Romantic Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Coleridge born
The Schoolhouse
Romantic Period
1820- 1900
Lord Byron dies--Missolonghi
Post Impressionistic
The Scream
Romatic Opera
Verdi, Puccini, Wagner
What was Chopin's instrument?
ridiculously or insultingly small:
Russian 5
Balakisev, Cui, Borodin, Rimsky-Korsakov, Mussorgsky
composer uses colorful musical material from foreign lands
Symphonic Poem/Tone Poem
Programmatic, single movement orchestral works.
Little Bell
Liszt, etude, Transcendental Etudes- Paginini, Sectional w/ Variation
elaborately decorated vocal melody. A coloratura soprano is high, light, agile, and virtuosic.
Accentuation of national styles in music, Importance of native folk melodies as expression of the national soul, Nationalism as a reaction to political supression
different music for each stanza
through-composed form
characterized by or given to pretentious or conspicuous show in an attempt to impress others:
having or showing acute mental discernment and keen practical sense; shrewd:
Capelike collar that covered the bosom and was oversized
After overdosing on opium, he has powerful dreams which led him to compose about killing the woman he loved and she turns into a witch.
Type of German opera that employed spoken dialogue
brass wind instrument similar to the flugelhorn
home of the Festspielhaus designed by Wagner and site of the annual festival devoted to his operas.
A movement in Italian literature, and subsequently in opera, which developed in the 1870s, sharing certain characteristics with naturalism – an impersonal narrative style, an interest in the lower social strata, a true-to-life approach in dealing with contemporary reality, markedly regional character to their works, total absence of bel canto coloratura. Verga’s Cavalleria rusticana
to wrest or wring (money, information, etc.) from a person by violence, intimidation, or abuse of authority; obtain by force, torture, threat, or the like.
Gigot Sleeves
Full sleeves at the shoulder tapering to fit the wrist. Often called leg-o-mutton sleeves
Die Walkure
Wagner, Daughter slept and circled in fire, Light Motif, Librettist also; 16 hrs., Act 3, The Ring of the Nibelung, Die Walkure, Music Drama, Second in Cycle of 4
the first movement of a double aria. Often in a somber or thoughtful character.
"mad" scene
An operatic scene in which a character, usually the soprano heroine, displays traits of mental collapse, supplies brilliant vehicle for the display of a singer’s vocal talents. elaborate coloratura writing and participation of a wind instrument, Donizetti - Lucia di Lamermoor
Who damaged his fingers while trying to stretch them with a mechanical device?
Robert Schumann
He made use of American folk idioms in his New World Symphony
Ode to Joy
an ode written by poet Schiller celebrating the brotherhood of all mankind.
thematic transformation
the process of modifying a theme so that in a new context it is different but yet manifestly made of the same elements, giving greater cohesion both between and within separate movements of multi-movement works. It was also widely used in opera. Liszt
title tells you what the song is about
program music
Arioso (Recitative Arioso)
Tuneful recitative. It may be a short passage in the middle of a recitative.
a collection of art songs, meant to be performed as a set
song cycle
Strauss, Richard
Berlioz, Hector
1803-1869.  Medical student-turned-composer and leading spokesman for musical Romanticism in France.
He campaigned on behalf of Beethove, Weber, and Gluck.
He also wrote articles and reviews for periodicals of Paris.
After three failed attempts, he finally won the Prix de Rome in 1830, with his cantata La Derniere Nuit de Saranapale.
He most famous work was also his first major one, the programmatical Symphonie fantastique, with its recurring idee fixe, and distinct autobiographical associations (the hero and beloved of the piece represent him and the actress Harriet Smithson, whom he had not even met when the piece was first performed). 
Berlioz sought to connect his music with its program by imitating musical sounds that already have fixed associations, and by expressing emotions musically.
Berlioz was noted for his novel writing for orchestra.  He published his comprehensive Grand Traite d'instrumentation et d'orchestration in 1844. 
His Harold in Italy, symphony for viola and orchestra, was commissioned by Paganini, who never played it because it wasn't flashy enough.
Other works include opera (such as Les Troyens, 1856-8); other program symphonies; sacred music; other choral and vocal music; and songs
Wolf, Hugo
1860-1903.  Austrian composer.
He intensified the expressive vocabulary of the lied to a pitch never since surpassed.
By his musical sensitivity to poetic values and meanings, which he enbodied in each separate aspect of song - vocal declamation, keyboard technique, harmonic nuance, etc., he was able, like Schubert before him, to condense the dramatic intensity of opera into the song form.
The genres of his compositions are songs published and many unpublished operas, choral works, with and w/o accomp, orchestral, chamber, and piano music.
He also had some critical writings.
"Winter's Journey".
A song cycle by Schubert that sets 24 poems by Muller that express the nostalgia of a lover revisiting in winter the haunts of a failed summer romance.
Originally written in the tenor range, but is often transposed for other voice type
concept introduced by Beethovens An die ferne Geliebte. German for song cycle.
(total or collective artwork). Wagner believed in the absolute oneness of drama and music - that the two are organically connected expressions aof a single dramatic idea. Poetry, scenic design, staging, action, and music work together to form what he called by this term. The orchestra conveys the inner aspect of the drama, while the sung words articulate the outer aspect - the events and situations that further the action.
Piano piece (character piece) mostly composed by Chopin which evoke the ballrooms of Vienna, but his mazurkas and polonaises are suffused with the spirit of Poland.
Mikhail Glinka
Russia's first nationalist composer. Rcognized by both Russians and internationally as an equal of his Western contemporaries. Established his reputationin 1836 witht he patriotic, pro-government historical drama A life for the Tsar, the first Russian opera. Valued in the West for the Russian flavor of his operas, which satisfied Western tastes for both the national and the exotic.
Hanslick, Eduard
1825-1904.  Progressive music critic in Vienna.
Schumann invited him to Dresden, where he heard Tannhauser, of which his positive review began his career as a critic.
He later championed Brahms, and developed an antipathy towards Wagner, Liszt and Berlioz.  In retaliation, Wagner identified Hanslick witih Beckmesser in die Meistersinger.
He wrote Vom Musikalish-Schonen (On the Beautiful in Music), which described his anti-Wagnerian aesthetic.
Schumann frequently wrote of an imaginary League of David that was to oppose the Philistines of his day.
The first edition of his Davidsbundlertanze, each piece is signed E or F (or both) for Eusebius and Florestan, who represented, respectively, Schumann's pensive, introverted and impulsive, extroverted sides.
Field, John
1782-1837.  Irish virtuuoso pianist, composer, and student of Clementi.
He spent most of his career in Russia.
His short piano pieces, representing the bulk of his oeuvre, were to influence Liszt, Chopin, and others.
He fifteen nocturnes for piano were apparently the first such pieces.  They generally have lyrical, lavishly ornamented melodies for the right hand supported by wide-ranging arpeggiated accompaniment, and slow harmonic movement.  Tonic pedal points allow for lavish pedal use, which Schumann later singled out as Field's prime contribution to Romantic musical style.
He also wrote piano concertos and a few pianos sonatas
Parry, Hubert
1848-1918.  English composer and teacher.
His Piano Concerto in f# minor brought him publick attention in 1878.
He wrote a series of oratorios, Jidith, Job, and King Saul.
The 1880s and 90s were his most productive years.  He wrote four symphonies, Symphonic Variations, incidental music, an opera (Guinevere), and many choral works.
He taught at the Royal College of Music from its opening and was its second director.
He published Studies of the Great Composers, the widely  read The Art of Music (2nd edition title: The Evolution of Art Music), Style in Musical Art, and more
Mahler, Gustav
1860-1911.  Austrian composer and conductor.
His 10 symphonies are among the finest monuments to the declining years of the Austro-German domination of European music and adumbrate developemtns which were to revolutionize the Viennese tradition in the works of Berg, Schoenberg, and Webern.
In four of the symphonies he used the human voice and achieved a synthesis of song and symphonic form which, though no unique, has remained inimitable.
He was a great conductor, esp of opera, his decade as director of the Vienna Court Opera being regarded as the zenith of that house's achievement
1860-1908.  An American composer who lived and studied for ten years in Germany.
Among his best known works are the Second Piano Concerto, in D minor, and the last piano sonata (the Keltic, dedicated to Grieg).
His music tends to include titles or poems which suggest musical moods and pictures, somewhat reminiscent of Grieg.
MacDowell's general style is similar to that of Grieg.
He is also famous for his evocative piano miniatures.  Such miniatures include New England Idyls, and Woodland Sketches, which related to American landscapes, thus answering the nationalist challenge of the late Romantic era
His compositions include songs, choruses, symphonic poems, orchestral suites, piano pieces and studies, four piano sonatas, and two piano concertos
Wesley, Samuel Sebastian
1810-1876.  Composer and organist.
He was the greatest composer in the English cathedral tradition between Purcell and Stanford.
In the anthems, Wesley was free to choose his texts: he allowed himself much greater license than had been usual, putting together verses or even portions of verses from different parts of the Bible, mixing the Bile and prayer book translations of the psalms, sometimes incorporating parts of the liturgy or even a metrical psalms.  This made possible of the defined shape, imagery, dramatic contrasts and climaxes, and led to avoid all "dead" or perfunctory passages.
His strong evangelical feeling for the biblical words was closely bound up with his musical sensibility.  Because of this, his anthems convey a glowing sincerity that is seldom evident in th emusic of his immediate predecessor of of his successors.
Wesley is not easy to place in the general context of European music.  His cathedral music is very specifically English, and bears no reference to the situation on the Continent, where it has never been well known.
His innovations, bold and indeed courageous in the Anglican context, are not very advanced compared with those of BErlioz, Schumann and Chopin.  Yet he made string individuality.
Works include Ascribe unto the Lord, Blassed be the God our Father, and Let us lift up our heart
Pleyel, Ignaz
1757-1831.  Austrian composer, music published ("Maison Pleyel"), and piano maker.
Student of Vanhal in Vienna and Haydn in Eisenstadt.
His brilliant and virtuosic sinfonia concertante in F was first performed in London for the Professional Concert, which resulted in a rivalry between him and Haydn.
Today he is mostly remembered for his violin duets.
He also wrote ca. 45 symphonies, chamber music for strings, and a number of concertos
Clementi, Muzio
1752-1832. Italian composer, music publisher, and pianist.
After engaging in a virtuoso competition with him for the amusement of Emperor Joseph II, Mozart was impressed with his piano technique, but found his playing mechanical.
He wrote mostly for the piano (100+ sonatas, some accompanied, and 4-hand piano music), but also two completed symphonies and a piano concerto.
He settled permanently in London, where his publishing firm thrived (in 1807, he acquired rights to issue five of Beethoven's last works). 
John Field was his pupil
Glinka, Mikhail
1804-1857.  The composer acknowleged as the founder of Russian opera, who, after a modicum of formal training in Italy and Germany , produced the opera, A Life for the Czar (1836).
This work blended the current styles in French and Italian serious opera with a nationalistic Russian flavor (due to the inclusiong of folk and folk-like melodies).
Repetitions of tiny melody modules, irregular meters (5/4), and pentatonic construction give these national moments their Russian flavor.
A special musical tehcnique was developed in Glinka's later operas in which constant repetitions of a simple line against a perpetually changing accompanimental background is used to good effect.
Glinka's meeting with Balakirev in 1855 seems the starting point for Balakirev's father hood of the "mighty five".  In fact, Balakirev's early styles seems to owe a great debt to Glinka's operatic compositions
Stanford, Charles
1852-1924.  British composer, teacher and conductor.
His name is linked with those of Parry, Parratt and Elgar in referring to the laste 19th c. renaissance in English music.
His heritage of Irish folklore, folk music and mysticism was latent beneath the training and experience he gained abroad; it saved him from that insularity of outlook which had pervaded English music since Handel's time.  This outward-looking chracteristic was fostered by his friendship and meetings with such leading figures as Brahms, Joachim, von Bulow and Saint-Saens, and linked with his encyclopedic knowledge of the whole field of musical literature, past and present.
His aceivements and influence were prodigious: 1. he swept away the empty convertions and complacencies which had debased English churc music since Purcell; 2. he set a new standard in choral music with his oratorios and cantatas, which provided an incentive for amateurs and professionals alike at every many Britich festival: The Revenge, the Stabat mater, Songs of the Sea and Songs of the Feet; 3, in his partsongs, and still more in his solo songs with piano, he reached near perfection both in melodic invention and in capturing the mood of the poem: Plunket Greene; 4, He is the paramount teacher of composition. 
His tuition benefited almost every Britich composer from Charles Wood to Lambert. 
The list includes Vaughan Williams, Holst, Bridge, Howells, Benjamin Britten and Moeran.
He had a greated faith in the value of opera than had most of his country man at the time" Shamus O'Brien
a poem in which shepherds converse.
In classical antiquity, eclogues were written by Theocritus and Virgil, and in the 16th c they were sometimes written as plays and staged, thus forming an early part of the pastoral tradition on which early opera drew.
The term has been used as a title for piano pieces with a pastoral character by more recent composers usch as Tomasek, Franck, Liszt, and Dvorak.
Shaw, Geroge Bernard
1856-1950.  Irish dramatist, novelist, critic.
As a music critic, he was a ardent Wagnerite, calling the Ring cycle a work of genius, and an allegory on social evolution.
His collected writings on music stand alone in their mastery of Enlgish and compulsive readability.
He had ambivalent feelings about Brahms, disparaging the Requiem but praising his chamber music.
Of his judgements have stood the test of passing years.
Compared to the dour pretentiousness of his fellow critics, Shaw enjoyed popularity for his fair and understandable, light-hearted and affected-less tone of voice
Tausig, Carl
1841-1871.  Polish pianist and composer.
He was brough to Liszt at Weimar by his father, a professional pianist and a pupil of Thalberg, when he was 14.
Tausig quickly became Liszt's favorite .
Tausig was the most gifted and most famous of the first generation of Liszt pupils.
His manner of playing the piano its best was grand, impulsive and impassioned, yet no longer with a trace of eccentricity.  His tone was superb, his touch exquisite, and his technical dexterity and endurance astonished even experts.
Liszt said Tausig had "fingers of steel".
His repertory was varied and extensive; he played by memory; He composed a few piano pieces such as Etudes de concert and Tarantelle.
He arranged, transcribed and fingered many works including Wagner's Die Meistersinger.
His Tagliche Studien, transposing chrmatic finger exercises, posthumouly revised and edited by Heinrich Ehrlich, remain invaluable.
Albeniz, Issac
1860-1909.  Spanish composer and pianist active in the late 19th c.
He studied in the Americas, Great Britain, and Leipzig, as well as Madrid.  He studied piano with Liszt and composition with Dukas and d'Indy.
In 1891, he started a lucrative operatic collaboration with a London banker in 1891; they produced four operas together.
His best-known works are for the piano, and they often evoke Spanish scenes through the use of melodic and rhythmic gestures derived from Spanis folklore.
Other works include several orchestral works, a piano concerto, and songs with texts in Spanish, Italian, French, and English
Antonin Dvorak
Succeeded Smetna whoes twelve operas included plots based on Czech village life, Czech fary tales, and Slavic history. Most impartant are Dmitry and Rusalka (1900).
Nineteenth century kinf of light opera with spoken dialogue originating in opera bouffe popular in Austria, England and the United States.
Romantic Orchestra
Orchestras grew from about fourty players at the beginning of the century to as many as ninety at its close. Flutes, oboes, clarinets and bassons acquired elaborate systems of keys by midcentury, making the insruments easier to finger quickly and play in tune in most keys. Wind instruements with extended ranges, notably piccolo. English horn, bass clarinet and contrabassoon, were occasionally used in orchestras. Valves were added to horns and trumpets, allowing players to reach all chromatic notes throughout the instruments ranges and the tuba joined the brass section in the 1830's. The greater variety of instruments provided a much wider range of colors and color combinations. Composers could now treat the winds and brass more as equals to the strings, often contrasting one secton with another. The new fully chromatic pedal harp was sometimes added, often played by a woman because of the harp's long association with domestic music-making. Otherwise the orchestra players were usually all men and with rare exceptions-including a handful of all-women orchestras-that situation did not begin to change until the mid twentieth century, after women had won some equal rights and became more integrated enerally in the work forces of Europe and the Americas.
Longer and more demanding than Chopins other one-movement piano works. He was one of the first to use this name for an instrumental piece. These capture the charm and fir of Polish narrative ballads, combining these qualities with constantly fresh turns in harmony and form.
song cycle
Lieder composers often grouped their songs into collections with a unifying characteristic, such as texs by a single poet or a focus on a common theme. Beethoven's An die ferne Gelibte introduced the concept of Liederkreis (song cycle) in which all the songs were to be performed in order, as movements of a multimovement vocal work. Using this format, composers could tell astory through a succession of songs, combining the narrative emphasis of ballads with the focused expressivity of the lyric poem.
Romantic Lied
German song for voice and piano.
Built on strong 18th century tradition. Popularity grew after 1800. The number of german song collections published increased from about one a month in the late 1700's to over one hundred a month in 1826. Changes in poetry anticipated changes in the Lied. Poets drew elements from both classical and folk traditions. A frequent theme was an individual confronting the greter forces of nature or society, vulneralbe yet ennobled by the encounter; another was nature as a metaphor for human experience. The main poetic genre continued to be the lyric poem, a short, strophic poem on one subject expressing a personal feeling or viewpoint. The ultimate models were the lyric poets of acient Greece and Rome, such as Sappho and Horace.
Piano character piece. The mazurka was a Polish dance that by Chopin's time had become an urban ballroom dance popular among high society in Paris as well as in Poland.
A genre of musical theater that combined spoken dialogue with background music. These had been popular in France and in German speaking areas since the 1770's and scenes in melodrama had appeared in operas by Mozart, Beethoven and others. Was used by Weber in Der Freischutz (the rifleman).
opera bouffe
Satirical operatic genre founded by Jacques Offenbach. A ligher genre than the seirous theaters controlled by the French governement. This new genre emerged in 1850's during the Second Empire and emphasized the smart, witty and stirical elements of comic opera. In Offenbach's Orhee aus enfers (Orpheus in the Underworld) he even introduces can-can dance for the gods. His work influenced development s in comic opera in England , Viennam, the United States and elsewhere.
Heiligenstadt Testament
Oct 6-10, 1802.  Beethoven's letter of 1802 that was intended to be read by his brother after his death. 
It describe in moving terms his difficulty in coming to terms with his increasing deafness.
Ironically, he had just finished writing his joyful 2nd symphony
Franck, Cesar
1822-90.  Belgian born organist and composer who gathered a faithful group of students (including Duparc and Chausson) who campaigned for the cause of avant-garde music, creating a schism between them and the "reactionaires" led by Saint-Saens.
After hearing the Tristan Prelude in 1874. he converted to a strongly chromatic idiom, evident in his organ compositions and symphonic poem, Les Eolides.
Despite this chromaticism, the tonal roots of his music remain clear.
His most famous pieces are his later ones: the oratorio Les Beatitudes (1879), the Piano Quintet (1879), the Symphonic Variations for piano and orchestra (1885), the Symphony in d minor (1888), the Violin Sonata in A (1886) and his single String Quartet (1889)
Sibelius, Jean
1865-1957.  A Finnish composer who was his country's leading nationalist composer.
Of his works, the best known are the long ones, principally his seven symphonies and his symphonic poems.
He also wrote a great many piano works and songs.
Sibelius' music is largely traditional in the treatment of melody and harmony.  Although he used folk elements, he never actually quoted folk songs.
Among his most popular works are his Symphony no.2, the symphonic poem The Swan of Thonella, En Saga, Karelia, and Finlandia, the string quartet entitled Voces intimae, and a Violin concerto.
All these were written before 1930; for the last thirty years of his life Sibelius produced little music of note.
Thalberg, Sigismond
1812-1871.  German or Autrian pianist and composer.
From the age of 14, he appeared with great success as a salon pianist, and at 16 his first compositions were published.
In 1836, he won considerable success and renown in Paris.
Liszt returned from Switzerland to challenge Thalberg's position as the leading virtuoso in Paris, and wrote an articule in the Revue et gazette musicale harly criticizing Thalberg's compositions.  The arose an animated controversy between Liszt and Fetis, who considered Thalberg the greated living pianist.
Berlioz joined on the side of Liszt.  Later princess de Belgiojoso ended this tension by making them cooperate-composing each variation of a theme in turn.
Thalberg toured as far as Brazil and Havana, and lived for several years in USA.
He was the greatest virtuoso pianist in mid 19th c with Liszt.  Schumann praised Thalberg's variations on Norma, but his compositions are of questinable value
Tone Poem
Similar to symphonic poem, (an orchestral piece accompanied by a program i.e. a text, generally poetic or narratic in nature, which is meant to be read by the audience before listening to the work)
The term tone poem was preferred by richard Strauss; with Richard Strauss, the genre reached its culmination, in such works as Till Eulenspiegels lustige sTeiche (1894-95) and Also sprach Zarathustra (1895-96).
Skill in motive manipulation, orchestral invention and tonal coherence enabled Strauss to create the longest examples of the genre still in the standard repertory and the ones that are perhaps the most detailed in their programmaticism.
The "realism" sometimes protrudes in his later tone poems, e.g. Eine Allpensifonie )1915, after which he abadoned the genre until near the end of his life (Metamorphosen, 1944-45)
1772-1816.  A prince and patron of Beethoven, to whom the "eroica" symphony was dedicated.
When Napoleon's troops captured Vienna in 1805, Lobkowitz's palace was one of those occupied
Liszt, Franz
1811-1886.  A Hungarian composer and pianist who was one of the great figures of the 19h c romantic music.
Famous in his day as a masterful piano virtuoso and for the brilliant compositions he wrote for this instrument.
Liszt today is also remembered as the inventor of the program symphony and symphonic poem.
A love affair with a married countess resulted them live together, and later their daughter Cosima married R. Wagner.
By settling down in Weimar, in 1848, he made the city a great cultural center (his Lohengrin composition and Berlioz's first performances in Germany).
His early piano music was technically dazzling, whith its scale passages in octaves and tenths, chains of trills and arpeggios, and chromatic chord changes, but later he became more interest in the piano's expressive qualities.
Breaking with the forms of the classical period, such as the sonata, he wrote pieces in free form, with such titles as "Rhapsody", "Fantasia", "Nocturne", "Elegie" and "Ballade".
He foreshadowed the innovations of Wagner, and some think, perhaps even the atonal melodies and polytonal harmonies of the 20th c, in his use of cyclic structural device and his experiments with chromatic harmonies and unconventional melodies.
He wrote dozens of piano transcriptions;
In Weimar, he made a new orchestral form, symphonic poem: Les Preludes, Prometheus, Mazeppa, and Die Hunnenschlacht (The battle of the Huns; Program symphonies: Faust Symphony and Dante Symphony.
After eleven years at Weimar, he went to Rome, where he took religious orders and composed a number of large choral work including the oratorios The legend of St. Elizabeth, Christus and The Hungarian Coronation Mass
a musical theme or motive associated with a particular person, thing or idea in the drama.
The associaiton is established by sounding the leitmotif (usually in the orchestra) at the first appearance or mention of the object of reference, and by its repetition at each subsequent appearance or mention.
Use of leitmotif is particularly associated with the operas of Wagner, but can also be found in those of Verdi and Weber.
Ex. Tristan, Act I, Scene 5, the motive of Tristan's honor is introduced and identified by the sung text "Tristan's honor, highest truth").  As Isolde drinks the love potion, a motive of a rising major sixth followed by a tritone is introduced, and becomes the motive of the love potion
Meyerbeer, Giacomo
1791-1864.  German composer of French Grand Opera.
Showed early promise as a pianist, playing Mozart's D minor concerto in public at the age of 7.
On the advice of Slieri, Meyerbeer went to Venice to study composition for the voice.  Composed several operas in the Rossinian manner, all dissatisfied with the Italian style and moved to Paris.
He met Scribe (famous librettist) and wrote his first grand opera, Robert le diable, spectacular in its scenic effects and brilliant orchestration.  This mad him the most famous and prosperous opera composer of the time, a fact confirmed by the even great success of Les Huguenots (1836).
Again this was less because of its musical qualities than its dramatic and scenic flair, which can only be compared with that of the Hollywood film epics of the 1930's.
He last opera, L'africaine, was never put on in his lifetimes but was performed a year after his death.
His slow output otward the end of his life was caused by a perfectionism whicch made him constantly revise and to insist on obtaining exactly that right case.
a drama by Goethe, which inspired Liszt to write his Faust Symphony (1857), Berlioz to write his La Damnation de Faust (for orchestra and chorus, 1846), and Gounod to write his opera in five acts, Faust (1859), with a libretto by Jules Barbier and Michale Carre.
Faust is the hero of several medieval legends, and old philosopher who sells his soul to the devil in exchange for knowledge and power
Chabrier, Emmanuel
1841-94.  French composer of operas who adopted the Wagnerian manner, despite the dominance of the opera lyrique in France.
His Gwendoline (1886) has a prominent love duet often thought to be reminiscent of Tristan, and a general conflagration at the end recalls the Ring.
Though in Gwendoline there is much Wagnerian chromaticism, Chabrier's style was more typically reminiscent of Debussy, with a coloristic use of augmented chords and the juxtaposition of root-position chords in non-functional successions
Borodin, Alexander
1833-97.  Russian chemist and medical researcher, and member of "The Five".
He is known now for only a few works, ncluding two string quartets, In the Steppes of Central Asia, three symphonies (the third completed by Glazunov), and the opera Prince Igor (which includes the famous Polevetsian Dances).
He was championed by Liszt, to whom In the Steppes is dedicated.
Due to the patronage of a belgian countess, his works were performed in Europe.
In general, his music shows the influence of Mendelssohn and also of the cosmopolitan parlor style familiar all over Europe; at the same time, he incorporated melodic inflections of Russian folksongs.
Bulow, Hans von
1830-1894.  Pianist and conductor whose wife Cosima (daughter of Liszt) left him for Wagner in 1870.
He studied piano with Wieck and Liszt.
He was the supporter of the New German School of Wagner and Berlioz, conducting the premieres of Tristan (1865) and Die Meistersinger (1868).
He also composed symphonic works and piano pieces , and edited much piano music by other composers.
Faure, Gabriel
1845-1924.  The most individual voice among the fin de siecle French composers.
Though at students and lifelong associate of Saint-Saens, his music reflects little to do with either the emergent French classicism or the chromatic idom of Wagner and Franck.
Some piano works betray a debt to Chopin but his real proving ground was the French song and melodie.
His songs chronicles to text-music relationships and an increasingly individual harmonic style which strains the limits of tonal syntax.
Root-motion by thirds, seventh and ninth chords in new contexts, and whole tone sounds all appear in the melodies of Faure
Dussek, Jan Ladislav
1760-1812.  Pianist and composer.  Son of Jan (Josef) Dussek (organist and composer).
Lived in many places and traveled much, such as Prague, Amsterdam, Hamberg, St. Petersburg, Paris, and England.
Dussek was one of the early touring concert pianist.
He wrote most of his works for piano and included piano.
His early works are in Classical style but his last twenty years show Romantic characteristics in the expression markings, the use of full chords, the choice of keys, and the frequent modulations to remote keys and in the use of altered chord and non-harmonic notes.
His harmony includes a wider range of chords and is considered more chromatic than that of Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven.
His piano music is in general fuller in texture than that of CPE Bach, Mozart or Haydn.  He showed a predilection for modulating to the key a semitone above or below.
His piano style is often brilliant and virtuoso in character which anticipate piano writing later in the 19th century.
His works were remarkably popular in his lifetime.  Most were reprinted at least once, some up to ten times (some had three different edition by Breitkopf and Hartel alone).
After his death, though, he quickly fell into disregard.
Between 1860-1881 a revival of interest in Dussek brought about new editions of the piano sonatas by B&H and Litolff, as well as many performances of them, particularly in London
Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel
Sister of Felix Mendelssohn. Composer of chamber works and only one piano Trio was published. This piece gained notoriaty and probably and probaby influenced Robert Schumann to write his own trio.
St. Paul
Oratorio by Mendelssohn. One of the most successful of his oratorios. It his other, Elijah became standards in choral repertoire. Both were composered for choral festivals and recieved great acclaim in Europe and North America.
thematic transformation
Technique devised by Liszt. method of providing unity, variety, and narrative-like logic to a composition by transforming the thematic material to reflect the diverse moods needed to partray a programmatic subject.
Intalian term for true. Term used to describe an operatic parallel to realism in literature. Instead of treating historical figures or faraway places, this presents everyday people, especially the lower clases, in familiar situations, often depicting events that are brutal or sordid. Though-short lived, these had parallels or repercussions in France and Germany, and the veristic impulse lives on in television and movie dramas.
Song without words
Championed by Mendelssohn. His best know works Lieder ohne Worte was forty-eight short character pieces grouped in eight books. In the first song, the similarity to the lied is immediately apparent. It could be written on three staves, the bass for the pianist's left hand, the arpeggiation for the ight and the melody for a singer. Having to cover all three lines with two hands prduces interesting pianistic problems how to bring out the melody and bass in a smooth legato while using mainly the weeker fourth and fifth fingers, and how to share the sixteenth note figuration evenly betweent he two hands.
Vincenzo Bellini
Was a younger contemporary of Rossini. Preferred dramas of passion , with fast, gripping action. Favorite librettist, Felice Romani. Wrote 10 operas but the most important are La Sonnambula (the sleepwalker), Norma and I Puritani (the Puritan).
In the late 18th century, German pets cutivated a new form in imitation of the folk ballads of England and Scotland. These might alternate narrative and dialogue and usually delt with romaantic adventures and supernatural incidents. Their greater length and wider palette of moods and events inspired composers to use more varied themes and textures. Expanded the Lied both in form and in emotional content. The piano rose from accompaniment to equal partner with the voice in illustration and intensifying the meaning of the poetry.
Most popular form of msical theater in the United States from 1830's - 1870's. White performers blackened their faces with burnt cork and impersonated African Amoericans in jokes, skits songs, and ances. Christy Minstrels was the most successful troupe. White performers playing lack characters had license to behave outside accepted norms and to comment candidly on social, political and econimic conditions. The minstel songs were not direct imitations of African-American music but did borrow elements characteristic of African and african-American traditions, from the banjo to cfall and response, in which a lead singer alternates with a chorus or with inchich white musicians have borrowed from the music of African Americans, one of the strongest and most distinctive strands of American music.
Gaetano Donizetti
One of the most prolific Italian composers during the second quarter of the century. Composed oratorios, cantatas, chaber and church music, about one hundered songs, serveral symphonies and some seventy operas. His most famous of his serious operas were Anna Bolena and Lucia di Lammermoor. The opera comique La fille du regiment ( the Doughter of the Regiment and the buffo operas L' elisir d amoure and Don Pasquale.
Scriabin, Alexander
1872-1915.  A Russian composer who is remembered for piano music and orchestral works in which his novel harmonies foreshadowed the revolutionary atonality of Schoenberg.
Althoug Scriabin's works created a sensation when they were first played, for a time they were seldom performed.
Scriabin was a virtuoso pianist, and his earlier works, particularly short piano pieces (mazurkas, impromptus, etudes) are in the the tradition of Chopin. 
Graudally he became more experimental esp in longer works, among them his three symphonies, piano concerto, and two long orchestral compositions: Poem of Ecstasy and Promethues (The Poem of Fire).  In the last, he based the harmony on a single chord, CF#BbEAD, which is characteristic of his later works in that it proceeded by fourths instead of the conventional thirds.
This chord is sometimes called the mystic chord.  In his emphasis on diss and his lack of reference to a singel tonal center, Scriabin was proceeding 20th c composers after Schoenberg
Tomasek, Vaclav Jan Krtitel
1774-1850.  Bohemian composer and teacher.
He was the major figure connecting the Czech Classical tradition of emigre composers and the 19th c. nationalist school.
In his lifetime he was the focal point of Prague musical life, and his influence was spread by his many pupils as well as his widely published compositions.
He is a figure of the Classical-Romantic transition.  His starting point was Mozart; was a father of the short character-piece that became an integral part of the Romantic keyboard tradition.  The sudden reappearance doubling in 3rd and 6th are often found in Schubert as well;
Some stylization of folk melodie exist. 
70 percent of his songs were written to German texts, including Goethe's Erlkonig. 
Schumann, Robert
1810-1856.  A German composer who is remembered chiefly for his songs and piano music, in which he proved to be one of the great master of Romanticism.
His music combines songlike melody with complex rhythms and, from time to time, strongly dramaticelements.
Schumann himself felt his personality to be divided between a gentle, poetic nature and a strong, impulsive one.
For much of his life he lived in fear of a mental breakdown, and he finally died in a mental institution, at the age of 46
Tristan chord
The first chord sounded in Wagner's Tristan und Isolde and prominent elsewhere in the work: F-B-D#-G#.
The piece begins suggesting the key of A minor.
The chord itself, if considered with its eventual "resolution" from G#-A sounds like a Fr 4/3 chord with a non-chord tone G#.
But the length that Wagner suspends the resolution is what caused such debate.
The length of time before resolution suggests that the chord, considered in isolation, is a respelled half-dimished seventh chord whose sound itself becomes more important than its function.
Analysts point to the duration of this chord and its meaning as representative of the move away from functional tonal harmony.
Furthermore the chord, however it is heard, never resolves.
There are implicit hints at tonality, and even atonality.
The is a notion that composers such as Debussy and Scriabin explore more, and eventually of course Schoenberg.
Wieck, Friedrich
Piano teacher of Schumann, and father of Clara Wiech.
He opposed his teenage daugther''s marriage to Schumann, but the couple managed to marry in 1840, after going to court
Program music
Music that attempts to express or depict one or more nonmusical ideas, images, or events.
The composer usually indicates the "program" (the subject or subjects being evoked) by a suggestive title or preface, which may be quite vague or may be specific and detailed, i.e. Romeo and Juliet (Tchaikovsky), Liszt's Consolations, Schumann's 3 Romanzen op.28 or Chopin's Tarantelle.
Programmatic music has flourished at different times, but especially in the 19th c.  The predominant genres of Romantic program music were the program symphony and the symphonic poem, concert overtures, character pieces for piano or small ensemble, and occasional pieces such as Smetana's From My Life (1876)
Program vs. absolute music.
Three main compositional approaches are the expressive (i.e. Chiarinia in Schumann's Carnaval), the depictive (i.e. imitation of nature, human activities, or sounds or musical styles with strong association such as chromatic ostinato basses in Monteverdi and Purcell, "singhing" two-note figures in Bach, and portrayal of primeval chaos in Haydn's The Creation), and the Narrative.
On this point, programmatic writing was well established in instrumental music by around 1700; The distinction between character pieces and program music is that program music, such as Schumann's Carnaval, Weber's Aufforderung zum Tanz, and Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique and Harold en Italie, have passages that may be puzzling unless the composer's program is taken into account
von Hoffmannsthal, Hugo
1874-1929. Viennes poet, dramatist and librettist.
He wrote libretti for a number of Richard Strauss' works, including: Elektra (1909), Der Rosenkavalier (1909-10), Ariadne auf Naxos (1912).etc
German music patron, who active in the late 19th C and early 20C.
An enthusiastic amateur based on Cologne who served on the boards on conservatory and the Musikalische Gesellschaft and assisted young musicians at the start of thier careers.
He also collected amassed an astonishing number of instruments and eventually established a Musikhistorisches Museum in Cologne
Boris Godunov
The only complete opera of Modest Mussorgsky, Russian Romantic composer and member of the Mighty Five.
It has a prologue and 4 acts featuring his own libretto adapted from the legendary tragedy by Pushkin.
The realism that is so prominent in the 19th C Russian literature is echoed here in Boris, in the way he imitates the spoken word and in lifelike musical depiction of gestures and in the choral scenes, the sound and stir of the people in the crowds
Mighty Five
a group of Russian composers who banded together in the 1860's in response to the old-fashionsed teaching of the St. Petersburg Conservatory.
The group included Balakirev, Borodin, Cui, Musorgsky, and Rimsky-Korsakov.
All but Balakirev, the leader and founder of the group, had unconventional training.
They used folksongs and folk-tales in their music, with prominent modal elements.
The group did not stay together long, as they really had no unity of style or doctrine; each moved on in different directions
Grand opera
In France with the declie of royal patronage, a new kind of opera came into being, designed to appeal to the newly well-to-do middle-class audiences who thronged the opera theaters looking ofr excitement and entertainment. This type was a much spectacle as music, consistent with the fashion that had prevailed in France ever since Lully. Writers created librettos that exploited every possible occasion for ballets, machinery, chruses and crowd scenes, while flattering the middle class by painting aristocrate as wicked and their opponents as virtuous. Two early examples were Rossini's Guillaume Tell featuring an onstage lake across which Tell rows to safety and la muette de Portici (the Mute of Portici) by Daniel Francois Esprit Auber which ends with the eruption of the vocano Vesuvius and ironically has a title role that is danced, not sung, since she is a mute.
tempo di mezzo
Means middle movement. In the operas of Rossini, he established a style of two or three sections of an aria. Cantabile, tempo di mezzo and cabaletta. The middle section was usually transitional or an interuption by other charecters and in which something happens to alter the situation or the character's mood.
chromatic saturation
First appears in the works of Hugo Wolf who was best known for adapting Wagner's methods to the German Lied.
The process where a measure of intense chromaticism of all twelve chromatic notes appear within one or two measures.
solo recitals
Liszt pioneered this term. He was the first pianist to give solo concerts in large halls. He was also the firt ot play a range of music from Bach to his contemporaries and to play entirely from memory, two innovations that are now long-standing traditions. His reception at times rivaled the hysteria affored rock superstars of the twentieht century, but he insisted on quiet while he played.
Hummel, Johann Nepomuk
1778-1837.  A student of Mozart's and Haydn's successor at the palace of the Esterhazy family.
He was a virtuoso pianist and wrote a number of brilliant piano sonatas and concertos.  These works tend more towards the pianism of the 19th c than the Classical style.
He also wrote a number of chamber wroks and orchestrally-accomp sacred music.
His music remains in the canon in Germany and Austria even today
Szene und Arie
scene and aria.
A portion of an opera, usually consisting of one or more aria
Allgemein muskalische Zeitung
a newspaper devoted to musical life, founded in 1798 by Breitkopf und Hartel of Leipzig.
Its mixture of articles on musical subjects, reviews of published scores and concerts ( and, occasionally, books), correspondence reports from other cities, musical supplements, and publishers' advertisements.
It quickly established the pattern for a host of similar journals that sprang up in all the principal cities of Europe.
The 19th c French term for "song", in fact the equivalent of German Lied.
Term probably first used by Berlioz in his Melodies Irlandaises of 1829.
French composers thereafter adopted the term to denote not a simple air but the more complex "art song." 
The best-known melodies writers are Faure, Duparc, and Debussy.  They chose verse from contemporary writers, including Victor Hugo, Verlaine, and Baudelaire, among a few older French writers such as Villon and Charles d'Orleans.
Melodies by Berlioz, Gounod, Franck, Saint-Saen, Bizet, Duparc, Faure, Massenet, Debussy, Hahn, Ravel, and many other constitue a school of song composition second only to that of Lied.
The vocal line of melodies maintained a supplness directly dependent on the individuality of the French languagle, and the kind of poetry chosen (influenced byt Symbolist, Impressionist, Fauvist, cubist and other movements) inspired piano accompaniments which supported the genral mood of the poem rather than being specifically realistic or minutely illustrative
Musica drama
Lohengrin is original in the way the symbols, expressed by thematic material stated in the overture, are used throughout the drama, coming together at the end in a kind of analogy to a symphonic recapitulation.
It was this analogy with symphonic style which gave Wagner the opportunity of creating a new kind of opera, which he called the "music drama.".
Most important features of this new style: the subject-matter should be based on  legend and deal with archetypal concepts applicable to mankind as a whole rather than to specific men (as historical subjects tend to do);  the music should be constructed so as to follow the sense of the drama, and not impose its own pattern upon it (hence recitative and aira must be replaced by a continuous flow, halted by few cadences); and the use of "leitmotivs" in the orchestra (themes associated with the archetypal concept) for dramatic effect
Oper und Drama
R. Wagner's writing that exclaims his music drama highly as the future art, and he set the order of each genre of art from lowest to highest, such as gardening, construction, sculpture, painting, music, poetry, philosophy/religion.
He boasting attitude is well reflected in this book which considered the audience "not able to understand his music" and his art is the pioneer for the future art
Opera Comque
Side by side with grand opera as being most fashionable. As in the eighteenth century, the technical difference between the two was that this had spoken dialogue instead of recitative. Apart from this the differences were primarily questions of siz and subject matter. Was less pretentious than grand opera and required fewer singers and players. its plots, as a rule, presented straightforward comedy or simi serious drama instead of the historical pageantry typical of grand opera. Two types of this genre: Romantic and comic.
Treatis on Instrumentation and Orchstration
Berlioz's first book codifying his practice of symphonic music. his Orchestration initiated a new era in which instrumental color rivaled harmony and melody as an expressive tool for composers.
Des Knaben Wunderhorn
The Youth's Magic Horn.  A group of German folk-song texts collected and published in three volumes (ca. 1805-8) by Von Arnim and Clemens Brentano.
Mahler composed settings of a number of these texts, both as songs (some with orchestral accompaniment) and several of his symphonies, including second, third and fourth.
Cavatina and Cabaletta
A type of aria.
In 19th c. Itlian opera, the cavatina is the entrance aria of a principal singer.
In 19th c French and German opera, a cavatine or Kavatine is a short aria in a moderate or slower than moderate tempo.
Examples include cavatinas for the heroines in the last acts of Weber's Freischutz, Euryanthe, and Oberon, as well as Gounod's Faust and Bizet's La jolie fille de Perth and Les pecheurs de perles.
This type of aria was often paried with the more athletic caballeta, often featuring virtuosic soloistic displays such as the cavatina/cabaletta in Act III of Donizetti's Lucia di Lammermoor.
Often the first and last parts of a 4-part scheme
In the 18th C, there were two types of piano: the Viennese, with a light and rapid action , and a distinct, piercing, "nasal" sound; and the "English " piano, with a more powerful and sonorous but less bright sound.
The English piano, which was developed in London starting around 1760, eventually developed into the 19th c. piano, with its percussive and velvety sound.
In 1781, the Scotsman John Broadwood joined the workshop in London (first run by Germans), and started the Broadwood piano manufactory.
Double escapement action invented by Erard in Paris
The Mighty Handful
Also known as the Mighty Five or the Russian Five. Stood against ily Balakirev, Aleksander Borodin, Cesar Cui, Modest musorgsky and Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov. Only Balakirev had conventional training in music, but it would be wrong to call the other amateurs. They admired Western music but studied it on their own outside the academic musical establishment whose exercises and prizes they scorned. Incorporatd aspects of Russian folk song modal and exotic scales, and folk poyphony, but they also extended traits from the Western composers they most admired.
Balakirev was the leader of their circle and an informal teacher for the songs inhis own arrangements that were sources for many later composers. Cui completed fourteen operas, including four for childern but none entered the permanent repertory. Borodin, though devoted to music from a young age, was a chemist by profession and had difficulty finding time to compose. Left many works unfinished , including Prince Igor, a four act opera in the French grand opera tradition. it was completed after his death by Rimsky-Korsakov and Aleksander Glazunov and premiered in 1890.
Musorgsky was considered the most original of the the group. Earned a living as a clerk in the civil service and received most of his musical training from Balakirev. His two principle stae works were operas Boris Godunov based ona Pushkin play and Khovashehina (The Khovansky Affair). The realism so prominent in the nineteenth century Russian literature echoes especially in Boris Goduvov, int eh way Musorgsky imitated Russian speech, in ihis lifelike musical dipiction of gestures and , in the choral scenes, the sound and stir of the crowds.
Rimsky-Korsakov studied with private teachers and with Balakirev while pursuing a career in the Russian Navy. He became a professor at the St. Petersburg Conservatory, abandoning the anti-academic stance of the Balakirev circle. He quickly became aware of how much he still had to learn before he could teach music theory.
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