
250
Plebeian
Commoner in Rome
Theater of Dionysus
Athens
Hadrian's Villa
2c AD
Arch of Constantine, Rome
315
Forum of Trajan
100 AD
Augustus of primaporta
15 CE
Twelve tables
Laws of republic
Missorium of Theodosius, from Constantinople
388
Pont Du Gard (early republic)
Santa Costanza, Rome
mid 4th century
Flavian Amphitheatre (Collosseum), Rome
72 AD
opening in the roof (compluvium):
atrium
domes
hemispherical domes, resting on concrete drumes, cannot have windows.
Vespasian favored the _______ style.
veristic
Tomb of Eurysaces
Rome, 30 BCE
2nd Triumverate
Octavian, Marc Antony, Lepidus
veristic
sculpture that looks like the sculpture matter (means in truth)
Influence
Greeks (Rome copied them); Greeks idealistic, Romans realistic
Current St. Peter's Cathedral was built on the ruins of Old St. Peter's, the site where first apostle Peter was ______
buried
Syncretism
Art brings different elements together to produce something entirely new
Around Titus' time, Jesus Christ...
Was dead
Faustalus
Shepard who raises R and R
Pax Romana
200 years of peace in Rome
collosseum
vespasion - titus - domition, flavian amphitheater, gladiators and lions
Portrait Sculpture
Portrait bust; bronze or marble; commemorate, promote political citizen
Lady playing the Kithara
Naturalistic Figure: Wall Painting
Portrait sculptures
realistic, official status, made of bronze or marble ex. Augustus of prima porta, 15AD it is free standing and balanced
Triumphal arches
commemorates a victory ("arch of titus")
Ancestor portraits
portraits made by Romans for commemorating their ancestors; only for patricians
concrete
mixture of lime mortar, volcanic sand, water and small stones, placed in wooden frames to dry. strong and cheap.
Physiognomy
the facial features held to show qualities of mind or character by their configuration or expressin.
Roman art, in Pius time, started adopting ___ class art
lower
cameo
glass cutting technique in which there are layers of different colored glass; artist would cut away into layer to depict scene
decumarios
The east-west street in a Roman town, intersecting the cardo at right angles.
2nd Wall Painting Style
Architectural forms; flat plaster; projection and recession w/ shading and perspective
Nero
Had private land which was bought off him for collosseum; he was luxurious; statue of him within
still life
painting of everday objects with focus on capturing apperaance of light
Plebians did/did not follow same art styles as patricians.
did not
argiletum
road that lead into forum; wall of basilica aemilia was against it (reason for strange shape)
Arena
large open area in the center, columns go all the way around so it’s peripteral
apotheosis
Elevated to the rank of gods or the ascent to heaven
Gemma Augusta
A bunch of people, carving: Large onyx Cameo
Ara Pacisius
the altar of Peace erected by Augustus in the Campus Martius in 9 B.C. since it was decreed by the senate in 13 BC for his victory in Gaul and Spain
Rome'a aquaducts
were a symbol of power, and were transfered by means of gravity to large pops
The Roman Empire
Arch of Titus, Aqueduct Pont du Gard, Pantheon, Basilica of Constantine
House of Publius Fannius Synistor Boscoreale
Wall paintings and floor mosaics
Suetonius or Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus
(circa 69-140) Roman biographer and historian full of culture, whose writings are a primary source of information about the lives of the first 12 ceasars and of Roman men of letters. His work was so popular that his biographical approach set the pattern of historical writing for a long time.
Rape of Lucretia
Raped by son of Tarquinius; her hsband founds republic
Tomb of the Lioness
Young man and woman dancing to a double flute: Frieze Painting (tomb)
The porta Maggiore was under the rule of ______ and was...
Claudius; where 2 waterlines intersected
What is the reason for the shift of cremation to burial?
Christianity...they didn't believe in cremation
/ 188
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