AP World 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Highly specialized lymphatic capillaries present in the fingerlike villi of the intestinal mucosa are called:
 
a. lactiferous ducts
b. lac operons
c. lactases
d. lacrimal canals
e. lacteals
e. lacteals


True or False:
Unlike the nervous system, the endocrine system monitors only the external environments, not the internal.
False
The chief antibody-mediated mechanism used against cellular antigens, such as bacteria, is ___.
 
a. neutralization
b. complement fixation
c. interferon production
d. agglutination
b. complement fixation
True or False:
An increase in blood viscosity will cause an increase in peripheral resistance
True
Norepinephrine acts on heart muscle cells by:
 
a. blocking the action of calcium
b. decreasing heart contractility
c. causing a decrease in stroke volume
d. causing threshold to be reached more quickly
d. causing threshold to be reached more quickly
Both lymph and venous blood flow are heavily dependent on:
 
a. contraction of the vessels themselves
b. two-way valves
c. the pumping action of the heart
d. skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movem
d. skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement
Which of the following organs has both endocrine and exocrine functions:
 
a. gonads
b. thyroid gland
c. hypothalamus
d. pancreas
e. two of the above are true
e. two of the above are true
phleb
vein
calvo
bald
le persil
parsley
le rubis
ruby
la facture
bill
Amenazar
to threaten
hare
la liebre
le couloir
corridor, hallway
anachronism
misplaced in time
nurse
el enfermero/la enfermera
le, la fonctionnaire
civil servant
freudian
unconscious impulses (usually sexual)
gaza
-ae, f. -treasure, wealth
Trustbusting
Regulation of railroads was strengthened by the Elkins Act (1903) and especially the Hepburn Act of 1906, which had the effect of favoring merchants over the railroads. Under his leadership, the Attorney General brought forty-four suits against businesses that were claimed to be monopolies, most notably J.P. Morgan's Northern Securities Company, a huge railroad combination, and J. D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company. Both were successful, with Standard Oil broken into over 30 smaller companies that eventually competed with one another.
arrebujarse
to huddle, to wrap up
reticulocytes, immature, red
_________(Reticulocytes) are _______(immature) ___(red) blood cells.
naacp
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
Cotten Mather
(1663-1728). Puritan clergyman and avid scientist, became frustrated with Boston residents' opposition to inoculcation during the Boston smallpox epidemic of 1721. He wrote to a doctor friend, "Never till now was that reule contested of two evils, chose the least...I
al cabo de
at the end of
Africa
against stateless societies of Africa (around kinship or clans)
Vedas
the compilation of religious texts that acted as the main source of information about the period of the Vedic Age (1500-500 BCE), led into the Aryan migration speaking Indo-European languages
metabolic, acidosis, impaired, excrete, glomerulonephritis, diarrhea
Acid-Base Disorders: ________(Metabolic) ________(Acidosis) (Cont.)
2._________(Impaired) ability to ______(excrete) at the kidneys.
For example, conditions marked by severe kidney damage, such as ____________(glomerulonephritis).
3.After a severe bicarbonate loss.
The most common cause of depletion is chronic _________(diarrhea).
Symbiotic relationships
close, prolonged associations between two or more different organisms of different species that may, but don't always, benefit each member
Robert R. Livingston
promoter of Fulton's steamboat nation
monasticism
Living in a religious community apart from secular society and adhering to a rule stipulating chastity, obedience, and poverty. (Primary Centres of Learning in Medieval Europe)
King Philip's War
Conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists
savannas
biome in which the dominant herbivores are insects, dominant plants are grasses and some trees. fire is a dominant abiotic factor. large grazing mammals must migrate here during regular seasons fo drought
Zheng He
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.
antagonist
character or force that opposes or creates problems for the main character
Scalawags
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
deep processing
semantic encoding involves forming an association or attaching
meaning to a sensory impression and results in longer-lasting memories.
genre
the major category into which a literary work fits; examples are prose, poetry, and drama; each of these have sub-genres
John Locke
John Locke, an enlightenment thinker, argued that people enjoyed the natural rights of life liberty and property; to form governments to protect these rights, people entered in a social contract- a government that encroached on natural rights broke its contract with the people.
understory
the shrubs and plants growing beneath the main canopy of a forest.
personification
a type of figurative language in which a non-human subject is given human characteristics
Cardenas
which Mexican leader came up with the National Revolutionary Party?
Sampling Error
a number that indicates within what range the results of a poll are accurate
Venus figurines
Statues of women with common features (fat, large breast and but, small arms) from pre-historic times.
isolationists
people that didn't want to expand or share power with any other country.
Hellenistic Period
The culture that associated with the spread of Greek influence as a result of Macedonian conquest; often seen as the combo of Greek culture with eastern political forms
King George III
King of England during the Revolutionary War
Fourteen Points
A speech delivered by Wilson to Congress on January 8, 1918. It was intended to assure the country that the Great War was being fought for a moral cause, and for peace in Europe. It became the basis for the terms of the German surrender, as negotiated in the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. Wilson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919 for his efforts.
chronological ordering
arrangement in order in which things occur
muscle tone
relaxed muscle in state of slight contraction
qualifier
a word or word group that limits or modifies the meaning of another word or word group
"To Secure These Rights"
The President's Committee on Civil Rights was established by U.S. President Harry Truman's Executive Order 9808 on December 5, 1946. The committee was instructed to investigate the status of civil rights in the United States and propose measures to strengthen and protect the civil rights of American citizens. After the committee submitted a report of its findings to President Truman, it disbanded December 1947. In December 1947, the committee produced a 178 page report entitled To Secure These Rights: The Report of the President's Committee on Civil Rights. In the report, it proposed to improve the existing civil rights laws; to establish a permanent Civil Rights Commission, Joint Congressional Committee on Civil Rights, and a Civil Rights Division in the Department of Justice; to develop federal protection from lynching; to create a Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC); to abolish poll taxes; and urged other measures.
How many of the colonies were royal colonies at the time of the revolution? How many proprietary?
8, 3
Huang He
river located in China; also known as Yellow River, tributaries lead to the rise of cities, beaucratic government, writing, specialized labor, etc.
A karyotype is a complete:
Diploid complement display of homologous chromosome pairs.
Ku Klux Klan
primary purpose to return south to democratic control, did this by imposing fear, making examples out of people. intimidated black voters to prevent them from voting for Republicans hated all republicans (and eventually pretty much everyone), not just blacks. started as a social organization in 1866 by Nathan Bedford. Three main pushes, biggest one 1915-1941. Feed off of fear.
What part of the pulp cavity extends into the root?
root canal
John Quincy Adams
He served as Secretary of State under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. Sixth president of the United States. He was in favor of funding national research and he appointed Henry Clay as his Secretary of State. During his presidency the National Republicans were formed in support of him.
Harry Emerson Fosdick
was a pastor in riverside church in NY. was an exempler of modernist religion.

OPEC oil embargo
 

 
When the arab memebers of the OPEC reduced oil exports to the west banded oil shipments to the USA
Zhou Enlai, Den Xiaping, and Liu Shaoqui
Pragmatists (communist people willing to make changes to capitalism) who, along with Zhou Enlai (assistant to Mao), opposed the Great Leap Forward; wanted to restore state direction and market incentives at the local level
Outcome of Muller v. Oregon?
Supreme Court upholds the law of limited working hours for women
How are lipids digested in the stomach?
Gastric lipase: Same as lingual lipase
and works with lingual lipase.
10-15% of lipids digested
The Pathway of Air Through to The Lungs
Air comes in through the nose and/or mouth, moves through the nasal and/or oral cavity, into the pharynx, then to the larynx, then the trachea, then the bronchi of the lungs, then to bronchioles, where co2 and o2 are exchanged in the alveoli.
nugatory
worthless
menacing
threatening
le sondage
poll
la branche
branch
Saint-Domingue became-
Haiti
atrevido
daring, sassy
velvet
el terciopelo
le réchaud
camp stove
meander
to wander randomly
assonance
resemblance of sounds.
Mollify
to calm or sooth
Worksheet
End of period spreadsheet
obdurate
Hardened against feeling or hardheated
dentro de
within, inside of, in
Basophils.
Contain the anticoagulant heparin granules.
una vez que
as son as
Antecedent
The word or phrase[clause] that determines what a pronoun refers to
Andrew Oliver
commissioned to administer the unpopular Stamp Act in Massachusetts. On August 14, he was hanged in effigy from Boston's Liberty Tree in a protest organized by the Loyal Nine, a precursor to the Sons of Liberty. That night his house in Boston was ransacked by an angry crowd. On August 17, he was compelled to publicly resign his commission. On December 17, the Sons of Liberty again forced him to publicly swear that he would never act as stamp distributor
remand
A: forward to, send on, release
Jacobins
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794. (See also Robespierre, Maximilien.) (p. 588)
continuous reinforcement
schedule that provides reinforcement following the
particular behavior every time it is emitted; best for acquisition of a new behavior.
Revenge
vengeance; retaliation; the act of taking vengeance
rife (rif)
(adj) common, prevalent, widespread, full, plentiful.
insidious
adj. intended to trap or beguile; treacherous or deceitful.
Miscegenation
having relations with someone of a different race
sophistry
(n) reasoning that seems plausible but is actually unsound; a fallacy (specious reasoning)
Silk Road
Caravan routes connecting China and the Middle East across Central Asian and Iran
Legislative Apportionment
Allocation of seats to specific populations
creoles
In colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World. Elsewhere in the Americas, the term is used to describe all nonnative peoples. (p. 482)
Kamasutra
written by Vatsayana during the Gupta era; offered instructions on all aspects of life for higher caste males.
Byzantine Empire
Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the 4th century onward; it fell to the Ottomans in 1453
tRNA
Transfer RNA, binds to a specific amino acid until it is incorporated into a protein
Another name for antbody mediated immunity, as opposed to cellular immunitya. mucosalb. complementaryc. demarginatedd. humorale. histocompatible
d. humoral
a distinct pause in a line of poetry
caesura
Medina
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca.
Robber Baron
an American capitalist who acquired a fortune in the late nineteenth century by ruthless means.
NeoClassicism
Art based on Greece and Rome; brought about nationalism, post-independent art
Benjamin Fletcher
the governor appointed by William III in order to fix the problems that had occurred in Penn's absence
Deism
A concept of God during the Scientific Revolution; the role of divinity was limited to setting natural laws in motion.
George Washington
Commander of the Continental Army and 1st president of the United States. His selection to lead the revolution was largely political, since the congress needed someone from the south to balance out the northern colonies recruits and an aristocrat to "check the excesses of the masses." (p. 147)
Night Terrors
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered
Inca empire
Empire in Peru. conquered by Pizarro, who began an empire for the Spanish in 1535
Species
Group of organisms that are capable of breeding with one another
margaret sanger
U.S. nurse and author: leader of birth-control movement.
Polish Corridor
The strip of Poland that the Germans wanted to take, specifically Danzig
Constitution
The way in which a thing is composed of or made up of ...organization of the government.
Welfare State
A social system in which the state assumes primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens in matters of health care, education, employment, and social security. Germany was the first European country to develop a state social welfare system.
A house built of strips of sod, laid like brickwork, and used esp. by settlers on the Great Plains, when timber was scarce.
Soddies
micturition, aging, sphincter, loose, tone, Incontinence
Problems with the _______(Micturition) Reflex with _______(aging).
The _______(sphincter) muscles ____(loose) muscle ____(tone) and becomes less effective at voluntary retaining urine.
___________(Incontinence) results, commonly involving a slow leakage
Urinary retention
Approximately how high do the troposphere and stratosphere extend?
0-10 km, 17-48 km
gesticulate
v. to make or use gestures, esp. in an animated or excited manner.
The Decline of the West
Book written by Oswald Spengler, proclaiming that societies had "life cycles", and that Europe was nearing the end of its life cycle.
dominant gene
he gene expressed when the genes for a trait are different.
Describe Astrocytes, where located, function:
Star cells; most abundant & versatile;
Located: CNS
function: connect neurons to capillaries with numerous projections
fiscal Year
The period from Oct. 1 to Sept. 30 for which government appropriations are made and federal books are kept.
Battle of the Little Bighorn
a battle in Montana near the Little Bighorn River between United States cavalry under Custer and several groups of Native Americans (1876)
Describe the general role of the loop of Henle in establishing a concentration gradient between the medullary interstitial fluid and the collecting duct that allows the kidney to concentrate the urine
Concentration highest at end of collection duct. Loop of henle = separate by active transport of sodium. Asending pump NaCl out into intracellular fluid. NaCl moving out of ascending sends water out of desending filtrate. Create high concentration before asending loop. Concentration gradient favor movement of water.
diverse
varied
heterotrophs
consumers
erwischen
to catch
le buvard
blotter
dramatic
exciting, moving
orar
to pray
parakeet
el perico
l'orphelin / l'orpheline
orphan
Cansancio
Tiredness / fatigue
Miser
A greedy, grasping person
Stalin
"Not a step back."
Dopamine (prolactin-inhibiting hormone-PIH)
Prolactin
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (inhibits)
la boîte à gants
glove compartment
hyperbole
an exaggeration used for effect
magnate
a powerful influential person; business
ensayar
to test, to try out
wavelength
the distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs in a wave
réussir
to pass (an exam, a test)
Charlemagne
Carolingian monarch who established a large empire in France and Germany circa 800. (grandson of Charles Martel)
Carthage
City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E. (p. 107)
temporal conditioning
time serves as the NS.
Sojurner Truth
United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)
an apparent contradiction of terms. Example: I advise you o make haste slowly.
Oxymoron
60. Siddhartha Gautama
(Buddha, 568-483 BCE) created Buddhism.
thomas jefferson
3rd President of the United States
"war hawks"
antifederalists that had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.).
Brandeis
First jew on SC (signed by Wilson).
Great Purge
Widespread arrests and executions of over a million people by Josef Stalin; 1936-1938; attempt to eliminate all opposition to Stalin's rule of the Soviet Union
hieroglyphics
System of writing in which pictorial symbols represented sounds, syllables, or concepts. Used for official and monumental inscriptions in ancient Egypt.
Sati
The custom of higher castes of Hinduism of a widow throwing herself on the funeral pyre of her husband
May Fourth Movement
Resistance to Japanese encroachments in China began on this date in 1919; spawned movement of intellectuals aimed at transforming China into a liberal democracy; rejected Confucianism
digression
a passage or section that deviates from the central theme in speech or writing
Lymphocytes themselves attack __________.
What type of lymphocytes are they?
pathogens


T - cells
War Hawks
representatives in 1800 eager for war with Britain. READ SHEET. mad b/c of Indian, impressment, and Chesapeake-Leopard Affair.
Roman Principate
A term used to characterize Roman government in the first three centuries C.E., based on the ambiguous title princeps ('first citizen') adopted by Augustus to conceal his military dictatorship.
Roanoke
It is an island where many explorers tried to colonize. Located in North Carolina
idiom
an expression in a given language that cannot be understood from the literal
meaning ofthe words in the expression; or, a regional speech or dialect
indentured servant
person under contract to work for another person for a period of 5 to 7 years in return for free passage the British North American colonies
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
In 1842 Tyler's secretary of state, Daniel Webster concluded a treaty with Great Britain that settled a long-festering dispute over the boundary between Main the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Awarding more than half of the territory to the US
Injection of antibodies for rabies is an example of which type of immunity?
Passive artificial.
Pope's Rebellion
An Indian uprising in 1680 where pueblo rebels in an attempt to resist catholicism and Europeans all together destroyed every catholic church in the province and killed scores of priests and hundreds of spanish settlers.
Ambiguity
an event or situation that may be interpreted in more than one way.
Recycling (pros)
- reduces impact on landfills
- turns waste into an inexpensive resource
- reduces dependence on foreign oil
- reduces air/water pollution
- reduces energy requirements to produce product
- reduces need for raw materials
begrudge
to be reluctant to give, grant, or allow:
Joseph II
This was the ruler of the Habsburgs that controlled the Catholic Church closely, granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom
plurality system
an electorl system in which the winner is that person who gets the most votes, even if they do not receive a majority; used in almost all American elections
Figurative Language
Writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid.
George Whitefield
Arrived in Georgia in 1738 as a Oxford-trained Anglican minister, he went on a series of fund-raising tours throughout the colonies, he "dumbed down" his sermons so much that a child could understand them
Midnight Judges
On his last day in office, President Adams appointed a large number of Federalist judges to the federal courts in an effort to maintain Federalist control of the government. (The Federalists had lost the presidency and much of Congress to the Republicans.)
National Trails System Act
Established a national system of recreational, scienic, and historic trails
Emergency Banking Relief Act
Gave the president the power to regulate banking transactions and foreign exchange and to reopen solvent banks in order to inflate the economy.
What were the 3 major powers in northeastern north america before 1750?
english, french, Iroquois
burnish (ber' nish)
(v) to make smooth or glossy. shine, buff
treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
What is a dame school?
school run by a widowed or unmarried woman
What was the result of the imperial attempt to suppress Buddhism within the Chinese empire?
Buddhism survived the repression, but in a reduced state without the political influence of the early Tang years.
attic
Desván
habiller
to dress
la valise
suitcase
la myrtille
blueberry
Plains Indians
...
solemn
serious; grave
Divergent
variant, moving apart.
Archetype
Perfectly typical example
Pharmacology
Science of drugs
la misère noire
dire poverty
Technological Innovations:
Copper►Gold►Bronze (weapons, luxury goods)
acceder
to agree, to consent
la mémoire vive
computer memory (RAM)
Invective
An emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language
The Bell Jar
..., (Sylvia) Plath
Guomindang
(1912-present) Currently the ruling party of Taiwan. Officials of this party had a meeting with Hitler. Party was in power when communist enclaves were located inside china.
Affected
Not natural or genuine; falsely assumed; pretended
Motiration*
*Characters incentive or reason for behaving in a certain manner
cliche
An overused, worn out, hackneyed expression that used to be fresh but is no more.
quasi
resembling, but not actually beingl seemingly but not actually or completelyl partly
74. Syntax/sentence variety
Grammatical arrangement of words.
por ahora
for now; for the present
apprenticeship
a person legally bound through indenture to a master craftsman in order to learn a trade.
Anecdote
a short narrative of amusing funny incident
"Iron Curtain"
The concept symbolized the ideological fighting and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1989. On either side of the Iron Curtain, states developed their own international economic and military alliances.
anaphora
repetition of a word AT THE BEGINNING
Cotton Mather
Puritan minister who authored nearly 500 works and is remembered as the moral center for Puritan New England
lobbyists' key targets
the undecided legislator or bureaucrat
Buyids
Persian invaders of the 10th century; captured Baghdad and acted as sultans through Abbasid figureheads.
artificialism
the belief of the preoperational child that all objects are made by people.
Purges
Joseph Stalin's policy of exiling or killing millions of his opponents in the Soviet Union.
detritus
Parts of dead organisms and cast-off fragments and wastes of living organisms
a word that represents something other than itself. Example: The Christian soldiers paused to remember the lamb. (the lamb is a traditional symbol for Jesus Christ)
Symbol
Motivation
The stated or implied reason or cause for a character's actions
Modern liberalism
This was new thought that the governments should be subject to change. This was the counterpart to conservatism
natural symbolism
using objects in nature to represent objects commonly associated with them
Khitan nomads
founded Liao dynasty of Manchuria in 907; remained a threat to Song; very much influenced by Chinese culture
strict-constructionist approach
The view that judges should decide cases strictly on the basis of the language of the laws and the Constitution.
Jesuits
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe. (p. 548)
numismatics
the study and collection of money and medals
Second Great Awakening
religious revival movement that began at the beginning of the 19th century
Wound Dehiscence
Partial or complete separation of the outer layers of a sutured incision.
Key Terms(Ignore if on shuffle mode)
Date, definition, importance
What is standard enthalpy?
enthalpy measured when everything is in its std state ΔH° (formation of one mol)
Slavery begins
1619 - The first African slaves in America arrive in the Virginia colony.
ad populum
appeals to our desire to be like everyone else
brahmin
a member of the highest of the four Hindu varnas
temporize
to stall or act evasively in order to gain time, avoid a confrontation, or postpone a decision; to compromise
narrative
the telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events
Cushing's disease is a state of hypercortisolism that may be caused by a tumor of certain cells of the adenohypophysis. Which of these findings would you expect in the serum of a person with this form of Cushing's disease?a. decreased TSHb. increased PRL
d. increased ACTH
Nez Perce
When told they had to leave their land in Washington-Oregon area, Chief Joseph's half took a 4 month journey before their surrender.
Democracy in America (book)
written by De Tocqueville. noted the general economic equality in America compared to Europe. "the Government of democracy brings the notion of political rights to the level of the humblest citizens, just as the dissemination of wealth brings the notion of property within the reach of all the members of the community."
Crimean War (1854-1856)
Began with a Russian attack on the Ottoman; France and Britain joined on the Ottoman side; resulted in a Russian defeat because of Western industrial might; led to russian reforms under Alexander II.
Oligarchy
The rule of a nation or state by a few people
where is the target for collateral ganglia?
visceral effectors in the abdominopelvic cavity
what is the function of ADH?
conserve water that is released as urine
Describe how red blood cell formation is homeostatically controlled
When oxygen levels in the blood are low, the kidney will release erythropoietin which stimulates bone marrow to make RBC.
Cabrillo
California Coasts
Robert Fulton
Steam Boat
oldest intrument
30,000 years ago
Englightenment
Intellectual movement centered in France during the 18th century; featured scientific advance, application of scientific methods to study of human society; belief that rational laws could describe social behavior.
Demographics
the statistical characteristics of human populations.
Nongovernmental Organizations
Nonprofit international organizations devoted to investigating human rights abuses and providing humanitarian relief. Two NGOs won the Nobel Peace Prize in the 1990s: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (1997) and Doctors Without Borders (1999). (p. 8

census
An official, usually periodic to count off or name one by one of a population, often including the collection of related demographic information.
Federalists
Led by Alexander Hamilton, the Federalists believed in a strong central government, loose interpretation, and encouraged commerce and manufacturing. They were staunch supporters of the Constitution during ratification and were a political force during the early years of the United States. The Federalist influence declined after the election of Republican Thomas Jefferson to the presidency and disappeared completely after the Hartford Convention.
shah-nama
written by Firdawsi; relates history of Persian to Islamic conquests
scribe
someone employed to make written copies of documents and manuscripts
Ex: Scribes used this form of writing to set down lawss and treaties. (C.95)
Republican Split
Stalwarts (conservative) v. Halfbreeds (reform)
nonaligned nations
Developing countries that announced their neutrality in the Cold War. (p. 846)
Liberalism
a political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of the individual, parliamentary systems of government, nonviolent modification of political, social, or economic institutions to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human endeavor, and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties.
Pochteca
special merchant class in Aztec society specializing in long distance trade
Liberia
Nation in western Africa established in 1830; created by freed slaves who were sent there by ACS.
Delaware
This colony was taken from Pennsylvania and given its own assembly by Penn. It had the same governor as Pennsylvania until after the revolution.
bands
tribal herds with strong kinship ties
Jingoism
a feeling of intense national pride and a desire for an aggressive foreign policy
League of Nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s. (763)
u.s. grant
became president by black voters. wasnt a good president because he always was trying to please everyone in order for him to be the first to have three terms as president. Nepotism and corruption were rampant in his administration.
Integration
the act of uniting or bringing together, especially people of different races
Eisenhower Doctrine
Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
preemptive
The prior appropriation of land or other goods, i order to prevent ther appropriation by others.
Norwegians
a Scandinavian language that is spoken in Norway. the North Germanic language of Norway.
Funan
An early complex society in Southeast Asia between the first and sixth centuries C.E. It was centered in the rich rice-growing region of southern Vietnam, and it controlled the passage of trade across the Malaysian isthmus. (p. 191)
Gold Rush
1849-1860. Gold is discovered in California. It is seen as a direct confirmation of Manifest Destiny. It also influences California entering the Union as free state (slave labor increases the rich's chance of success in getting gold in what is essentially a common man's movement).
Hayes
This republican won the election of 1876. the south conceded the presidential election in exchange for ending reconstruction policies.
Renaissance
A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture. Usually divided into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century, and a Northern Renaissance 1400-1600 (445)
12th Amendment
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
mita
Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
Charleston
1690 - The first permanent settlement in the Carolinas, named in honor of King Charles II. Much of the population were Huguenot (French Protestant) refugees.
Association
A document produced by the Continental Congress in 1775 that called for a complete boycott of British goods.
Cossaks
Peoples of the Russian Empire who lived outside the farming villages, often as herders, mercenaries, or outlaws. Cossacks led the conquest of Siberia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. (p. 552)
Zhou
The people and dynasty that took over the dominant position in north China from the Shang and created the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. Remembered as prosperous era in Chinese History. (p. 61)
manumission
A grant of legal freedom to an individual slave. (p. 505)
The Albany Plan of Union
colonies proposed colonial confederation under lighter British rule (crown- appointed president, "grand council")
abolitionist
before the American Civil War, one who believed in the abolition of slavery.
Deshima
Island port in Nagasaki Bay; the only port open to foreigners, the Dutch, after the 1640s.
Heian Period
is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185.[1] The period is named after the capital city of Heian-kyō, or modern Kyōto. It is the period in Japanese history when Buddhism, Taoism and other Chinese influences were at their height. The Heian period is also considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art, especially poetry and literature.
Essex Junto
* New England's merchants opposed the War of 1812 because it cut off trade with Great Britain.
** Critics of the war were mainly Federalists who represented New England.
- The Essex Junto was a group of extreme Federalists led by Aaron Burr who advocated New England's secession from the U.S.
Taika Reforms
(645 CE); reforms by Prince Shotoku modeled on the successes of the T'ang Dynasty
water wheel
A mechanism that harnesses the energy in flowing water to grind grain or to power machinery. It was used in many parts of the world but was especially common in Europe from 1200 to 1900. (p. 398)
Sectionalism
loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole
Oneida Colony
* Founded by John Humphrey Noyes- wanted a perfect Christian community on earth.
* Practiced free love "complex marriage", birth control, and the eugenic selection of parents to produce superior offspring.
* It flourished for thirty years because its artisans made superior steel traps.
Bill of Exchange
document purchased from bank allowing someone to travel without carrying large amounts of money, like the modern check
Conquistadors
Spanish explorers who came to the new world, Early-sixteenth-century Spanish adventurers who conquered Mexico, Central America, and Peru.
Five Pillars
The obligatory religious duties of all Muslims; confession of faith, prayer, fasting during Ramadan, zakat, and hajj
 
 
 
 
280. Election of 1796: President Adams, Vice-president Jefferson
 
 
 
 
The first true election (when Washington ran, there was never any question that he would be elected). Adams was a Federalist, but Jefferson was a Democratic-Republican.
MACOLM X
says that blacks should be powerful role models and should be separated from whites; goes on pilgrimage to Mecca comes back and thinks that blacks should work together with whites
fusion
the act or process of fusing; the state of being fused.
Public Virtue
as it relates to the revolution means patriotism and the willingness of a free and independent people to subordinate their interests to the common good and even to die for their country
New Economic Policy
Initiated by Lenin in 1921; state continued to set basic economic policies, but efforts were now combined with individual initiative; policy allowed food production to recover.
1503. "Flower Children"
Hippies who were unified by their rejection of traditional values and assumptions of Western society.
Louisiana Territory
Land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains purchased from France for 15 million dollars. It doubled the size of the US at the time, getting more land than the US wanted.
1919 Steel strike
greatest strike in history, 250 thous strike to get owners to recognize their right to organize, owners brought in 30,000 African americans to break strike
root-takahira
1908 - Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the pacific and to uphold the open door policy in china. It said not to interfere with each others foreign possessions.
Al Maghrib
This is the Area the Arabs conquered and gave it this name, this area was northern africa where Carthage once was.
Sam Houston
The commander of Texan armies in the Texas Revolt. He became the first president of the Republic of Texas in 1836 and was later a Texas senator and governor.
Jacques Cartier
The French explorer who laid claim to Canada for France
Vicksburg
Grant besieged the city from May 18 to July 4, 1863, until it surrendered, yielding command of the Mississippi River to the Union.
Graduated Income Tax
tax on earnings that charges different rates for different income levels
462. Brook Farm
An experiment in Utopian socialism, it lasted for six years (1841-1847) in New Roxbury, Massachusetts.
IRAQ WEAPONS INSPECTIONS
the search for weapons of mass destruction
New France
French colony in North America, with a capital in Quebec, founded 1608. New France fell to the British in 1763. (p. 489)
Central Powers
World War I term for the alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman
empire.
Virginia & Kentucky
2 states who resolved to abolished the alien and sedition acts, which made people question who really had the power
Gupta Dynasty
What was brought to an end by an invasion of the white Huns in 451 C.E.?
Fort Necessity
after a 10 hour siege on the fort, George Washington surrenders- defeated by French
The year 320 BCE saw the creation of the gupta dynasty by
Chandra Gupta
807. Chinese Exclusion Law
1882 - Denied citizenship to Chinese in the U.S. and forbid further immigration of Chinese. Supported by American workers who worried about losing their jobs to Chinese immagrants who would work for less pay.
What are Gov't Corporations?
business like; provide a service like private companies and typically charge for their services.
giovanni de verrazano
fracis the 1st french king who sent of giovanni de verrazano who was the first man to arrive in new york harbor
Land Ordinance of 1785
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.
Raid on Harpers Ferry (1859)
In 1859, abolitionist John Brown and his followers attacked the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. He planned to arm local slaves, lead a slave rebellion, and establish a black republic. Instead, he was captured, tried, and executed for treason.
317. Rutgers v. Waddington, 1784
In 1783, the New York State Legislature passed the Trespass Act, which allowed land owners whose property had been occupied by the British during the Revolution to sue for damages. Rutgers sued in the Mayor’s Court over the seizure of her brewery, and the Mayor, James Duane, declared the Act void because it conflicted with a provision of the Treaty of Paris. It was the first time a U.S. court had declared a law unconstitutional, and was an important precedent for the later U.S. Supreme Court decision in Marbury v. Madison.
Shantung peninsula and German Islands
Areas of debate with Japan that had been seized during the war
was the high point of the Abbasid dynasty
The reign of Harun al-Rashid
Among the English citizens, the most interested in colonization were:
unemployed yeomen and the younger sons of the gentry
1472. Kent State Incident, Jackson State Incident
Kent State: May 4, 1970 - National Guardsmen opened fire on a group of students protesting the Vietnam War. Jackson State: Police opened fire in a dormitory.
what was the WTO, what was its intent, and what happened to give the organization such a black eye in 1999?
world trade organization- global free trade system. some viewed wto as an economic globalization and protested outside a meeting in seattle, rallying against wto's human and environmental costs
Doric
...
Khedives
succeeded Ali
Panama Canal Constructed
1904-1914
"A Century of Dishonor"
...
Kautilya
Political advisor to Chandragupta Maurya; one of authors of Arthashastra; believed in scientific application of warfare.
1652CE
Dutch Boers colonize South Africa
Bible
The holy book of Christians.
Plato
ancient Athenian philosopher, Student of Socrates, wrote The Republic about the perfectly governed society
Copernicus
Polish monk and astronomer (16th century); disproved Hellenistic belief that the earth was at the center of the universe.
Junks
Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, stern post rudders, compasses and bamboo fenders; dominat force in Asian sea east of the Malayan peninsula
Germany
which country planned to isolate France by forming a coalition between Austria-Hungary and Russia?
Matrilineal
family descent and inheritance traced through the female line.
Head Start
Improved education performance of underprivileged youth by Johnson
1867
The Serbians gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in this year.
Chabi
influential wife of Kubilai Khan; promoted Buddhism in China, fought to keep Mongol womens' rights rather than converting to the patriarchal Chinese ways
Sargon
became powerful enough to control other city-states
Han Dynasty
strongest and longest dynasty; expansionist empire; weak leadership which resulted in collapse; had to protect expanding borders along the Silk Road
Albert Einstein
Developed mathematical theories to explain the behavior of planetary motion and the movement of electrical particles; after 1900 issued theory of relativity
humanism
Focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor; method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular the study of ancient languages.
Ethiopia
a Christian kingdom that developed in the highlands of Eastern Africa; retained Christianity in the face of Muslim expansion elsewhere in Africa; overthrow Axum; had trade contacts with Mediterranean
referendum
public votes for approval of a law
Loess
fine, light silt deposited by winds and water. It made the Yellow River Valley's soil fertile.
Kuwait
Kingdom on the southern border of Iraq. Occupied by Iraq in 1990. Kuwait was founded on June 19, 1961. KUWAIT IS ONE OF THE RICHEST OIL PRODUCING NATIONS IN THE WORLD.
Alexander Hamilton
Secretary of Treasury under GW; believed $ would trickle down to the masses; convinced congress to assume federal and state debts-->in trade, Virginia got the federal district moved on the Potomac River b/c they had low state debt; wished to build public credit; imposed first tariff law and a tax on some domestic items
Battle of Yorktown
French, American troops capture Cornwallis while blockaded by French navy
Christopher Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World (October 12, 1492) in the service of Spain while looking for Northwest Passage. Used 3 ships and landed in the Bahamas.
James Watt
invented the condenser and other improvements that made the steam engine a practical source of power for industry and transportation. The watt, an electrical measurement, is named after him.
karl marx
1800 german economist, wrote the communist manifesto and said capitalism was flawed and working class would revolt
Shar'ia
law of islam; foundation of islamic civilization
Madiera
A large sugar-producing island off the coast of northern Africa
William Belknap
A United States Army general, government administrator, and United States Secretary of War who was forced to resign after accepting bribes from suppliers of the Indian Reserves.
Iron Age:
final technological and cultural stage in the Stone-Bronze-Iron-Age sequence
Granger Laws
(GC) , Grangers state legislatures in 1874 passed law fixing maximum rates for freight shipments. The railroads responded by appealing to the Supreme Court to declare these laws unconstitutional
Abelard, Peter
Author of Yes and No; university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology; demonstrated logical contradictions within established doctrine.
Frederick Douglas
In 1880, Frederick Douglas wrote: "Our Reconstruction measures were radically defective.... To the freedmen was given the machinery of liberty, but were denied to them the steam to put it in motion.... The old master class.... retained the power to starve them to death, and wherever this power is held there is the power of slavery." The wonder, Douglas said, was "not that freedmen have made so little progress, but, rather that they have made so much; not that they have been standing still, but that they have been able to stand at all."
Federalists / Democratic-Republicans: Foreign relations
Federalists supported Britain, while the Democratic-Republicans felt that France was the U.S.'s most important ally.
Triangular Trades
A trade route between Africa, England, the West Indies, and the colonies.
William Marbury
(1801) President Adams named him a justice of the peace for the District of Columbia. Marbury sued James Madison when he learned his appointment would never take place. (Marbury vs. Madison)
Lucretia Mott
Early 1800s - Feminist - helped organize SenThe Mason and Dixon Line was created in the 1760s to set the boundary between the colonial charters of William Penn and Lord Baltimoreeca Falls
Quebec Act
Consolatory measure to French to give Canadians more land and keep Catholicism
Act of Toleration
protect all Christian political rights in Maryland (helped Catholics)
steam engine
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable one in 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 1770s. It was then applied to machinery.
War Communism
in World War I Russia, government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, and the centralization of state administration under Communist control
Confederacy
An alliance or league of nations or peoples looser than a federation
Gupta Empire
The Gupta emperors organized a strong central government and promoted peace and prosperity. Under the Guptas, who ruled from A.D. 320 to about 540, India enjoyed a golden age, or a period of great cultural achievement. The Gupta rule was probably looser than that of the Mauryas. Power was left in the hands of individual villages and city governments selected by merchants. Trade and farming flourished across the Gupta empire. Farmers harvested crops of wheat, rive and sugar cane. The prosperity of the Guptas India contributed to a flowering in the arts and learning. Under the Gupta rule, Students were educated in religious schools. They were mostly taught mathematics, medicine physics, languages, literature, and other subjects. Gupta mathematicians devised the system of writing number that we use today. Indian mathematicians also originated the concept of zero and developed the decimal system. By Gupta timed, Indian physicians were using herbs and other remedies to treat illness. Surgeons were skilled in setting bones and in simple surgery to repair injures.
Chateaubriand published? Expressed?
Genius of Christianity--In it he defended Catholicism based on Romantic sentiment. As a faith, he argued, Catholicism echoed the harmony of all things. The foundation of faith in the church was the emotion that its teachings and sacraments inspired in the heart of the Christian
OPEC crisis
There were two oil pricing crises, triggered by the Arab oil embargo in 1973 and the outbreak of the Iranian Revolution in 1979, but fed by fundamental imbalances in the market; both resulted in oil prices rising steeply
Great Trek
Movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal.
Central Pacific Railroad
(USG), A railroad that started in Sacramento , and connected with the Union Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, Utah; hired Irish immigrants
G.I Bill of Rights
WHO: US/War veterans
WHAT:to help deal with American anxiety about having a lesser salary; it granted veterans with a year of unemployment payments. For those who attended college after the war got financial aid and entitled veterans to government loans to build homes and start businesses. This caused an upsurge in home construction (suburban growth). Many went to college
WHEN: 1944
WHERE: US
WHY: Rewarded the soldiers and educated them so they could go out and get jobs and start a family.
Revenue Act
Also known as Townshend duties, it was passed in June and July 1767, and it taxed glass, paint, lead, paper, and team imported to the colonies from England.
ivan 3 (the great)
Started to gain independence from mongols. This ruler was loved by the people and eventually overthrew mongols. Considered himself an autocrat by the grace of god himself. Developed absolute monarchy.
Bronze Age
from 4000 to 3000 B.C.E; increased use of plow, metalworking; development of the wheeled vehicles, writing.
Black Codes
laws passed in the South just after the Civil War aimed at controlling freedmen and enabling plantation owners to exploit African American workers
judicial review
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
Wheel of Life
an important symbol of Buddhism. It represents the endless cycle of life through reincarnation.
Indian removal act
This act granted the president funds and authority to remove Native Americans (1830)
clergy, warrior, worker
During Feudal Society in Europe, the medieval society was usually divided into three classes?
francisco pizarro
1. spanish explorer who set out in search of the inca civilization with a force of 200 men.
2. the spaniards disease, powerful weapons and help from local enemies of the incas resulted in the destruction of the inca empire.
the place that cowboys, farmers and others settlers traveled to out west. there was a lot of land that could be claimed and these people started their own farms and mines to make their fortunes
the open range
Napoleon Bonaparte
Rose within the French army during the wars of the French Revolution; eventually became general;led a coup that ended the French Revoltuion; established French Empire under his rule; defeated and deposed in 1815
Female Moral Reform Society
It was organized by middle-class women in New York in 1834. They wanted to liberate prostitutes from lives of sin. Also they sought to protect the morality of single women. To this end they published lists of men who frequented prostitutes or abused women. This was a direct attack on the double standard of the time. The society was replicated in hundreds of American communities by 1840.
William Jennings Bryan
Good Christian and talked a lot. Lost a lot of elections. Supporter of free silver
Innovation versus Diffusion
Trading routes and networks led to the diffusion of ideas, beliefs, and technology. However, some independent inventions such as agricultural developments and writing systems occurred without known influences from other civilizations.
Was the Cold War Over?*
(RR), Gorbachev = supported political settlements in Angola and Cambodia, and took out troops from Afghanistan, wanted more open society (perestroika "restructing", glasnost "openess"), also reduced miltary spendings, Bush didn't support the programs like Star Wars
Alien and Sedition Acts
A series of laws passed in 1798 designed to protect national security.
Prince Henry The Navigator
Explorer of West Africa in the 15th century, making many new discoveries there about Africa.
which of the following most accurately describes the silk roads?
they were direct trade routes
6.2 Women's suffrage, early 1900s
Led by Frances Willard. Passed in 1920 with 19th amendment.
The guilds of the High Middle Ages
they regulated production and sales of goods, controlled the urban economy
how was the origin of the ming dynasty similar to that of the han?
the earliest leaders were pastoral nomads
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