AP world Flashcards

Terms Definitions
True or False:
Unlike T-cells, B-cells cannot recognize free antigen

True or False:
In the phospholipase/protein kinase c second messanger system, a hormone binding to its receptor only stimulate the effector or inhibit it, depending on which receptor on the cell it binds to.
Ventricles writhe rather than contract, like a "squirming bag of worms"

a. fibrillation
b. junction rhythm 
c. heartbreak
d. heart block
e. none of the above
a. fibrillation
True or False:
The "lub" sounds of the heart are valuable in diagnosis because they provide information about the function of the heart's semilunar valves
___ is a pivotal molecule associated with the external surfaces of aggregated platelets and is involved in the intrinsic mechanism of blood clotting.
a. thromboplastin (prothrombin activator)
b. PF3
c. Thrombin
d. PGI2
b. PF3
The CD8 receptor of T-cells recognizes and binds to:
a. foreign antigen
b. interleukin 2
c. interferon
d. MHC I
d. MHC I
The arteries that are also called distributing arteries are the:
a. arterioles
b. muscular arteries
c. capillaries
d. elastic arteries
b. muscular arteries
There are over ___ different types of antigen receptors.
a. ten
b. a billion
c. a million
d. a thousand
b. a billion
Select the correct statement about blood flow:
a. it is relatively constant through all body organs
b. it is measure in mmHg
c. blood flow through the entire vascular system is equivalent to cardiac output
d. it is greatest where resistance is hig
c. blood flow through the entire vascular system is equivalent to cardiac output
Cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of biochemical reactions involving receptor and kinase activation.  In order for cells to respond, it is necessary for the first and second messengers to communicate.  This is possi
c. G proteins acts as a link between first and second messengers
True or False:
The atrioventricular valves close at the beginning of ventricular diastole.
True or False:
Cardiac muscle has a less extensive t-tubule system and less developed endoplasmic reticulum than skeletal muscle
___ have more afferent vessels than efferent vessels.
a. spleen
b. thymus
c. lymph nodes
d. tonsils
e. Peyer's patches
c. lymph nodes
Fenestrated capillaries:
a. do not occur in the glomerular capillaries in the kidneys
b. are not common in endocrine organs and in areas where capillary absorption is an important function
c. are not more permeable than continuous capillaries
d. a
d. are not found in the brain
Isovolumetric contraction:
a. refers to the short period during ventricular systole which the ventricles are completely closed chambers
b. occurs immediately after the semilunar valves close
c. occurs only in people with heart valve defects
d. occ
a. refers to the short period during ventricular systole which the ventricles are completely closed chambers
Continuous capillaries:
a. are abundant in the skin and skeletal muscles
b. always have a thick layer of muscle tissue to autoregulate blood flow
c. have oval pores to facilitate the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues
d. contain a layer o
a. are abundant in the skin and skeletal muscles
Select the correct statement about lymphoid tissue:
a. once a lymphocyte enters the lymphoid tissue, it resides there permanently
b. T lymphocytes act by ingesting foreign substances
c. lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue
c. lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue
a. controls milk synthesis
b. release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism
c. exerts its most important effects during menstruation
d. is an adenohypophyseal secretion
b. release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism
Which of the following is NOT a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus:
a. an increase in enzymatic activity
b. a change in membrane permeability
c. direct control of the nervous system
d. the stimulation of a genetic event resulting in p
c. direct control of the nervous system
The left venticular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to:
a. pump blood through a smaller valve
b. accommodate a greater volume of blood
c. pump blood with greater pressure
d. expand the thoracic cage during distole
c. pump blood with greater pressure
Which of the following is likely during vigorous exercise?
a. blood will be diverted to the digestive organs
b. blood flow to the kidneys increases
c. the skill will be cold and clammy
d. capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blo
d. capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood
Which of the following is also, under a different name, one of the layers of the heart wall itself:
a. fibrous pericardium
b. parietal layer of the serous pericardium
c. visceral layer of the serous pericardium
d. serous layer of the fibrous peric
c. visceral layer of the serous pericardium
True or False:
Congestive heart failure means that the pumping efficiency of the heart is depressed so that there is inadequate delivery of blood to body tissues
True or False:
The mature RBCs consume no oxygen because they have no mitochondria.
True or False:
Chronic release of excess thryoxine can cause a sustained increase in heart rate and a weakened heart

True or False:
If a target cell expresses more hormone receptors in response to higher concentrations of the hormone, this is called "down regulation."

Which of the following organs has both endocrine and exocrine functions:
a. pituitary
b. thyroid gland
c. hypothalamus
d. pancreas
e. two of the above are true
d. pancreas
If the patient's blood pressure is 90/60, your diagnosis is:
a. hypotension
b. normotension
c. hypertension
a. hypotension
If a patient goes into heart failure, this would be an example of ___ shock.
a. cardiogenic
b. vascular
c. hypovolemic
a. cardiogenic
Stenosis of the mitral valve may initially cause a pressure increase in the:
a. pulmonary circulation
b. venae cavae
c. coronary circulation
d. left ventricle
a. pulmonary circulation
Small muscle masses attached to the chordae tendineae are the:
a. venae cavae
b. papillary muscles
c. trabeculae carneae
d. pectinate muscles
b. papillary muscles
Where would you LEAST expect to find fenestrated capillaries:
a. endocrine glands
b. small intestine
c. kidneys
d. brain 
d. brain
Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through cellular ___.
a. ions
b. nucleotides
c. deactivators
d. second messengers
d. second messengers
Damage to the ___ is referred to as heart block.
a. AV node
b. AV bundle
c. SA node
d. AV valves
a. AV node
The influence of blood vessel diameter on the peripheral resistance is:
a. significant because resistance is directly proportional to the blood vessel diameter
b. significant because the resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of th
b. significant because the resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius
l'averse (f)
to prescribe
le terrain
feather duster
el sombrero
a dictonary defination
out of date
trip, journey
el viaje
le jardinier, la jardinière
relieving of emotional tensions
Describes the author's attitude towards his material, his audience, or both.
a unit of a poem
Descendents of Macedonian officers under Alexander. Gov't largely took over the system created by Egyptian pharaohs to extract the wealth of the land, rewarding Greeks and Hellenized non-Greeks serving in the military and administration. (p. 138)
Process whereby unspecialized cells become specialized cells. 
expressing, showing, or marked by intense or strong feeling; emotional
follow animals/wild plants for season to season
repeated phrase to convey emphasis, rhythm, and climatic effect; repeated as 1st word or phrase in a sentence
intectual and artistic flowering in europe during 14th, 15, and 16th centuries sparked by revival interest classical antiquity
In Hindu belief, the spirit's liberation from the cycle of reincarnation
myosin action
during contraction myosin heads interact with actin filiments, froming cross brideges.
Deep grooves also separate large regions of the brain
Telling of a story or providing information from the narrator
qui est cet oiseau-là?
who's that guy ?
Muslims belonging to the branch of Islam believing that God vests leadership of the community in a descendant of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali. Shi'ism is the state religion of Iran.
A sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end. For example: "Ecstatic with my AP scores, I let out a loud shout of joy!" The effect of a periodic sentence is to add emphasis and structural variety.
A terse statement of known authorship which expresses a general truth or a moral principle.
system of government in which all 'citizens' (however defined) have equal political and legal rights, privileges, and protections, as in the Greek city-state of Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E. (p. 127)
Thomas Hobbes
British political theorist who argued that individuals formed governments because of their rational self-interest. One of the major intellectual figures of the Enlightenment, his most famous work is The Leviathan, published in 1651.
War Hawks
Western settlers who advocated war with Britain because they hoped to aquire Britain's northwest posts (and also Florida or even Canada) and because they felt the British were aiding the Indians and encouraging them to attack the Americans on the frontier. In Congress, the War Hawks were Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun.
(v) to express mild disapproval; to belittle
Habitat Degredation
1) adding pollutants to the environment

2) contruction/development
exclusive control of a commodity or service in a particular market, or a control that makes possible the manipulation of prices.
Bible Commonwealth
name for the Massachusetts Bay colony that refers to its tax supported churches and visible saints.
Price Revolution
economic theory that the flood of South American bullion into Europe created widespread inflation or price rise; severly strained government budget under Philip II of Spain
Tea Act
Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party
Figure of speech in which a non-human thing is given human characteristics
Ozone Shield
Formed from oxygen in the upper atomsphere, it protects the earth from ultraviolet radiation
Who is the leader in Quebec?
Samuel de Champlain
monocular cues
clues about distance based on the image of one eye. Monocular cues include interposition or overlap, relative size, aerial perspective or relative clarity, texture gradient, relative height or elevation, linear perspective, relative brightness, motion parallax, and accommodation.
functions of the liver
storage of vitamins.
synthesis of bile salts.
excretion of bilirbin.
activation of Vitamin D.
eurkaryote v. prokaryote
eukaryote: cell containing a nucleus, a region of genetic material surrounded by a membrane. membranes also enclose several of the other internal parts found in a eukartotic cell.prokaryotic: cell that does not have a distict nucleus. other internal parts are also not enclosed by membranes
is the repetition of initial sounds in neighboring words.
Situational Irony
Events turn out oppostite of what was expected
Eugene Victor Debs
United States labor organizer who ran for President as a socialist (1855-1926)
Creek nation
British ally who lived in the deep south until their defeat at the hands of Andrew Jackson during the War of 1812
interrogative sentence
asks a question and ends with a question mark
neural network
any network of neurons or nuclei that function together to perform some function in the body
Slowly degradable (persistent) pollutants
take decades or longer to degrade
to obtain or get by care, effort, or the use of special means:
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power.
Would make antibodies to the A and B agglutionogens?
Type O.
Healthy Forest Initiative (2003)
Allows timber copanies to cut down economically valuble trees in most national forests for 10 years

Timber companies must in turn clear out small, fire-prone trees and underbrush

May have consequences of increasing fires by accumulation of slash and increasing the number of fire prone young trees
French Civil Wars
after Henry II died there was a power struggle between three noble families for the Crown. Many nobles who had converted to Calvinism wanted to gain independence from the crown, resulting in feudal disorder. At least nine wars occured in the late 1500s as a result.
slash and burn
of a method of agriculture used in the tropics, in which forest vegetation is felled and burned, the land is cropped for a few years, then the forest is allowed to reinvade.
Relationship between Alexandra & Rasputin / Rasputin's assassination
He used her to gain politically and to gain money for sex and drugs. He was then "assassinated" aka tried to be killed something like 8 times, then thrown in a river.
l'aiguille (f)
Women's vote
während +G
el padre
el granizo
le réveil(-matin)
alarm clock
an unqualified coward
MAY 1765
to work on excessively
highest concentration in ICP
tener buena cara
to look good
(globalization) transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and toursts alike in terms of economic activity (spaces of consumption)
having the simplicity, charm, simplicity, or other characteristics generally attributed to rural areas
releasing fixed nitrogen back into N2
Indo-European people who settles in Anatolia
Egyptian Pharaoh from 1353-1335 BCE. Built new capital of Amarna, fostering a new style of naturalistic art, and creating a religious revelation by imposing worship of the sun-disk. The Amarna letters, largely from his reign, preserve official correspondence with subjects and neighbors.
descriptive details
sensory description, details appealing to the visual sense
Matthew Lyon
Republican representative jailed for criticizing Adams
uteter connects
the kidneys with the bladder
4 phases of the menstrual cycle
faire de son mieux
to do one's best
Max Planck
German physicist who proved that subatomic energy was emitted from particles, he called them "quanta"
rhetorical mode
patterns of organization developed to achieve a specific purpose; modes include but are not limited to narration, description, comparision and contrast, cause and effect, definition, exemplificaiton, classifcation and division, process analysis, and argumentation
first prime minister of Great Britain during WWII; he was conciliatory towards Hitler
Generic Conventions
This term describes traditions for each genre. These conventions help to define each genre; for example, they differentiate between an essay and journalistic writing or an autobiography and political
pax romana
Roman peace,' The stability and prosperity that Roman rule brought to the lands of the Roman Empire in the first two centuries C.E. The movement of people and trade goods along Roman roads and safe seas allowed for the spread of cuture/ideas (154)
the belief among citizens that their government has the right to pass and enforce laws.
what hormone is secreted in response to low blood sugars
a policy of the Soviet government allowing freer discussion of social problems
basic needs
food, air, water, shelter, income, respectable and safe work, health care, rec, cultural opps, education, freedom from physical danger
a material, as straw, rushes, leaves, or the like, used to cover roofs, grain stacks, etc.
neutral alleles
alleles that do not have any noticeable effects on phenotype
Deductive Reasoning
reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and applying it to a specific case; the sun rises every morning therefore the sun will rise on Mondays
*the act of presenting ideas in a clear effective and persuasive manner
a belief in the existence of many spirits and demons which are found in the natural world.
"the Smoking Mirror"; one of the two principal gods of the Mexica; the giver and taker of life; patron deity of warriors
the total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter. It is energy in most random form
all-or-none principle
the law that the neuron either generates an action potential
when the stimulation reaches threshold or doesn't fire when stimulation is below threshold.
The strength of the action potential is constant whenever it occurs.
African Kingdom in the Bight of Benin; at the height of its power when Europeans arrived; active slave-trading state; famous for its bronze-casting techniques.
William Seward
- senator who was antislavery and very relgious-nicknamed " Higher Law" for his religious beliefs
no longer in general use; fallen into disuse:
Suez Canal
Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882.
Begging the question
making a statement that assumes that the issue being argued has already been decided
Action potential - polarized membrane
Membrane with a membrane potential
HDI (human development index)
(measures of development) an aggregate index of development, which takes into account economic, social and demographic factors, using GDP, literacy and education, and life expectancy
what is secreted in response to a drop in blood pressure or blood volume
in hyperthyroidism, there is an excess of:
iodine (increases metabolism)
Removing the president from office
impeachment, the house brings about the impeachment charge and the senate holds the trial
American objective during Revolution
resistance; prlong war and make it unpopular in England
U.S. v. Lopez (1995)
Gun Free School Zones Act exceeded Congress' authority to regulate interstate commerce.
Emergency Quota Act of 1921
an emergency immigration law was passed by congress in 1921. it limited the number of people admitted from eastern and southern Europe.
first law of thermodynamics
states that energy is conserved. It is neither created nor destroyed underneath normal conditions.
mon bras est couvert de bleus
my arm is all black and blue
4 properties of water (on test)
1. High specific heat; this is the requirement of high amount of energy to change the temperature of water. this allows the body to maintain a realtively constant body temperature. As a result blood doesn't boil when external temp. increases
2. High heat of vaporization: requirement of high amount of energy to change the water from a liquid to a gas. this allows the evaporation of sweat to cool the body.
3. polarity: due to the unequal sharing of electrons the oxygen end of the water has a relative negative charge & the hydrogens has a relatively positive charge. this allow water to be a universal solvent. it can dissolve everything but lipids
4. Cohesion: due to the hydrogen bonds in water it acts as a unit. it flows & doesn't separate. this allows water to function in the lubrication of joints and as shock absorber.
la chevre
la communion
le nombril
¿En serio?
le karate
to overthrown
in order to
full of sound
envoyer chercher
to send for
-am-, -amic- (latin)
friend, love
swearing, taking an oath
n. approval, commendation; official approval or sanction
to destroy; get rid of
Sustentacular cells.
Deliver nutrients to spermatocytes.
Clumping dispersion
Most common

Individuals flock together for protection

One particular region may be rich in all the things an organism needs for life
Process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials
to claim or take without right
cell body of neuron in CNS
arrangement of repeated thoughts in the form X Y Y X; ("Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country)
powerful postclassic empire in central mexico (990-1168 CE). It influenced much of mesoamerica. Aztecs claimed ties to this earlier civilization
doubtfulness or uncertainty of meaning or intention:
Fundamental Orders
document which established a regime democratically controlled by the substantial citizens of Hartford
Calvinist thought that by God's decree some persons are guided to salvation, others to damnation; that God has called us not according to our works but according to His purpose & grace
Royal house of Franks after 8th century until their replacement in the 10th century.
a general principle or assumption that establishes a connection between the support and the claim
States have right to nullify any federal law - John C Calhoun was a big advocate
A distinct style of Hellenistic period more ornate than Doric but less than Corinthian
Pinckney Treaty
agreement with Spain that let Americans ship their goods down the Mississippi River and store them in New Orleans
Barbarian group allied with Alans and Vandals; invaded Spain
elevatins or ridges, as in stomach mucosa; when empty, mucosa thrown itno folds.
What is potential energy?
"stored" energy; results in attractions and repulsions; electrostatic attractions between charged particles
National Security Act
Created the Department of Defense which was housed in the Pentagon and consisted of the secretary of defense and secretaries of the navy, army, and air force. The National Security Council was also created to give advice to the president on security matters and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
From about 4000 B.C.E., when bronze tools were first introduced in the Middle East, to about 1500 B.C.E., when iron began to replace it.
A semitic group who are also called Amorites. There most famous ruler is probably Hammurabi.
Confederation of 1867
Negotiated union of the formerly separate colonial governments of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. This new dominion of Canada with a central government in Ottawa is seen as the beginning of the Canadian nation
Bill of Attainder
legislative act declaring that a person is guilty of a crime and setting punishment without the benefit of a formal trial. The Constitution forbids the federal government (Article I, Section 9, clause 3) and the state governments (Article I, Section 10, clause 1) from passing bills of attainder.
Elizabeth I
Known as the "Virgin Queen" because she never married, she ruled England from 1558 to 1603, and contributed to the English colonization of America.
Use of words that sounds like what they mean. "Buzz", "Clang" and "Hiss"
Ocean Waves/Tidal Energy (Pros)
1) no pollution
2) minimal environmental impact
3) Moderate net energy yield
a person in a condition of servitude, required to render services to a lord, commonly attached to the lord's land and transferred with it from one owner to another.
da Gama
This was the first explorer to round the Cape of Good Hope and sail into the Indian Ocean trade
the repeated use of the same word or word pattern as a rhetorical device
closed primary
a primary election in which voting is limited to already registered party members
Lymphocytes with a CD8 protein marker become ___ when activated.
Cytotoxic T cells.
ocular, conjunctiva, cover, ant, surface, pink
_____(Ocular) (close to eye) ________(Conjunctiva)
_______(Cover)s the ___erior(blank farm) ______(surface)of the eye (the _____(rosa) aspect doctors exams)
Algal bloom steps
1) increased algae due to increased nitrate/phosphate concentrations result in less light penetration, killing off deeper plants and their supply of oxygen to water

2) oxygen concentration dereases in the water due to increased materials for decomposers

3) lower oxygen causes fish to die

4) decaying fish produces toxins in water
tourner le dos à quelqu'un
to turn one's back one someone
Penn's Holy Experiment
term given to Penn's attempt to create a religious refuge for Quakers and other persecuted people, enact liberal ideas of government, and generate income and profits for himself.
Nicholas II
the last czar of Russia who was forced to abdicate in 1917 by the Russian Revolution
What is chemical E due to?
PE stored in arrangements of atoms
correct order of structures in the respiratory passageways?
pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles
Which of the following is mismatched?
Helper T cells; directly target and kill cancer cells.
What is polycythemia?
Caused by:
What does it cause?
How can it be treated?
An excess of RBC's.
Can be a result of bone marrow cancer
Increases blood viscosity & decreases flow efficiency, dizziness.
Blood dilutions
le contrat
la moutarde
le crime
moralizing saying
le basket-ball
to neglect
generosity in giving
confesar (ie)
to confess
parler de
to speak about
-mor-, -mort- (latin)
die, death
unrestrained in emotional expression
plymouth settlement
outside the virginia company
Bodies representing privileged groups; institutionalized the feudal principle that rulers should consult their vassals.
subject to mutation, to change
Deciduous Forest (major vegetation)
hardwood trees
(biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix
l'hôtesse (f) de l'air
female flight attendant
fort established ca. 1619 as headquarters of Dutch East India Co. operations in Indonesia; today the city of Jakarta.
sentence construction which places in close proximity 2 or more equal grammatical constructions
repetition of words in sucessive clauses in revers grammatical order
leadership of one nation over others
doubtfulness or uncertainty of meaning or intention:
John Rolfe
father of tobacco, married pochontas after first war
school of thought founded on doubt that total certainty or definitive knowledge is ever obtainable
substance that ionizes in water to release hydrogen ions; substance with a pH of less than 7
The act of analyzing rhythm and rhyme.
The forgiveness of the punishment due for past sins
Athenian philosopher of the later 5th century BCE; the tutor of Plato; he urged rational reflection of moral decisions condemned to death for corrupting the mind of Athenian young.
Annapolis Convention
Wealthy influentials work together to create a stronger and stable government. Only 5 states send representatives.
spread of Latin language & Roman lifestyle; Greek dominated eastern Mediterranean; empire granted Roman citizenship to people living outside Italy; men who completed 26-yr. term of service in native military units that backed Roman military units were granted citizenship & could pass status onto descendants; good service = citizenship from emperor; 212 C.E. emperor Caracella granted citizenship to all free, adult, male inhabitants of empire
To rise above or go beyond, exceed
What attaches the root to the periodontal ligament?
manger à belles dents
to eat away steadily, hungrily
rhyme in which the same vowel sounds are used with different consonants in the stressed syllables of the rhyming words
Red Scare
1919-1920 was marked by a widespread fear of Bolshevism and anarchism, as well as the effects of the American labor movement. At the war's end, following the Bolshevik revolution in Russia, American authorities saw the threat of revolution in the actions of organized labor, including such disparate cases as the Seattle General Strike and the Boston Police Strike and then in the bomb campaign directed by anarchist groups at political and business leaders. Fueled by labor unrest and the anarchist bombings, and then spurred on by Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer's attempt to suppress radical organizations, it was characterized by exaggerated rhetoric, illegal search and seizures, unwarranted arrests and detentions, and the deportation of several hundred suspected radicals and anarchists.
The divine source for political legitimacy of Chinese rulers; established by Zhou to justify overthrow of Shang.
Believed to be the person to have unified Egypt. Also called Narmer.
John D. Rockefeller
The entrepreneur who built the Standard Oil Trust into a business combination controlling much of the American oil trade
Circular Structure
used by Carter - cabinet secretaries and assistants report directly to the president
a person or thing that brings about change
telling of any story, or the story itself, the plot
Golden Age of Concservation
1901-1909, Teddy Roosevelt uses presidential power to designate wildlife refuges.
Heritability (definition)
Variations must be able to be passed on
This man was a writer who would plea for simple Christian faith and would criticize the complexity of Catholic faith
extended metaphor
comparison not using like or as - longer
527 Organizations
a new source of money under the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act; designed to permit the kind of soft money expenditures once made by political parties; they can spend their money on politics so long as they do not coordinate with candidate or lobby directly for that person
Diapedesis refers to:
The escape of leukocytes from blood vessels into tissue spaces.
type, a, anti-b
If you have ____(Type) __(A) blood, your plasma contains ______(anti-B) antibodies, which will attack Type B surface antigens
Methods of Rangeland Management
1) Controlling the number and distribution of livestock so that the carrying capacity is not exceeded

2) Restoring degraded rangeland

3) Moving livestock from one area to another to allow the rangeland to recover

4) fencing off riparian (stream) areas to reduce damage to these sensitive areas

5) suppresing growth of invasive species

6) Replanting barren rangeland with native grass seed to reduce soil erosion

7) Providing supplemental feed at selected sites

8) Locating water holes, water tanks and salt blocks at strategic points that don't degreade the environment
Peace of Augsburg
This was the treaty that was reached that ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars which also made Charles V recognize Lutheranism as a legitimate following
Reflex arc - three-neuron arc
a. Afferent neuron
b. Interneurons
c. Efferent neuron
George Marshall
Was the Chief of Staff of the American Army during WWII and served as Secretary of State. One of the main architects of Allied victory, his reputation starkly rose because of his success in the war. Ironically, the general was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953 for his Marshall Plan, which was essentially the Allied agreement to provide aid to West Germany after the war.
acheter quelque chose pour une bouchée de pain
to buy something for a song
Infant Mortality rate (IMR)
the annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age, compared with total live births; it's expressed as teh annual number of deaths among infants per 1,000 births rather than a eprcentage. This is important because it tells how developed a country is (high IMR = LDC, low IMR = MDC)
interest group or client polics
Congress plays a much larger role in foreign policy with this group
What are the 3 types of neurons classified based on the functional differences?
1. Sensory (unipolar) - PNS; afferent(impulses toward CNS from sensory)
2. Motor (multipolar) - CNS/PNS; effector (impulses away from CNS to effector organs)
3. Interneurons (multipolar)- btwn motor & sensory neurons; association
Devotional cult groups
First Reconstruction Act
March 1867
corrupt, wicked, or perverted
religious leaders - traditional leanings in Islamic Empire
Chinese philosopher (circa 551-478 BC)
China's industrial northern province, invaded by Japan in 1931 --> League of Nations could not execute authority on countries that didn't recognize it -->US not willing to blockade Japan due to need for trade during Great Depression
dance music, slave spirituals adapted into improvisation and ragtime; migrated along with blacks in the Great Migration
royal grants that gave conquistadores legal control of the labor of the native population
Leakey (family)
English paleontologist family whose account of fossil discoveries in Tanzania changed theories of human evolution
As president of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis did not exercise the arbitrary power wielded by Abraham Lincoln because...
a. of the South's emphasis on state's rights
b. There was such strong agreement on policy in the South
c. He did not believe in str
World trade organization the promoted free trade. Formed in 1994, settles international trade disputes and has power to enfore its decisions.
Mostly farmers from the Farmer Alliance, also called Popocrats sneeringly. Mary E. Lease led them most efficiently, very awesome speaker and was called the Patrick Henry in petticoats. Motto: "Raise less corn and more hell." Led impassioned crusade to relieve the misfortunes of the farmer. They rose out of the revolt against high prices in the Panic of 1873. They wanted the abolition of national banks, a gradiation of income tax, civil service reform, etc. William Jennings Bryan was on friendly terms with them.
Flying Money
Chinese credit instrument that provided credit vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage; reduced danger of robbery; early form of currency
Citizen Edmond Genet
French government representative asking for assistance for the French Revolution. Sparked support for the French Revolution and led to the creation of the Democratic-Republican party
Civil Rights, feminist, anti war movements : ******
Local mosque officials and prayer leaders within the Safavid Empire; converters
Mughal dynasty
Established by Turkic invaders in 1526; endured until the middle of the 19th century.
ruling family in France that helped gain influence 10th century onward
Wilmot Proviso
Dispute over whether any Mexican territory that America won during the Mexican War should be free or a slave territory. A representative named David Wilmot introduced an amendment stating that any territory acquired from Mexico would be free. This amendment passed the House twice, but failed to ever pass in Senate. It became a symbol of how intense dispute over slavery was in the U.S.
Osama bin Laden
Arab terrorist who established al-Qaeda (born in 1957). Planned attack of 9-11. Reportedly in afghanistan
Louis Pasteur
French scientist who discovered the relationship between germs and disease in 19th century, leading to better sanitation.
Conway Cabal
After Saratoga, Conway's Cabal wanted to fire Washington and put Gates in command
sri lanka
nation not industrialized center in pacifi
Saddam Hussein
As president of Iraq, Saddam maintained power through the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) and the first Persian Gulf War (1991). During these conflicts, Saddam repressed movements he deemed threatening to the stability of Iraq, particularly Shi'a and Kurdish movements seeking to overthrow the government or gain independence, respectively. While he remained a popular hero among many disaffected Arabs everywhere for standing up to the West and for his support for the Palestinians, U.S. leaders continued to view Saddam with deep suspicion following the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Saddam was deposed by the U.S. and its allies during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
George Washington
Military commander of the American Revolution. He was the first elected president of the United States (1789-1799).
Socialist Market Economy
market economy that combines substantial state ownership of large industries with private enterprise, where both forms of ownership operate in a free-pricing market environment; created by Deng Xiaoping in China after the death of Mao
tax farming
A government's use of private collectors to collect taxes. Individuals or corporations contract with the government to collect a fixed amount for the government and are permitted to keep as profit everything they collect over that amount. (p. 334)
(Woodrow) Wilson
Thought that "one should never compromise with wrong."
Region of western India famous for trade and manufacturing; the inhabitants are called Gujarati. (p. 380)
John Smith
introduced work ethic to Jamestown colony, sanitation, diplomat to local Native American tribes; had fought Spanish and Turks
Continental Congress
the legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution
274. Loose, strict interpretation of the Constitution
Loose interpretation allows the government to do anything which the Constitution does not specifically forbid it from doing. Strict interpretation forbids the government from doing anything except what the Constitution specifically empowers it to do.
All the southern colonies eventually came to rely on the ___-____ _____ agriculture for their economic posperity.
Staple-Crop Plantation
to give proof or evidence of; manifest:
Thomas Hutchinson
• English lutenent and governor of Boston • Thought to have been responsable for the stamp act and therefore Bostonians rioted at his mansion • He refused to grant the tea ships, that were standed in Boston Harbor because of the Townshend duties, passage home, this caused the Boston tea party
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.
Godey's Ladies Book
United States magazine which was published in Philadelphia and popular among women during the 19th century. In the 1860s Godey's considered itself the "queen of monthlies".
Tokugawa Shogunate
Family of warlords who seized control of Japan in 1600s.
Ivan III
"Ivan the Great"; ruled as great prince and first ruler of the independent state called Russia
Non-importation agreements
A form of protest against British policies; colonial merchants refused to import British goods.
Korean War
war between Communist North Korea and Democratic South Korea, resulted in a "tie" (no loses or gains)
Laissez-faire economics
An economic concept that holds that the government should not interfere with or regulate business and industries
Third World
Term applied to a group of "developing" or "underdeveloped" countries who professed nonalignment during the Cold War.
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon I. (p. 594)
Fourteen Points
Fourteen conditions set forth in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson as a basis for post-war peace
Dorothea Dix
Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums
National Recovery Administration
Agency that created a partnership between business and government to fight the Depression
Newlands Act
A United States federal law that funded irrigation projects for the arid lands of 20 states in the American West.
Adams-Onis Treaty
treaty between U.S. and Spain that gave Florida to U.S. and set boundary between U.S. and Mexico
703. Whiskey Ring
During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.
'people of the book' Jew and Christian traders were able to continue under this rule because they were protected by the sultans
Insisted that the churches tackle the burning social issues of the day
Social Gospel
Shay's Rebellion
farmers took over a MA courhouse to stop taxes and debts
Mao Zedong
This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.
264. Sec. of State Jefferson
A leading Democratic-Republican, he opposed Hamilton's ideas. Washington tended to side with Hamilton, so Jefferson resigned.
Force Bill of 1833
authorized President Jackson to une the army to force Southerners to comply with the tariff which was federal law.
Spanish-American War
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
What W African power had a series of powerful kings, strong cavalry, and a control of W Saharan trade?
A large and wealthy city that was the imperial capital of the Byzantine empire and later the Ottoman empire, now known as Istanbul
Christopher Columbus
Genoese mariner who in the service of Spain led expeditions across the Atlantic, reestablishing contact between the peoples of the Americas and the Old World and opening the way to Spanish conquest and colonization. (p. 430)
The Whiskey Rebellion
group of farmers refused to pay federal excise tax on whiskey, Washington responds decisively with troops (1794)
natural rights
rights that belong to all human beings from birth
convention of 1800
Agreement which freed America from its alliance with France, forgave French $20 million in damages and resulted in Adams' losing a second term as president, this ended the American French alliance that was thought would go on forever
1265. Nye Committee
Gerald Nye of North Dakota believed that the U.S. should stay out of foreign wars.
Area in Africa that was home to some of the world's oldest civilizations which the Nile River runs through.
Define isolationism
the idea that the US should stay completely uninvolved in all European matters
booker t washington
said equal rights for blacks were too far out of reach
Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa & Emiliano Zapata
Mexican Revolution, rose and assassinated leader of Mexico.
How the Neolithic revolution changed man
they settled down into villages
Social Darwinist
a group of thinkers who saw the human race as driven forward to ever-greater specialization and progress by the unending economic struggle which would determine "the survival of the fittest"
Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture
Leader of the Haitian Revolution. He freed the slaves and gained effective independence for Haiti despite military interventions by the British and French. (p. 593)
National Women's Party
Campaigned in 1923 for an Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution
Liberal land laws in Pennsylvania
William Penn allowed anyone to emigrate to Pennsylvania, in order to provide a haven for persecuted religions.
Battle of Tippecanoe
decisive victory in the War of 1812 by Harrison over Tecumseh, used in Harrison's campaign for presidency
Sui Dynasty
589 AD - 618 AD
after 300 years of regional rule in China,
Re-unite a smaller China, Grand Canal, graineries to feed the poor, legalist and very much like the Ch'in
Bill of Rights
Gave power to the people, The first 10 amendments to the Constitution
1063. LaFollette Seaman's Act
LaFollette was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin. He protested the cruel treatment that sailors received and led the fight for this act.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolves
Put into practice in 1798 by Jefferson and James Madison, these resolutions were secretly made to get the rights back taken away by the Alien and Sedition Acts. They also brought about the later compact theory which gave the states more power than the federal government, also known as nullification.
Omar Khayyam and the Rubaiyat
This person was a Islamic writer and also created this book
Why did the Great Society fail?
The Vietnam Conflict. War sucks out all prosperity - Great Society will never happen again unless the people sacrifice. LBJ did not want to further tax the people yet America could not reform itself and win a war without the middle class sacrificing anything
The daoist thinkers spoke of wuewei, which stood for
disengagement from the affaris of the world
Define the basic beliefs of the Republican Party
To keep slavery contained to where it was.
a craftsman
40,000 years ago
owned land, controlled education
benevolent assimilation
President McKinley's goal/policy intended to adapt the Philippines to American ways. This included schools to teach English, improvement of roads, sanitation, and public health, and establishing economic ties between the Philippines and the US. This endeavor was costly, profited Americans little, and was met with resistance from the Filipinos.
another Utopian society. Practiced strict sexual abstinence, they admired simplicity and made an art of designing buildings and furniture of distinctive harmonious beauty. Their rule of celibacy and communal holding of property discouraged new converts discouraged new converts.
Black Hand
a Serbian militant group
Twelver Shi'ism
followed the Hidden Imam
A powerful city-state in central Mexico (100-75 C.E.). Its population was about 150,000 at its peak in 600. (p. 300)
Isaac Newton
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. His treatise on gravitation, presented in Principia Mathematica (1687), was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple.
the separation of church and state
German mercenaries hired by the british. Because they were lured by booty and not duty, large numbers deserted and remained in America to become respectful citizens.
Venustiano Carranza
(1859-1920) Mexican revolutionist and politician; he led forces against Vitoriano Huerta during the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920).
Cecil Rhodes
British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa made a fortune in gold and diamond mining; helped colonize the territory now known as Zimbabwe; believed in expansion; founded the De Beers Mining Company
One of the earliest Christian kingdoms, situated in eastern Anatolia and the western Caucasus.
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Turkic people who advanced from strongholds in Asia Minor during 1350s; conquered large part of Balkans; unified under Mehmed I; captured Constantinople in 1453; established empire from Balkans that included most of Arab world.
Know-Nothing (American) Party
Strictly anti-immigrationist party, very secretive. Gained momentum, but died due to overuling issue of slavery.
Battle of Gettysburg
Lee invaded Pennsylvania, bloodiest battle of the war, Confederate Pickett's Charge (disastrous), Lee forced to retreat (not pursued by Meade), South doomed to never invade North again, Gettysburg Address given by Lincoln (nation over union)
Tamil Kingdoms
The kingdoms of southern India, inhabited primarily by speakers of Dravidian languages, which developed in partial isolation, and somewhat differently, from the Aryan north. (185)
How did Europeans react to the execution of Louis XVI?
Egyptian pharaoh c. 1500 BCE, founder of the New Kingdom
"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal..." Which is the source of this quote?
A) The Gettysburg Address
B) The Fourteenth Amendment
C) The Preamble to the Constitution
D) The Articles of Confederation
E) The Declaration of Independence
William Bradford
governor of Plymouth- worried about non-Puritan settlers
The overall deadliest known disease in the history of the world. In the 20th century alone there were approximately 500,000,000 people who died of this disease.
Theodore Roosevelt
Civil Service Commission leader under Harrison
Robert E. Lee
renowned confederate general, for south.
Li Yuan
allie of yangdi, aquired strongest army in china. start of tang dynasty
Peloponnesian War
Conflict between Athenian And Spartan Alliances. The war was largely a consequence of Athenian imperialism. Possession of a naval empire allowed Athens to fight a war of attrition. Ultimately, Sparta prevailed because of Athenian errors/Persian $$$ (135)
fascist party
Italian political party created by Benito Mussolini during World War I. It emphasized aggressive nationalism and was Mussolini's instrument for the creation of a dictatorship in Italy from 1922 to 1943. (See also Mussolini, Benito.) (p. 786)
Bleeding Kansas.
In Kansas, both abolitionists and Southerners began sending in forces to support their side and influence the decision, which was to be made through popular sovereignty
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Essayist, poet. A leading transcendentalist, emphasizing freedom and self-reliance in essays which still make him a force today. He had an international reputation as a first-rate poet. He spoke and wrote many works on the behalf of the Abolitionists.
Lazaro Cardenas
President of Mexico (1934-1940). He brought major changes to Mexican life by distributing millions of acres of land to the peasants, bringing representatives of workers and farmers into the inner circles of politics, and nationalizing the oil industry 820
Gupta Empire
Powerful Indian state based, like its Mauryan predecessor, on a capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley. It controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture (186)
the proper "Way" that a king was expecfted to rule in order to please the gods and protect the people
Bessemer Converter
Invented in 1856, this device allowed for the production of cheaper, stronger steel.
Australian ballot
This "secret" ballot was introduced at the insistence of progressives in order to counteract the corrupt purchase of voters during elections.
Renaissance (European)
A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture. Usually divided into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century, and a Northern trans-Alpine Renaissance (407,445)
Nixon Doctrine
During the Vietnam War, the Nixon Doctrine was created. It stated that the United States would honor its exisiting defense commitments, but in the future other countries would have to fight their own wars without support of American troops.
Long Drive
The process of Texas cowboys driving herds of cattle northward to railroad terminals
Heian period
Name the Japan's period where power was centralized in Fujiwara family; boys only received a formal education based on Chinese values; women contributed to Japanese literature
Middle Passage
The part of the Great Circuit involving the transportation of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic to the Americas.
steam engine
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable steam engine in 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 1770s. Steam power was then applied to machinery. (607)
Free Market Economy
capitalism; an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit
Roger Williams
English clergyman and colonist who was expelled from Massachusetts for criticizing Puritanism
Russo-Japanese War
War between two foriegn powers that Roosevelt helped negiotate a peace treaty for, and recieved a Nobel Peacy Prize for his work
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
Hindu practice of suicide of widows by jumping on husband's pyre
Stamp Act
Act passed by an administration of George Grenville in 1765. It imposed duties on most legal documents in the colonies and on newspapers and other publications. Massive colonial resistance to it resulted in a major imperial crisis.
Spanish Armada
King Philip II dispatched the huge Spanish naval fleet in 1588 to destroy English sea power. Instead, the _______ was soundly defeated and a self-confident England began to challenge Spanish dominance in the New World.
13. President who used a Big Stick policy when dealing with foreign affairs. He won the Nobel Peace Prize for bringing peace between Russia and Japan. He led the Rough Riders in Cuba, and he played a big part in the building of the Panama Canal.
Theodore Roosevelt
Cuban Missile Crisis
storage of Soviet missiles on Cuba; Krushchev demanded that US never invade Cuba and remove forces from Turkey; mutual compliance with each other
virginia company
sent 3 ships of people to virginia, many people died
256. The ratification fights, especially in Massachusetts, New York, and Virginia
Massachusetts farmers opposed the Constitution because they felt it protected trade more than agriculture, but Massachusetts became the 6th state to ratify. New York was opposed to the Constitution; the Federalist Papers were published there to gain support for it. Virginia and New York would not ratify until the Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution.
Seljuk Turks
major branch of the Oghuz turks, ruled parts of central asia and middle east (11-14 centuries)
Nation of Islam
a group of militant Black Americans who profess Islamic religious beliefs and advocate independence for Black Americans
Timur Lang
leader of Turkic nomads - last Mongol nomad
led Huns in invasion of Rome in the early fifth century
Gadsden Purchase
1853 purchase of more land from mexico for purpose of building intercontinental railroad
Charles I
king of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor, a civil war in the time of Charles I
Angelina and Sarah Grimke
fought for women's rights and abolition, "Men and women are CREATED EQUAL!"
Sepoy Uprising
Indian troops who serve in the British army who started a war for independence that lead India to its independence.
1131. Election of 1924: candidates
With Republican Coolidge running against Democrat Davis and Progressive LaFollette, the liberal vote was split between the Democrat and the Progressive, allowing Coolidge to win.
Aaron Burr
Burr was a running mate with Thomas Jefferson. They tied for the presidency. Jefferson won the run off. Burr killed Alexander Hamilton in a famous duel. He was tried and aquitted for treason involving a plan to seperate the US and combine with Spain.
a farmer who was tied to the land during the European fedalism
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
The Trail of Tears
The route along which the United States government forced several tribes of Native Americans, including the Cherokees, Seminoles, Chickasaws, Choctaws, and Creeks, to migrate to reservations west of the Mississippi River in the 1820s, 1830s, and 1840s. Those on the march suffered greatly from disease and mistreatment.
spain benefits from exchange
becomes most powerful country in the world
A Jew from the Greek city of Tarsus in Anatolia, he initially persecuted the followers of Jesus but, after receiving a revelation on the road to Syrian Damascus, became a Christian. (156)
Corrupt Bargain
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
House of Burgesses
1619 - The Virginia House of Burgesses formed, the first legislative body in colonial America. Later other colonies would adopt houses of burgesses.
1796 election campaign jefferson
anti fedralist didnt like the treaty favored britain or france
articles of confederation
1st government of u.s / had no power to tax
Appomattox Court House
Where Lee and Grant met to agree to the terms of surrender. Per Lincoln's orders, the Union's only requirement was to have the Confederate soldiers lay down their arms
the five pillars of islam
confession of faith, prayer five times per day, charity to the needy, fasting during the month-long ramadan, pilgrimage to mecca at least once during one's lifetime.
743. Andrew Carnegie, Henry Clay Frick
Business tycoons, they made their money in the steel industry. Philanthropists.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
A 1946 United Nations covenant binding signatory nations to the observance of specified rights. (p. 892)
Fifty Four - Forty or Fight!
An aggressive slogan adopted in the Oregon boundary dispute, a dispute over where the border between Canada and Oregon should be drawn. This was also Polk's slogan - the Democrats wanted the U.S. border drawn at the 54º40' latitude. Polk settled for the 49º latitude in 1846.
How long can a President be president?
2 terms via the 22nd amendment
implied powers, elastic clause, necessar and proper clause
section 8 of article I contains a long list of powers specifically granted to congress and ends with the statement that congress shal also have the power to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carring into exection.
All of the following are true statements about Arab and Persian literature except
the Koran was looked upon as dogma that was separate from literary statement.
Roosevelt Corollary
Vasco de Gama
introduced first coined money
Lowell Mill Girls Strike
lowest classin Indian society; performed tasks that were considered polluting; street sweeping, removal of human waste, and tanning
conservative military commander during the last century B.C.E.; attempted to reinforce powers of the Senate and to counter the influence of Marius.
Mystery religion; underground chambers were used to conduct secret rituals involving the slaughter of bulls; followers were mostly military men
James Madison
1809-1817, Republican, federalist party comes again, against Pinckey
Policy of Neville Chamberlain, British prime minister who hoped to preserve peace in the face of German aggression; particularly applied to Munich Conference agreements; failed when Hitler invaded Poland in 1939.
greatly restricts the activities and power of labor unions and was aka The Labor-Management Relations Act, goes against Wagner Act (which gave more power to unions)
1764 CE
British East India Co.controls india
Homestead Strike
1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when "scab" labor was brought in to force an end to the strike.
Penn granted separate legislature for DE
United Nations
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.
Document containing the terms of surrender; an agreement
Sun Yat-sen
Head of Revolutionary Alliance, organization that led 1911 revolt against Qing dynasty in China; briefly elected president in 1911, but yielded in favor of Yuan Shikai in 1912; created Nationalist party of China (Guomindang) in 1919; died in 1925
most neolithic technology was related to
(WJC) , North American Free Trade Agreement
American Revolution
Rebellion of English American colonies along Atlantic seaboard between 1775 and 1783; resulted in independence for former British colonies and eventual formation of United States of America.
The Bourbon Reforms
Provided better administration and defense to the growing populations in New Spain
indentured servants
Young men and women, usually unemployed and poor, who were given free passage to America, plus basic needs such as food, shelter, and clothing, in exchange for labor, usually for four to seven years.
Father Coughlin
Catholic priest in Michigan who broadcasted in 1930 with his slogan "Social Justice"; was anti-New Deal, anti-Semitic, fascistic, and demagogic
Members of the Religious Society of Friends; most know them as the Quakers. They believe in equailty of all peoples and resist the military. They also believe that the religious authority is the decision of the individual (no outside influence.) Settled in Pennsylvania.
6.6 Alice Paul
Suffragist and activist. Successful campaign for women's suffrage.
Mary Lyon
Established women's school that was truly legendary for its outstandingnessity
a philosophical belief system in 18th century Europe that claimed that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and were just as the laws of physics
Most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India (r. 1556-1605). He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus.
A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
law or government action that violates provisions set forth in the U.S. Constitution
Big Stick Policy
Roosevelt's philosophy - In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen
New World settlers of European descent born in the New World
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
developed a system of interchangeable parts
eli whitney
members of the Ottoman army, often slaves, taken from the Christians; usually boys
a government in power; a form or system of rule or management; a period of rule (B.258)
Ex: The young turks, would, from within th regime, play a decisive role in ending the sultan's rule.
Domino THeory
-It stated that if one country fell to Communism, it would undermine another and that one would fall, producing a domino effect.
JOseph Brant
Mohawk Indian who fought for British in Revolutoin
Li Bo
(701-761 C.E.) the most popular poet of the Tang era and wrote pleasing verse celebrating life, friendship, and especially wine; tradition holds that he died by drowning when the drunken poet fell out of a boat while trying to embrace the moons reflection in the water
Headright System
50 acres given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists
the leading position or people in a movement
joint-stock company
A business that sold shares to individuals to raise money for its trading enterprises and to spread the risks and profits among many investors
U.S. Grant
Given command at Vicksburg, drove up Mississippi
Maximilien Robspierre
young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the french revolution. his execution ended the reign of Terror
Botany Bay
Place that the British first colonized in Australia
The Great Society
Lyndon Johnson's program for poverty relief, healthcare, civil rights, etc. during his presidency. Improved nation's moral and people's lives
a famous chief of the Shawnee who tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing white settlement (1768-1813)
Marco Polo
Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)
a group of high-ranking members of the government that usually represent the executive branch
amerigo vespucci
1. an italian navigator who explored south americaon several expeditions.
2. unlike columbus, he realized that the continent was masive and not part of asia.
3. america is named after him
provided that offices of president and vice pres appear separately on ballots
12th ammendment
Kellogg-Briand Pact
agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another
(AL) , Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war (plural)
Albany Congress
A meeting in Albany, New York, in 1754, in which the British colonies attempted to make an alliance with the Iroquois tribe in order to end their differences. The Iroquois, however, rejected the offer.
Mary (Elizabeth) Lease
Known as "Mary Yellin'" and "the Kansas Pythoness," she made about 160 speeches in 1890. She criticized Wall Street and the wealthy, and cried that Kansans should raise "less corn and more hell."
Scopes Monkey Trial
1925, the trial that pitted the teaching of Darwin's theory of evolution against teaching Bible creationism; , It was an American legal case that tested the Butler Act. the law forbade the teaching of any aspect fo the theory of evolution. The Butler Act made the teaching of evolution unlawful especially in TN. John Scopes was persecuted for teaching evolution and he was found guilty.
Treaty of Guadalupe- Hidalgo
Agreement that ended the Mexivan American Wr; provided for loss of texas and California to the United States ; left legacy of distrust of hte United Staes in Latin America
Hayes/Tilden Election 1876
Some states votes disputed, ended with Compromise of 1877
Mexican Revolution
(1910-1920 CE) Fought over a period of almost 10 years form 1910; resulted in ouster of Porfirio Diaz from power; opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata.
Magna Carta
forced to sign by English nobles or barons (document)
William Randolph Hearst
A leading newspaperman of his times, he ran The New York Journal and helped create and propagate "yellow (sensationalist) journalism."
Why was there a split between the Sunni and Shi' a Muslims?
Succession issues
charles de montesquieu
1. a french thinker and social commentator during the enlightenment.
2. argues for the seperation of powers among different branches of governement.
(HT) , the policy designed to keep the Soviet Union from expanding its power
Arab Israeli Peace Talks
(GB1) Israel and Arab Nations peace talks, in 1993 Oslo, Norway, PLO (arafat) promise peace with Israel (rabin), israel offer west bank on condition that Arafat commitment to losing side in Gulf war, extremists opposed peace, el-Sadat assassinated, Rabin killed
Staple crops in the South
Tobacco was grown in Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina. Rice was grown in South Carolina and Georgia. Indigo was grown in South Carolina.
The Great Puritan Migration
began in 1628, because Charles I treats them badly
Covenant Chain of Peace
The Covenant Chain was an alliance between the Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee) and the British colonies of North America. Their councils and subsequent treaties concerned colonial settlement, trade, and acts of violence between the Iroquois and the colonists.
The Covenant Chain is embodied in the Two Row Wampum, and got its start in 1676 when the Province of New York's governor Sir Edmund Andros negotiated the signing of two treaties in which the Iroquois spoke on behalf of the other tribes involved:
A treaty between the Iroquois Five Nations and the colonies of Massachusetts Bay Colony and Connecticut which ended King Philip's War in New England;
A treaty between the Iroquois and Delawares (Lenape), on one side, and the colonies of Virginia and Maryland, on the other, to obtain peace between those colonies and the Susquehannocks and Iroquois.
465. Edwin M. Stanton -
politician who succeeded Simon Cameron as Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton acted as a spy for the radicals in cabinet meetings; caused a kind of civil war within Congress by opposing Lincoln at almost every turn; President Johnson asked him to resign in 1867. The dismissal of Stanton let to the impeachment of Johnson because Johnson had broken the Tenure of Office Law.
nuclear nonproliferation treaty
1. was an attempt to limit nuclear technology to only five powers.
middle eastern countries chose not to participate in this treaty and continue to develope nuclear weapons.
Chinese Communist Party
formed by a group of young radicals from beijing universtiy. formed the People's Republic of China in 1949 and is quick to quiet those who oppose it
Sherman Anti Trust Act
Used to break the pullman strike. No combination in restraint of trade
Charles II
This King was the son of the king who was beheaded during a civil war. He wanted to be assertive when it came to controlling the colonies. He was known for condemning the bloody Bacon's Rebellion. When he was throned, the royalists and their Church of England allies were once again in control.
Sedition Act
1798, (JA) , made it a crime to write, print, utter, or publish criticism of the president of government
phillip 2 of Macedon
ruled macedon from 359 to 336 bce and conquered greece
United States v. E.C. Knight Co
(1895) Congress wanted to bust a trust because it controled 98% of sugar manufacturing. Supreme court said no because it wasn't interstate commerce which they do have the right to regulate. Severely weakend the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
The Great War: Another name for World War I, used by Europeans until the advent of World War II.
Another name for World War I, used by Europeans until the advent of World War II.
Digestive/Slow, ANS
Spin around
false testimony
Facial Sensation, Maseter
Regulate organ volume
cheap and showy
male or female
short account of event
to be overflowing with
bona fide
in good faith
movable tents Mongols lived in
something that flows out (sewage)
a division into two parts
lack of essential nutrients (amino acids, vitamins); marasmus = diet low in calories and protein; kwashiokor = mothers can't produce milk - children have severe protein deficiency
sigmund freud
viennse physician who developed theories of the workings of the human subconscious, argued that behavior is determined by impulses
Brain growth, child birth, between bones in infants (anterior, posterior, anteriolateral, posteriorlateral)
a sleep disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable episodes of deep sleep
being or producing something like nothing done or experienced or created before adjective
The period of the stone age
human-caused or resulting from the influence of human beings
Choroids (posterior)
Darkly pigmented absorbs straight light rays that enter eye. High vascular-blood vessels provide nutrients to retina (in front).
categorization of people based on physical traits
selective cutting
intermediate-aged or mature trees are cut singly or in small groups
benjamin disraeli
british politician, granted the vote to working class men in 1867, an example of conservative politicians keeping stability through reform
Person's typical way of responding to his or her environment. Evident in babies as easy, difficult, and slow to warm up
A statistical measure of a tests consistency, or ability to result in similar scores if given repeatedly.
histrionic personality disorder
personality disorder characterized by excessive emotionality and preoccupation with being the center of attention; emotional shallowness; overly dramatic behavior
Inverted Syntax
In standard English sentence pattern, the subject generally comes before the verb. This is when a writer may chooses to invert the standard sentence pattern and put the verb before the subject.; using unusual, "backward-sounding" word order or reversing the normal word order of a sentence; for example, "Whose woods these are I think I know" (Robert Frost)
Arab Caliphate
office established in succession to the Prophet Muhammed, to rule the Islamic Empire
Large particles engulfed by the plasma membrane and moved into the cell
vasomotor, center, symp, diameter
________(Vasomotor) ____(Center) of the Medulla
Diffuse area or cluster of ___athetic(symp) neurons in the Reticular Formation of the Lateral Medulla containing neurons that control vascular tone.
Oversees changes in the ______(diameter) of blood vessels.
having more than one meaning; unclear, uncertain
uniform landscape
How popular culture's landscape look the same.
(n) a sign of something about to happen; omen
(v) to give a warning or omen of; foreshadow
Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
The pilgrimage to the Ka'aba in Mecca required once of every Muslim who was not limited by health or financial reasons
The entire group to which research is hoping to generalize (e.g., males, adults, U.S. citizens).
capable of being shaped or bent or drawn out adjective
quality of being able to be seen through, clear
response, hemorrhaging, long, adh, increased, thirst
Cardiovascular _____(Response) to __________(Hemorrhaging) (____(Long) Term Restoration of Blood Volume)
A process taking several days after a serious hemorrhage
Decline in capillary blood pressure recalls fluids from interstitial spaces
Aldosterone and ____(ADH) promote fluid retention
________(Increased) ____(thirst) promotes water absorption across the digestive tract
Erythropoietin ultimately increases blood volume and improves O2 delivery
Atlantic Charter
like Woodrow's 14 point plan; no territory change, people choose govt, peace of security disarmed
Action Potential
Occurs at the Axon Hillock, Long, All or Nothing
Trail Of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Collective Unconscious
According to Jung, the content of the unconscious mind that is passed down from generation to generation in all humans.
turning point
point in work in which a very significant change occurs
superior, vena, blood, tissues, head, chest
The _____(Superior) ____(Vena) Cava
Receives _____(blood) from the ______(tissues) and organs of the ____(head), neck, ____(chest), shoulders, and upper limbs.
Ad Hominem Argument
An argument that appeals to emotion rather then reason.
Abbasid Empire
founded by Abu- Al Abbas from 700 to 1258 and was based on equality
Earth Day
a day in which we celebrate the earth on April 22, 1970
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
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