AP World History Flashcards

Terms Definitions
New Abbasid capital
Cortez conquered the Aztecs
founder of modern communism
To producel bring into exisitance
National American Woman Suffrage Association; founded in 1890 to help women win the right to vote
The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between ca. 1200 and 400 B.C.E., the Olmec people of central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction. (86)
desiring to help others; charitable:
former samurai who est. Mitsubishi Co.
Major trade center, perfect location along Red Sea, conquered Nubia, converted to Christianity
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada
Animist religion that saw material existence as battle between forces of good and evil; stressed the importance of moral choice; righteous lived on after death in "House of Song"; chief religion of Persian Empire.
Persian Wars
Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon. Chronicled by Herodotus.
General wave of religious dissent against Catholic church; generally held to have begun with Martin Luther's attack on Catholic beliefs in 1517; included many varietes of religious belief
John Rolfe
markets tobacco; marries Pocahontas; King James didn't like tobacco but let them sell it b/c profit for colony; sysstem of "headrights" = everyone gets 50 acres land for being at colony
senators opposed to ratification of the Treaty of Versailles on any grounds; lead by isolationists William Borah, Hiram Johnson, and Robert La Follette
______imposed a diaz-like military dictaorship supported by the large landowners, the army, and foreign investors.
victoriano huerta
A confederation of nomadic peoples living beyond the northwest frontier of ancient China. Chinese rulers tried a variety of defenses and stratagems to ward off these 'barbarians,' as they called them, and dispersed them in 1st Century. (168)
Tehran Conference*
(FDR) December, 1943, a meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace
division of labor
Manufacturing technique that breaks down a craft into many simple and repetitive tasks that can be performed by unskilled workers. Pioneered in the pottery works of Josiah Wedgwood and in other eighteenth-century factories, increasing productivity, (603)
Aztec clans that supplied labor and warriors to leaders
The Brahman, later Hindu, god of sacrifice; widely worshipped
Gibbons v Ogden
"steamboat case" involved regulation of interstate commerce. Fulton and Livingston pioneered commercial use of steamboat and had a monopoly of steamboat navigation on Hudson. Ogden purchased exclusive rights to operate ferry between N.Y and New Jersey. Gibbons had a federal trade license set up competing line, Ogden sued him. Decided in Gibbons, destroying Fulton's and Ogden's monopoly, reminded N.Y. that Congress alone controlled interstate commerce. Checked the power of states and upheld the sovereign power of federal government.
Samuel Adams
master propagandist and engineer of rebellion; formed the first local committee of correspondence in Massachusetts in 1772 (Sons of Liberty)
Concerning the proper sphere in which authority may be exercised.
Gilbert Tennant
William Tennant's son. Developed a theology of revivalism.
A millennial group who believed in both Jesus and a mystic named Ann Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
Charles Darwin
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution. (p. 715)
culpeper's rebellion
overthrow of the estblished government in the albermarle region north carolina by back country men in 1677
Itinerant Prechers
Traveling revivalist ministers of the great awakening movement to spread revivalism
Pere Jacques Marquette
French missionary who accompanied Louis Joliet in exploring the upper Mississippi River valley (1637-1675)
Settled in 1607. Jamestown was funded by what is called a Joint-Stock Company, in which a lot of people pay a little bit rather than a few people paying all of it. The Virginia Company named the area around it’s colony Virginia. Captain John Smith managed to save the floundering colony by improving relations with the natives (starving time, 1609-1610), but was later removed. The tribes that helped the colonists were part of the Powhatan Confederacy. The Confederacy had hoped an alliance with the Europeans would provide them with advanced weapons and allow them to control North America, but misjudged the expansionist tendencies of the English, and were subsequently destroyed by 1644. Planter John Rolfe introduced the cash crop tobacco, which was a huge success in England. The introduction of tobacco led directly to the institution of slavery in the Chesapeake Bay region.
Stephen Austin
Stephen Austin was an American colonizer and pioneer from Virginia who worked on the independence of Texas. His father, Moses Austin, secured a land grant from Spain, and Stephen later renewed this grant with the independent Mexico. Austin succeeded in bringing over 20,000 Americans to Texas, by 1830. He requested self-government for the territory, and was subsequently thrown into a Mexican prison. In 1835 he returned, and took the command of a Texan army ready to fight for independence. He soon resigned. After Texas became a republic in 1836, Austin worked for its US annexation
a body of citizens enrolled for military service, and called out periodically for drill but serving full time only in emergencies.
Worcester v. Georgia
Georgia cannot enforce American laws on Indian tribes
Opium War
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China. (p. 684)
Currency Acts
1751, 1764 the first currency act forbade Massachusetts from printing currency, while the second forbade all colonies from issuing currency. these acts drained specie from the colonies and made money scarce
External migration
Movement from one country to another. It may be voluntary or involuntary.
Pertaining to a social system in which the father is the head of the family
Marco Polo
Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)
a prohibition by the pope that can deprive individual persons, groups, communities, and even nations of all priestly ministiry. Thus, they no longer had acc3ess to the sacraments of the church.
Oral literature
corresponds in the sphere of the spoken word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word
Massachusetts School Law
First public education legislation in America. It declared that towns with 50 or more families had to hire a schoolmaster and that towns with over 100 families had to found a grammar school.
Axis Powers
the alliance formed in 1936 that fought in World War II consisting of the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan
War of 1812
1812/1814; america vs england. british were seizing the ships of the US. U.S. embargo was placed but it did nothing. congress declared war.
The people and dynasty that took over the dominant position in north China from the Shang and created the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. Remembered as prosperous era in Chinese History. (p. 61)
cultural imperialism
Domination of one culture over another by a deliberate policy or by economic or technological superiority. (p. 894)
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Organization of African Unity
What does OAU stand for?
Ralph Waldo Emerson
writer of "Self-Reliance" essay on farmers
embraced the Unitarian movement
Charles Sumner
caned by Preston Brooks 1856, symbol of crazy sountherns pre-Civil War
Queen Liliuokalani/Hawaii
Queen of Hawaii who disliked Americans and was overthrown when sugar prices dropped. Planters wanted the independent Republic of Hawaii and requested annexation from the US.
A state formerly located in what is now southern Vietnam. It was hostile to Annam and was annexed by Annam and destroyed as an independent entity in 1500. (p. 366)
- son and successor of Shan Jahan in Mughal India; determined to extend Mughal control over whole subcontinent; wished to purify Islam of Hindu influenced; Incessant warfare exhausted empire despite military success.
New York City
East-coast US city where the majority of Puerto Rican immigrants settled to work in factories.
House of Representatives
The one branch of the government elected directly by the people is the...
Green Mountain Boys
A militia organization led by Ethan Allen that was instrumental in resisting NY's attempts to control the area
Oveta Culp Hobby
1st woman in Republican Cabinet, 1st head of health and human services
Peter Stuyvesant
The governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, hated by the colonists. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
Theravada Buddhism
'Way of the Elders' branch of Buddhism followed in Sri Lanka and much of Southeast Asia. Therevada remains close to the original principles set forth by the Buddha; it downplays the importance of gods (181)
the third Rome
By the sixteenth century, Russians had begun to think of Moscow as
National Organization of Women
Formed in 1966, the National Organization of Women gathered to work for economic and legal rights for women, acting on a liberal tenet that men and women deserce equal rights.
Bill of Rights
Bill of Rights, first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States. The Bill of Rights establishes basic American civil liberties that the government cannot violate. The states ratified the Bill of Rights in 1791, three years after the Constitution was ratified. Originally the Bill of Rights applied only to the federal government, but in a series of 20th-century cases, the Supreme Court decided that most of its provisions apply to the states. Many countries have used the Bill of Rights as a model for defining civil liberties in their constitutions 3: 1775-1825
French & Indian War
(Globally 7 Years War)
started w/ Washington's war over Fourt Duquesne with France
British had trouble until Pitt led to victory
Stalwarts, Halfbreeds, and Mugwumps
during the Gilded Age-Roscoe Conkling led the Stalwarts, James G. Blaine led the Halfbreeds. There was competiiton between the two groups for patronage jobs, it became a more important issue than anything else. Republicans who didn't take sides were called Mugwumps
Maryland Toleration Act
This law, adopted in 1649, guaranteed that Christians would not be persecuted for their religious beliefs in Maryland. It serves as a landmark for religious tolerance even though it was limited to those who expressed belief in the Holy Trinity.
alien and sedition acts
allowed to deport allowed to deport people who were thought to be a threat to national security
1051. Daniel DeLeon, IWW, Wobblies, "Big Bull" Haywood
DeLeon denounced populists because they believed in free enterprise. Haywood was the leader of the Wobblies. The International Workers of the World (Wobblies) were a militant, radical union. They favored socialism and opposed free enterprise. They were disliked by big business and less radical unions.
Chief Justice Earl Warren
The man who said "separate is inequal," he also gave the majority vote. ,Accepted cases involving controversial issues, particularly civil rights and the rights of the accused
Martin Luther
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
Patrick Henry (1736-1799)
An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence. In connection with a petition to declare a "state of defense" in virginia in 1775, he gave his most famous speech which ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me death." Henry served as Governor of Virginia from 1776-1779 and 1784-1786, and was instrumental in causing the Bill of Rights to be adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution.
Code of Hammurabi
One of the first law codes
shows the social differences
1558. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
An international oil cartel dominated by an Arab majority, joined together to protect themselves.
First Persian Gulf War
late 20th century, began when Iraq invaded Iran following long history of border disputes & demands for overthrow of Hussein's regime. Iraqis attacked w/o formal warning but failed to make progress & soon repelled by Iranians.
952. Treaty of Paris
Approved by the Senate on February 6, 1898, it ended the Spanish-American War. The U.S. gained Guam, Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines.
New England's merchants, critics of the War of , Essex Junto
New England's merchants opposed the War of 1812 because it cut off trade with Great Britain. Critics of the war were mainly Federalists who represented New England. The Essex Junto was a group of extreme Federalists led by Aaron Burr who advocated New England's secession from the U.S.
John Rolfe, tobacco
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
consolidation of sovereign states (hasburgs)
after collapse due to religious wars there was no effective imperial empire in W europe/ Hasburg family gained control
2nd Bank of the US
revival of the original BoUS as part of the "american system" designed by Henry Clay because of Nationalism.
730. Election of 1892: candidates, issues
Democrat - Grover Cleveland and V.P. Adlai E. Stevenson - 5,554,414 popular; 227 electoral votes. Republican - Benjamin Harrison and V.P. Whitecar Reed - 145 electoral votes. National Prohibition Convention - John Brownwell and V.P. James B. Cranfil. Socialist Labor Convention - Simon Wing and V.P. Charles H. Machett. Republicans wanted a high protective tariff, but Democrats opposed it. Democrats secured a majority in both houses.
James E. Carter's Party
VP - Walter F. Mondale, SS - Cyrus R. Vance
68. SPG - Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (in Foreign Parts)
A group which worked to spread Christianity to other parts of the world through missionaries in the late 1800s.
Orthodox religious scholars
a fine-grained unstratified accumulation of clay and silt deposited by the wind
Local assemblies in Russia.
Mediate; help settle a dispute
17th amendment
Direct election of senators
English Protestant dissenters who believed that God predestined souls to heaven or hell before birth. They founded Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629. (p. 487)
pleasantly kind, benevolent, and courteous.
extreme group of puritan immigrants who felt they needed to completely abandon the church of england altogether
First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E.
a belief that limited government ensures order, competitive governments, and personal opportunity
Ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; commonly known in West as hara-kiri; demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor.
A political theory advocating an authoritarian hierarchical ultra-nationalist government. Favors nationalizing economic elites rather than promoting egalitarian socialist collectivization.
Primary idea behind Calvinism; states that salvation or damnation are foreordained and unalterable; first put forth by John Calvin in 1531; was the core belief of the Puritans who settled New England in the seventeenth century.
Spanish Armada
naval fleet; "invincible" b/c larger/more powerful; 130 ships, huge cannons attack England; England outnumbered 2:1, but they have small/fast/controlled ships; Spain defeated!; 1588; shift in world powers begins, from Spain/Portugal declined; England, France, Netherlands inclined in few years
21 amendment
constitutional amendment ratified in 1933 to repeal prohibition
Who wins the race toward berlin
European Community
An organization promoting economic unity in Europe formed in 1967 by consolidation of earlier, more limited, agreements. Replaced by the European Union (EU) in 1993. (p. 834)
Nicaragua Dilemma
(RR), 1979, Sandinistas took over, Reagan no look, so he hired Contras, but Congress didn't want another Vietnam, however later found out the US govt was in Nicaragua's harbors trying to crippe its economy, and soon many became concerned whether it would make Soviet Union mad and strain European relations, so Congress voted to cut off military
most powerful trading state on north coast of java; converted to islam and served as point of dissemination to other parts of asia
The authority claimed by monarchs to appoint church officials
a Hindu or Buddhist religious leader and spiritual teacher
Operation AJAX
Kermit Roosevelt and his CIA operatives worked closely with the British Intelligence Service and members of the Iranian military still loyal to Shah to force Mossadigh from power in Iran
To exchange goods or services without the use of money
A person who obtains money illegally by fraud, bootleggimg, gambling, or threats of violence.
John Bartram (-)
America's first botanist; traveled through the frontier collecting specimens.
Neutrality Proclamation
Washington's declaration that the U.S. would not take sides after the French Revolution touched off a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria and Prussia. Washington's Proclamation was technically a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778.
Golden Horde
Mongol khanate founded by Genghis Khan's grandson Batu. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam. Also known as the Kipchak Horde. (p. 333)
beaver wars
Series of bloody conflicts, occurring between 1640s and 1680s during which the Iroquois fought the French and their Indians allies for control of the fur trade in eastern North America and the Great Lakes region.
philosophy and system of ethics that dominated Chinese culture based on the teachings of Confucius that stressed respect for social superiors, moderation in behavior, and veneration of tradition (basically do unto others as your status and theirs dictate)
Great Awakening
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
Marin Luther
a German friar, launched the Protestant reformation, a prof. of theology, married to Katharina, worte the Ninety-five Theses
Social Darwinism
A belief that capitalism concentrated wealth in the hands of only the "fittest". Formulated by Andrew Carnegie.
Who: Leader of the Seminole Indians When and Where: The Seminole Indians in Florida were engaged in a bitter guerrilla war that proved to be the costliest Indian conflict.(1835-1842) Fifteen hundred American soldiers lost their lives in the battle. The war ended when the Americans captured Osceola and held him captive. Osceola eventually died in captivity. Why: Split up the Seminole tribe into the Everglades and Oklahoma. (The costliest Indian conflict) One of the many Indian conflicts that furthered westward expansion for the Americans.
originating in and characteristic of a particular region or country; native (often fol. by to):
Yeoman Farmers
family farmers who hired out slaves for the harvest season, self-sufficient, participated in local markets alongside slave owners
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Indian Muslim politician who founded the state of Pakistan. A lawyer by training, he joined the All-India Muslim League in 1913. As leader of the League from the 1920s on, he negotiated with the British/INC for Muslim Political Rights (816)
Abigail Adams
Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create.
Paris Peace Accords
1973 peace agreement between the United States, South Vietnam, North Vietnam, and the Vietcong that effectively ended the Vietnam War.
the head of Roman family life; the oldest living male who looked after the family's business affairs and property and could perform religious rites on their behalf; he had absolute rule over his household and children. If they angered him, he had the legal right to disown his children, sell them into slavery or even kill them.
the spread of the Islamic faith across the Middle East, southwestern Asia, and northern Africa
Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. The Crusades brought an end to western Europe's centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation.
Mongol Peace
Pax Mongolica - Mongols brought peace to almost the entire Asian continent because they tolerated and encouraged diversity, especially religions
Half-way Covenant
The Half-way Covenant applied to those members of the Puritan colonies who were the children of church members, but who hadn't achieved grace themselves. The covenant allowed them to participate in some church affairs.
Thomas Jefferson
President. Took away exise tax. made immigration to citizen law from 14 yrs to 5 yrs, made military smaller
a trinket or piece of jewelry thought to be a protection against evil
Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America. (p. 479)
Navigation Laws
Series of laws passed, beginning in 1651, to regulate colonial shipping; the acts provided that only English ships would be allowed to trade in English and colonial ports, and that all goods destined for the colonies would first pass through England.
Liberation Theology
In the 1960s the Catholic Church liberalized and modernized many of its practices, this was called what?
Hinton R. Helper
wrote book entitled 'Impending Crisis of the South' that stirred trouble
Attempted to prove that indirectly the non-slave holding whites were the ones who suffered the most from slavery
William Berkeley
gov. of VA during Bacon's Rebellion, Green spring faction led Va during 17th century
Regulators Uprising
A movement during the 1760's by western North Carolinians, mainly Scots-Irish, that resented the way that the Eastern part of the state dominated political affairs. They believed that the tax money was being unevenly distributed. Many of its members joined the American Revolutionists.
Champa Rice
Quick-maturing rice that can allow two harvests in one growing season. Originally introduced into Champa from India, it was later sent to China as a tribute gift by the Champa state. (See also tributary system.) (p. 295)
Harvard founded
1636- Founded by a grant form the Massachusetts general court. Followed Puritan beliefs.
(John D.) Long
The navy secretary who was responsible for the readiness of the American navy in the war against Spain. US ships were in comparatively good condition to the Spanish fleet. His assistant was Theodore Roosevelt, who tended to cause trouble in the office.
Harriet Jacobs
Wrote "Life of a slave girl" -owner rapes her, she runs away, sat in an attic for three years watching her kids grow, became disabled. Story makes us understand how terrible life was for young black female slaves
Writs of Assistance
A permanent search warrant held by Customs officials (implemented by Grenville)
Brown vs Board of Education
Decision saying, segregation in SCHOOLS is a violation of the 14th amendment, 1954
Sir Edmond Andros
Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England.
British raj
The rule over much of South Asia between 1765 and 1947 by the East India Company and then by a British government. (p. 659)
Yang Jian
The Sui dynasty was founded in 589 by
Weimar Republic
The Weimar Republic was a new German republic in which, in 1921, owed more than $33 billion to the allied reparations commission.
Worcester vs. Georgia
Georgia continued to take away Indian land, an action that Jackson supported, and therefore did nothing to stop. The Cherokee appealed to the Supreme Court, and in this case, Chief Justice John Marshall ruled against Georgia, but this decision was not enforced 4: 1825-1865
Battle of Gettysburg
Lee heads to PA, Meade north general
end near for S. when Pickett's cavalry failed
farthest N. for Confederacy
moral diplomacy
Woodrow Wilson and his Sec. of State, William Jennings Bryan, wanted to show that the US respected other nation's rights and would support the spread of democracy
Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
This queen of England oversaw Church of England's shift to Protestantism. The Latin liturgy became _The Book of Common Prayer_, and clergy could marry. Some who wished to "purify" the church left England as the Puritans or Separatists.
pacfific railroad act
set up funding for the building of transcontinential railroad
1437. Urban League
Helping Blacks to find jobs and homes, it was founded in 1966 and was a social service agency providing facts about discrimination.
First Strike Capability
being able to launch a nuclear attack against an enemy that is designed to eliminate the possibility of its being able to launch a second strike
scramble for Africa
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts.
Crispus Attucks (1723-1770)
He was one of the colonials involved in the Boston Massacre, and when the shooting started, he was the first to die. He became a martyr.
Collapse of Republic
1st Caesar took over and then Octavius did. The reasons why the republic was failing was because:
1. Too many slaves
2. bad economy
3. leaders fought among themselves
402. "Corrupt Bargain"
The charge make by Jacksonians in 1825 that Clay had supported John Quincy Adams in the House presidential vote in return for the office of Secretary of State. Clay knew he could not win, so he traded his votes for an office.
The Federalist Papers
late 18th century, a series of 85 essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, & John Jay to persuade the voters of New York to adopt the Constitution
1152. Leopold and Loeb case
Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb were convicted of killing a young boy, Bobby Franks, in Chicago just to see if they could get away with it. Defended by Clarence Darrow, they got life imprisonment. Both geniuses, they had decided to commit the perfect murder. The first use of the insanity defense in court.
Changes and improvements in transportation and its effect
These included canals in the Great Lakes region, toll roads, steamboats, and clipper ships. The result was faster trade and easier access to the western frontier. It aided the growth of the nation.
Port Huron Statement
Was issued by the SDS, stated the the US was insensitive to the needs of individual citizens, it led to the Free Speech Movement which was a national concern.
The society of jesus
went on the offensive and sought to extend boundaries of roman church (founded by St. Ignatius Loyola) 
The English Bill of Rights (1689)
said that only Parliament can pass laws, freedom of speech and debate in Parliament Protection from excessive bail
732. Wilson - Gorman Tariff
Meant to be a reduction of the McKinley Tariff, it would have created a graduated income tax, which was ruled unconstitutional.
Senator Joseph McCarthy (McCarthyism)
(HT) , claimed he had a list of 205 people who were communist in the state department. He said there were communist in the army, that's when he went to far
1169. Five Powers Treaty, Four Powers Treaty, Nine Powers Treaty
Five Powers Treaty: Signed as part of the Washington Naval Conference, U.S., Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy set a ten year suspension of construction of large ships and set quotas for the number of ships each country could build. Four Powers Treaty: U.S., Japan, Britain, and France agreed to respect each others possessions in the Pacific. Nine Powers Treaty: Reaffirmed the Open Door Policy in China.
believed in reincarnation
leader of umayyad clan
(Brahmin Philosopher) Believed intellectual understanding of reality was less important than personal union with the diety (contrasts Shankara)
Hipolito Irigoyen
liberal president in Argentina
Public Works Administration: Financed more that 34 thousand federal and nonfederal construction projects at a cost of more than 6 billion dollars; initiated the first federal public housing program, made the federal government the nation's leading producer of power, and advanced conservation of the nation's natural resources; discontinued in 1939 due to its effectiveness at reducing unemployment and promoting private investment
Early Indian sacred 'knowledge'-the literal meaning of the term-long preserved and communicated orally by Brahmin priests and eventually written down. (175)
asserting, resulting from, or characterized by belief in the equality of all people, esp. in political, economic, or social life.
Suleyman's european nickname was
suleyman the magnificent
An array of Germanic people- distinguished by their German language and residence- settled in northern Europe outside the Celtic and Roman strongholds. They had grown tired of being subordinate to them and fought back and had a hand in Rome's decline
Ronald Reagan's economic beliefs that a captitalist system free from taxation and government involvement would be most productive " trickle down economics"
Military Academy Founded in 1924; military wing of the Guomindang; first head of the academy was Chiang Kai-shek.
Form of political organization with rule by a hereditary leader who held power over a collection of villages and towns. Less powerful than kingdoms and empires, they were based on gift giving and commercial links.
John Locke
English philosopher during 17th century; argued that people could learn everything through senses and reason; and that power of government came from the people, not divine right of kings; offered possibility of revolution to overthrow tyrants
English Separatists who left Holland for America and landed in Plymouth Bay
What were the earlies "modern people"?
To ship (commodities) to other countries or places for sale, exchange, etc.
Alliances of corporations and banks that dominate the Japanese economy. (p. 861)
Algeciras Conference
(TR) alliance (germany, austria, and italy),1906- settled the First Moroccan Crisis- started with Germany wanting an international conference on the Moroccan question of who gets what- Germany left with nothing and was further isolated- result of conference was that Britain, France, Russia, and the US began to see Germany as a potential threat that might seek to dominate all Europe- Germany began to see sinister plots to "encircle" Germany and prevent their development as a world power
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Nullification Crisis
Southerners favored freedom of trade and believed in the authority of states over the federal government. Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void
creator of major Indian and Asian religion; born in the 6th century B.C.E.; taught that enlightenment could be achieved only by abandoning desires for earthly things.
Truman Doctrine
doctrine of CONTAINMENT. Through this doctrine, sent money to Greece and Turkey so they wouldn't succumb to communism.
Political power handed over to it. less democratic. overthrown in 1799 which was the end of the French Revolution
Disparaging term for someone who is not a "red", or Communist, but is presumed to be sympathetic to communism.
George Washington
He had led troops (rather unsuccessfully) during the French and Indian War, and had surrendered Fort Necessity to the French. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more successful in this second command.
A Spanish mission converted into a fort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out for thirteen days, but in the final battle, all of the Texans were killed by the larger Mexican force.
Thomas Edison
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures. (p. 703)
Monroe Doctrine
American declaration stated in 1823; established that any attempt of a European country to colonize in the Americans would be considered a unfriendly act by the United States; supported by Great Britain as a means if opening Latin American trade
One of the biggest transformations of the caste system was the rise of these which essentially served as Jati...
william bradford
United States printer (born in England) whose press produced the first American prayer book and the New York City's first newspaper (1663-1752)
Farmer's Alliances
Replaced the Grange more successfully, and sinn grew into the political entity called the People's Party, the political arm of the Populist movement.
Non-Intercoarse Act
Formaly reopened trade with all nations except England and Franceon March 1, 1809. A replacement of the Embargo Act. Made by the Repeblican Congress in an attempt to make England and France stop harassing the American ships and recognize the neutrality of America.
of, pertaining to, or conforming to the approved form of any doctrine, philosophy, ideology, etc.
fought for old Southern way of life (states' rights), attempted to gain higher standing within Democratic party, aimed to deny Truman enough electoral votes to avoid his reelection by nominated Strom Thurmond
Legitimate Trade
Exports from Africa in the nineteenth century that did not include the newly outlawed slave trade. (p. 654)
king cotton diplomacy
the South's political strategy during the Civil War; it depended upon British and French dependency on southern cotton to the extent that those two countries would help the South break the blockade
farms in Israel where groups of Jewish families live and work together
population revolution
Huge growth in population in Western Europe beginning about 1730; prelude to Industrial Revolution; population of France increased 50 percent, England and Prussia 100 percent.
Malcolm X
leader of the Black Muslims militant group
Tang Empire
Empire unifying China and part of Central Asia, founded 618 and ended 907. The Tang emperors presided over a magnificent court at their capital, Chang'an.
a group of Germanic tribes in the early Christian era; spread from the Rhine into the Roman Empire
Roger Williams
Rhode Island
1635 - He left the Massachusetts colony and purchased the land from a neighboring Indian tribe to found the colony of Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the only colony at that time to offer complete religious freedom.
belief that everything has a soul or spirit
Non Intercourse Act
Repealed the Embargo act. open trading.
The capital of Old Kingdom Egypt, near the head of the Nile Delta. Early rulers were interred in the nearby pyramids. (p. 43)
Member of a prominent family of the Mongols' Jagadai Khanate, Timur through conquest gained control over much of Central Asia and Iran. He consolidated the status of Sunni Islam as orthodox, and his descendants, the Timurids, maintained his empire. (336)
Bacon's Rebellion
A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land
Egyptian Social Structure
1. Pharaoh
2. Priests
3. Merchants and Artisans
4. Peasants
5. Slaves
Louisiana Purchase
purchased 828,000 sq. miles for $15 million from Napolean
ensured expansion
explored by Lewis and Clark
Group that believed in no sex, no marriage
Established by William Penn, it was a colony founded for the Quakers and practiced religous toleration and civil liberties.
Renaissance (European)
A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture. Usually divided into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century, and a Northern trans-Alpine Renaissance
Contrast Puritan colonies with others
Puritan colonies were self-governed, with each town
having its own government which led the people
in strict accordance with Puritan beliefs. Only those members of the congregation who had achieved grace and were full church members (called the "elect" or "saints") could vote and hold public office. Other colonies had different styles of government and were more open to different beliefs.
Rough Riders
This group, part of the invading US army in Cuba, were mostly enthusiastic volunteers, largely western cowboys, with a few ex-convicts and wealthier men seeking adventure.They were commanded by Colonel Leonard Wood, and organized principally by Theodore Roosevelt. They came to be known as "Wood's Weary Walkers" when they left their horses in Florida in their rush to get to Cuba.
John Tyler
Pres. after Harrison. Claimed he was a whig but was really a democrat - he opposed national banks and railroads. Didn't want to be known as a democrat because he hated Andrew Jackson.
Marquet and Juliet
Found Mississippi in 1673, just before La Salle
Philip II
Ruled Macedon from 359 to 336 bc.; founder of centralized kingdom; later conquered the rest of Greece, which was subjected to Macedonian authority
John Paul Jones (-)
Revolutionary War naval officer. His ship, the Bonhomme Richard, was sunk in a battle with the British ship Serapis, but he managed to board and gain control of the Serapis.
Great Western Schism
A division in the Latin (Western) Christian Church between 1378 and 1417, when rival claimants to the papacy existed in Rome and Avignon. (p. 411)
Umayyad dynasty
In 711, the northern Indian area of Sind fell to the
mayan empire
lived in southern Mexico, had the only written language in America prior to European explorers, ate mainly corn
Specie Circular
The use of hard currency instead of paper money. This eliminated the need for faith in the government and instead relied on items with true inherent value, such as silver and gold 4: 1825-1865
Harpers Ferry
John Brown attempted to create a slave uprising in south
south saw act as treason and should secede
north as martyr for abolitionist cause
124. Navigation Acts
A series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade. Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues. The Navigation Acts were reinstated after the French and Indian War because Britain needed to pay off debts incurred during the war, and to pay the costs of maintaining a standing army in the colonies.
Massachusetts Bay Company
Chartered by Puritans in England, the Massachusetts Bay Company established the Massachusetts Bay Colony on a grant of land betweent the Charles and Merrimack Rivers in 1630. The company served as the government of the colony until 1684. It had America's first bicameral (2 house) assembly: the House of Assistants (modeled after the House of Lords) and the House of Deputies (modeled after the House of Commons).
Vasco de Balboa
a Spaniard, who in 1513 crossed the Isthmus of Panama and became the first known European to gaze westward upon the great ocean that separated America from China.
The Fog of War
is an American documentary film about the life and times of former U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara.
Civilian Conservation Corps
A major public works program in the United States during the Great Depression.
Aboriginal People (culture and religion)
deep concern w/ immediate environment, stories and myths related to geographical features
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
is a treaty to limit the spread (proliferation) of nuclear weapons. The treaty came into force on 5 March 1970, and currently there are 189 states party to the treaty, five of which are recognized as nuclear weapon states: the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and China (also the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council).
69. Mercantilism: features, rationale, impact on Great Britain, impact on the colonies
Mercantilism was the economic policy of Europe in the 1500s through 1700s. The government exercised control over industry and trade with the idea that national strength and economic security comes from exporting more than is imported. Possession of colonies provided countries both with sources of raw materials and markets for their manufactured goods. Great Britain exported goods and forced the colonies to buy them.
General Custard's last stand; Sioux ambushed soldiers
Battle of Little Big Horn
1287. Destroyer Deal
1940 - U.S. agreed to "lend" its older destroyers to Great Britain. (Destroyers were major warships that made up the bulk of most countries' navies.) Signaled the end of U.S. neutrality in the war.
Nullification crisis, South Carolina Exposition and Protest
When faced with the protective Tariff of 1828, John Calhoun presented a theory in the South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828) that federal tariffs could be declared null and void by individual states and that they could refuse to enforce them. South Carolina called a convention in 1832, after the revised Tariff of 1828 became the Tariff of 1832, and passed an ordinance forbidding collection of tariff duties in the state. This was protested by Jackson.
Rise of the Lower House
Most of the colonial legislatures had two houses: a lower house elected by the people of the colony and an upper house appointed by the governor. Over time, the lower house became more powerful because it reflected the needs and desires of the people, while the upper house was merely a figurehead.
The major factor in drawing the country people off the farm and into the big cities was
the availability of industrial jobs
what did the confucian and hindu values have in common
helped justify and preserve social inequality
727. Election of 1888: candidates, issues
Republican - Harrison - 233 electoral; 5,444,337 popular. Democrat - Cleveland - 168 electoral, 5,540,050 popular. Fisk - 250,125 popular. Harrison said he would protect American industry with a high tariff. Issues were civil service reform and tariffs.
peasents were the vanguard of the revolution
how did chinese marzism differ from lenin's
1512. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Created by Congress in 1965, it was 11th in cabinet office. Afro-American economist Dr. Robert C. Weaver was named head, and the department regulated and monitored housing and suburban development. It also provided rent supplements for low-income families.
Polynesian temple structure.
French collaboration government established in 1940 in southern France following defeat of French armies by the Germans
dollar diplomacy
tafts foreign policy
Japanese period (794-1185), a brilliant cultural era notable for the world's first novel, Murasaki Shikibu's "The Tale of Genji"
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire
Indo-European speaking nomads who entered India from the Central Asian steppes between 1500 and 1000 BC and greatly affected Indian society.
Andean civilization culturally linked to Tiwanaku, perhaps beginning as colony of Tiwanaku. (p. 314)
islamic month of religious observance requiring fasting from dawn til sunset
What is the earliest Neolithic settlement located at a fresh water oasis near the Dead Sea?
Ethical systems that emphasized an inner moral independence, to be cultivated by strict discipline of the body and by personal bravery; developed largely apart from religious considerations and were major contributions in their own right.
Favored tariff reform and social reform, major issues from the Democratic and Republican parties. They did not seem to be dedicated members of either party.
One of the earliest Christian kingdoms, situated in eastern Anatolia (east of Turkey today) and the western Caucasus and occupied by speakers of the Armenian language. The Ottoman Empire is accused of systematic mass killings of Armenians in the early 20th century.
a republic in northeastern South America on the Atlantic
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America. User-contributed
Clovis's Conversion
Converted to Roman Christianity; attracted alligence to the Christian population--which strengthened the Franks
Techniques for ascertaining the future or the will of the gods by interpreting natural phenomena such as, in early China, the cracks on oracle bones or, in ancient Greece, the flight of birds through sectors of the sky. (p. 59)
Panic of 1893
(GC2), Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.
pictures that stand for words or ideas; picture writing
Middle Passage
The portion of the trans-Atlantic trade that involved the passage of Africans from Africa to the Americas
President can keep a bill from becoming law by leaving it unsigned.
President Lincoln killed the Wade-Davis bill this way in 1864 b/c he preferred his more moderate 10% plan for Reconstruction.
Samuel Chase
Supreme Court Justice whom appalled the Republicans b/c of vindictive partisanship and the House indicted Chase on "high crimes and misdemeanors" impeachment proceedings moved to Senate but they didn't convict him. only crime was inability to control temper and big mouth.
Criminal Court
a court having jurisdiction over criminal cases
Democratic Republicans
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
Puritan migration
Many Puritans emigrated from England to America in the 1630s and 1640s. During this time, the population of the Massachusetts Bay colony grew to ten times its earlier population.
"New Frontier"
Name for Kennedy's liberal domestic agenda; was unable to accomplish many of these goals due to assassination.
3. Qin Dynasty
Terra Cotta soldiers; centralized government
sea dogs
English buccaneers who sought to promote Protestantism and plunder by seizing Spanish treasure ships and raiding Spanish settlements
Brigham Young
Successor to Joseph Smith; traveled from Illinois settlement to Salt Lake City, Utah; finally set up permanent Mormon settlement.
How did Christianity spread?
Charlemagne's military campaigns forced the Saxons to convert; by 1000 all of w. europe had converted to roman christianity
Assembly line production
A type of production requiring workers to perform a single task over and over, typically for 12 to 14 hours. Dangers involved typically injured seriously over 500,000 workers a year.  
a right, immunity, or benefit enjoyed only by a person beyond the advantages of most:
The Enlightenment
emphasis on human reason, logic, and science (acquired, not nascent, knowledge)l increased followers of Christianity
A Jew from Galilee in northern Israel who sought to reform Jewish beliefs and practices. He was executed as a revolutionary by the Romans. (155)
northern whites who moved to the south and served as republican leaders during reconstruction
People who have settled far from their original homeland but who still share some measure of ethnic identity
government of a country by a small group of people, especially a hereditary nobility
Watergate Scandal
A break-in at the Democratic National Committee offices in the Watergate complex in Washington was carried out under the direction of White House employees. Disclosure of the White House involvement in the break-in and subsequent cover-up forced President Nixon to resign in 1974 to avoid impeachment.
Protective Tariffs
taxes that would make imported goods cost more than those made locally. Protect domestic companies
Aztec Empire
powerful Indian empire founded on Lake Texcoco (Mexico)
An umbrella term for people of diverse perspectives but many of whom typically advocate equality, protection of workers from exploitation by property owners and state ownership of major industries. This ideology led to the founding of certain labor parties in the late 1800s.
Genghis Khan
leader who united the Mongols and began invasion of China in 1234; oversaw the conquering of the Mongol Empire
Title taken by ruler of Asante Empire; supreme civil and religious leader; authority symbolized by golden stool.
boston tea party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
Tianamen Square
Site in Beijing where Chinese students and workers gathered to demand greater political openness in 1989. The demonstration was crushed by Chinese military with great loss of life. (p. 862)
Thaddeus Stevens
A radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress.
Crimean War
The Crimean War (October 1853 - February 1856)was a conflict fought between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia. The war was part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire. Most of the conflict took place on the Crimean Peninsula, but there were smaller campaigns in western Anatolia, Caucasus, the Baltic Sea, the Pacific Ocean and the White Sea. The war has gone by different names. In Russia it is also known as the "Eastern War" (Russian: Восточная война, Vostochnaya Voina), and in Britain at the time it was sometimes known as the "Russian War".
Protestant Reformation
In the early 1500s, certain Christians in Germany, England, France, Holland and other northern European countries revolted against the authority of the pope.
How many people in the South owned slaves?
The last of British colonies to be established in North America: it was unique in that it was set up as a philanthropic experiment and a military buffer against Spanish Florida. General James Oglethorpe was the soldier who designed the defenses. He also supported the establishment of Georgia as colonial refuge for the poor and for those suffering religious persecution.
Handsome Lake
Indian who preached to the Iroquois to stop morale decline- started the Longhouse religion
Trail of Tears
Forced relocation of the Cherokee from the eastern woodlands to Oklahoma (1837-1838);
it was symbolic of U.S. expansion and destruction of indigenous Indian societies.
Shang Dynasty
1766 BCE - 1027 BCE
First organised river society, introduced writing on oracles bones, local trade, ancestor worship, bronze age, Huang He river
Gempei Wars
waged for five years from 1180, on Honshu between Taira and Minamoto families; resulted in destruction of Taira
General Court
An assembly of male church members who elected representatives and granted the right to vote for governor to all men who were church members.
Secof Treasury Gallatin
Albert Gallatin was a Swiss immigrant who was a financial genius and served as U.S. Secretary of the Treasury from 1801 - 1814 under Presidents Jefferson and Madison. He advocated free trade and opposed the Federalists' economic policies. Gallatin was a member of the U.S. delegation that negotiated the Treaty of Ghent, and later served as Ambassador to France and to Britain.
Darius I
Third ruler of the Persian Empire (r. 521-486 B.C.E.). He crushed the widespread initial resistance to his rule and gave all major government posts to Persians rather than to Medes.
American Revolution
the war between Great Britain and its American colonies, 1775-83, by which the colonies won their independence.
Citizen Genet
French minister to the US, broke rules of diplomacy by appealing directly to Americans
Fireside Chats
FDR on the radio would talk to citizens. more personal.
French and Indian War
Part of?
Colonial Goal?
When?  1754-1763
Part of?  The seven years war in Europe and really all over the world.
Colonial Goal?  Colonial Unity
Results?    The French lost and were removed from Canada.  They were Humiliated
This man became governor of the supercolony called the Dominion of England, and was criticized by colonists for suppressing the legislature, limiting town meetings, and strictly enforcing the Navigation Acts.
Sir Edmond Andros
Neolithic Revolution:
New Stone Age , which was marked by the discovery and mastery of agriculture.
115. William Pitt (1708-1778)
British secretary of state during the French and Indian War. He brought the British/colonial army under tight British control and started drafting colonists, which led to riots.
plessy vs. ferguson
a case that was brought to supreme court by black lawsuits to challenge the legality of segregation. The court ruled that segregation was legal as long as it was "equal"
King Leopold II
King of Belgium (r. 1865-1909). He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the infamous ruler of the Congo Free State (to 1908).
Massachusetts Government Act
This was another of the Coercive Acts, which said that members of the Massachusetts assembly would no longer be elected, but instead would be appointed by the king. In response, the colonists elected a their own legislature which met in the interior of the colony.
who did the populists support in the election of 1896?
William Jennigns Bryan
563. William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879)
A militant abolitionist, he came editor of the Boston publication, The Liberator, in 1831. Under his leadership, The Liberator gained national fame and notoriety due to his quotable and inflammatory language, attacking everything from slave holders to moderate abolitionists, and advocating northern secession.
The Democrats formed to elect Jackson, Supported Jefferson Democracy, expansion, and....
Rights of Common Man.
439. Pre-emption Act, 1841
This was to help settlers who occupied land and improved it before surveys were done. Without it, settlers could be outbid for the land. Some speculators used "floaters" to pre-empt land for them.
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
Mexican priest who led the first stage of the Mexican independence war in 1810. He was captured and executed in 1811.
Battle of the Coral Sea
World War II Pacific battle; United States and Japanese forces fought to a standoff
What did Russia want?
to take take control of Bosporous and the Dardanelles near the black sea and to extend the influence it had over Manchuria in east asia
98. Proprietary, charter, and royal colonies
Proprietary colonies were founded by a proprietary company or individual and were controlled by the proprietor. Charter colonies were founded by a government charter granted to a company or a group of people. The British government had some control over charter colonies. Royal (or crown) colonies were formed by the king, so the government had total control over them.
346. Berlin Decree (1806), Milan Decree (1807)
These decrees issued by Napoleon dealt with shipping and led to the War of 1812. The Berlin Decree initiated the Continental System, which closed European ports to ships which had docked in Britain. The Milan Decree authorized French ships to seize neutral shipping vessels trying to trade at British ports.
the common practice of child marriage
One of the most pronounced examples of patriarchal dominance in ancient India was
1418. Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Royal Colonies
Appointed governers
31 BCE
Roman Republic ended
Spanish courts in Latin America
Ottoman empire established foundations for empire in *what* Peninsula; delayed by Tamerlane when he destroyed Ottoman forces in 1402, but after Tamerlane's death Ottomans reestablished power
Plessy v Ferguson
"seperate but equal"
trading empire between malaya and sumatra; buddhist government; its fall opened up southeaster asia to islam
Which of the Hellenistic philosophies viewed pleasure as the greatest good?
What empire normally displayed the greatest amount of toleration towards its subject people?
In medieval Europe, an agricultural laborer legally bound to a lord's property and obligated to perform set services for the lord. In Russia some of them worked as artisans and in factories; in Russia it was not abolished until 1861.
antiforeignism; touched off by the Irish and German arrivals in the 1840s and 1850s; fear of being outbred, outvoted, and mixing "fairer" Anglo-Saxon blood with "inferior" southern European blood; blamed immigrants for the degradation of urban government; angered for immigrants taking low wages (made well-paying jobs harder to find); anger at immigrants bringing doctrines like socialism, communism, and anarchism to America; organizations against immigrants included the American Protective Association (antiforeign) and organized labor (due to economic strain of immigration); 1882, first restrictive law banged the gate shut in the faces of paupers, criminals, and convicts; 1885, Congress prohibited the importation of foreign workers under contract, usually for substandard wages; 1882, law to prohibit Chinese immigration
Tariff 1828
"Tariff of Abominations" protective tariff which hurt the antebellum southern economy. John C. Calhoun is against the tariff, writes "The South Carolina Exposition" which denounces the tariff
Palestine Liberation Organization
What is the PLO?
Misnomer for Germans who had immigrated to Pennsylvania
Roman emperor (r. 312-337). After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion. (p.159)
James A. Garfield
1881, Republican, Greenback Labor Party, Republican - protective tariff, Democrats - revenue tariff, shot by Julius Guiteau (mental unstable, thought unfair spoils system)
the body of doctrine, myth, belief, etc. that guides an individual, social movement, institution, class, or large group
Stonewall Jackson
Brave commander of the Confederate Army that led troops at Bull Run. He died in the confusion at the Battle of Chancellorsville.
Burke-Wadsworth Act
the first peacetime draft. Happened after France fell to Germany but they had already started some preparations.
France gained control of ______ and ______.
tabula rasa
Blank slate, individuals born without mental, their knowledge comes from experience and perception
Everyone is born equal
Factory girls
Lowell opened a chaperoned boarding house for the girls who worked in his factory. He hired girls because they could do the job as well as men (in textiles, sometimes better), and he didn't have to pay them as much. He hired only unmarried women because they needed the money and would not be distracted from their work by domestic duties.
George Bush
Vice under Reagen. President during 1989-1993 Berlin wall comes down, Persian Gulf war against aggressive Saddam Hussein who invaded Kuwait.
Zheng He
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa. (pp. 355, 422)
Emergency quota act
limited immigrants into the U.S.
William Penn
founded colony of Pennsylvania, which promised better relations between whites and Indians; Savannah Indians tried to flee there from the Carolinas
"Free Soil"
Keeping slavery out of territories; often supported for welfare of slaves or for desire by whites to keep the west for themselves.
An economic policy of Hamilton where the government would pay the national debt at face value. It would help relieve the government out of its huge debt.
Articles of Confederation
The earliest written papers authorizing the central government. In 1777, the Continental Congress sent the Articles of Confederation to the colonies for ratification. The Articles intentionally had authorized little to no central government, since they did not want to build a government as repressive as the British had been after the war was over. Two of the main limitations were the prohibition of taxes set by the national government and the regulation of trade. Furthermore, any amendment to the Articles of confederation required the unanimous approval of all the states, something nearly impossible to achieve. With the end of the war and British rule, the Americans had to deal with some new issues as well. A new era of relations with the Indians, a new sense of freedom among second-class citizens (women and minorities), and problems caused by the Articles of Confederation.
"Duck and Cover"
Practiced by schoolchildren: Crawling under their desks and putting their hands over their heads 
of, pertaining to, or designating a city or town.
20-Negro Law
exempted those who owned or oversaw twenty or more slaves from service in the Confederate Army: "rich man's war but a poor man's fight"
World Bank
A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. (p. 834)
Fifteenth Amendment
An amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1870, prohibiting the restriction of voting rights "on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."
Catholic Reformation
16th century Catholic attempt to cure internal ills and confront Protestantism; it was inspired by the reforms of the Council of Trent and the actions of the Jesuits
Person who moves from place to place in search of food
Cultural Pluralism
a condition in which many cultures coexist within a society and maintain their cultural differences. (Soviet Union and USA)
Meat Inspection Act
required inspection of live stock before butchering
Beginning in England with a House of lords (aristocracy) and House of Commons (rich merchants) governing legislative body
An adherent of the Islamic religion; a person who 'submits' (in Arabic, Islam means 'submission') to the will of God.
Good Neighbor Policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations with Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region though the policy states that US will not intervene in the internal workings of Latin America at all; reversed by Teddy Kennedy's Big Stick Policy
Jesuit Order
a Roman Catholic order founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 to defend Catholicism against the Reformation and to do missionary work among the heathen
Interchangeable parts
identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufactoring
In early modern Europe, the class of well-off town dwellers whose wealth came from manufacturing, finance, commerce, and allied professions. (p. 459)
Zimmerman Telegram
A 1917 diplomatic proposal from the German Empire to Mexico to make war against the United States. The proposal was declined by Mexico, but angered Americans and led in part to a U.S. declaration of war in April. The message came as a coded telegram dispatched by the Foreign Secretary of the German Empire, Arthur Zimmermann, on January 16, 1917, to the German ambassador in Washington, D.C., Johann von Bernstorff, at the height of World War I. On January 19, Bernstorff, per Zimmermann's request, forwarded the telegram to the German ambassador in Mexico, Heinrich von Eckardt.
Adam Smith
was a Scottish social philosopher and a pioneer of political economy. One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment, Smith is the author of The Theory of Moral Sentiments and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. The latter, usually abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnum opus and the first modern work of economics. It earned him an enormous reputation and would become one of the most influential works on economics ever published. Smith is widely cited as the father of modern economics and capitalism.
Free Blacks
During the decades before the Civil War, the South was home to some 250,000 freed slaves. However, special laws called Black Codes kept them from owning guns, drinking, or assembling in groups greater than three. Most worked as tenant farmers or day laborers. Some "mulattos" lived realtively comfortable and wealthy lives around New Orleans.
3 statesmen:
1. Henry Clay
2. John C. Calhoun
3. Daniel Webster
New York
The Dutch founded New Amsterdam (now New York City) at the mouth of the Hudson River in 1624. The British took control of the region in the Second Dutch War (1664-1667) and converted it into a British proprietary colony.
Nazis' program during World War II to kill people they considered undesirable. Some 6 million Jews perished during the Holocaust, along with millions of Poles, Gypsies, Communists, Socialists, and others. (p. 800)
The Republic
a book that plato wrote and describes a ideal society is governed by men called philosopher kings, wisest and most able men society.
Floating Worlds
Term for centers of urban culture in Japan under the Tokugawa
edmund randolph
Proposed the Virginia Plan. One of the delegates from Virginia who refused to sign the Constitution.
Immigration Act
Ended the ethnic quota acts of the 20's, opened the US to immigrants from all parts of the world.
Tenth Cavalry
Cavalry of Black units in the civil war that later fought the Indians
Sam Houston (-)
Former Governor of Tennessee and an adopted member of the Cherokee Indian tribe, Houston settled in Texas after being sent there by Pres. Jackson to negotiate with the local Indians. Appointed commander of the Texas army in 1835, he led them to victory at San Jacinto, where they were outnumbered 2 to 1. He was President of the Republic of Texas (1836-1838 & 1841-1845) and advocated Texas joining the Union in 1845. He later served as U.S. Senator and Governor of Texas, but was removed from the governorship in 1861 for refusing to ratify Texas joining the Confederacy.
New France
French colony in North America, with a capital in Quebec, founded 1608. New France fell to the British in 1763. (p. 489)
Sewing machine
made in 1846 by Elias Howe; made making clothing faster and cheaper
Judiciary Act of 1789
established a Supreme Court and district courts (1789)
The American Declaration of Independence.
The Vietnamese Declaration of Independence was modeled on
Stono Uprising
The Stono Uprising of 1739 marked the first black civil insurrection. About a 100 slaves from South Carolina escaped and armed themselves, then fled to Spanish Florida to win their freedom. The colonial militia hunted them down and killed or captured them all. Sometimes called the Cato Rebellion; increases fears of widespread organized slave rebellion.
war of 1812 strengths
the us navy had better ships
President Johnson was impeached for violating this law that prohibited the president from removing civil officers without Senate consent.
Tenure of Office Act
1106. Collective Security
An Article 10 provision of the League charter, it stated that if one country was involved in a confrontation, other nations would support it. Collective security is agreements between countries for mutual defense and to discourage aggression.
US Entry into WWI
"Laffyette, we have come". US Corps. support Allies.
Gamal Abdel Nasser
He led the coup which toppled the monarchy of King Farouk and started a new period of modernization and socialist reform in Egypt
Indentured Servant
A laborer bound to unpaid service to a master for a fixed term, in exchange for benefits such as transportation, tools and clothes
Woman in her social and domestic character
Elizabeth Poole Sandford, 1850
Molasses Act
a- was passed 1733 by britian to make americans buy only british stuff but was not well enough enforcedb- it was meant to weaken the american economy to the point where they would not ever be a threat, but it was during salutary neglect so it didnt work
What was the Iran-Contra affair?
nov. 1986, revealed that american diplomats has secretly arranged arms sales to iranian diplomats in return for american hostages
935. James G. Blaine, Pan-Americanism
The 1884 nomination for the Rebublican presidential candidate. Pan-Americanism stated that events in the Americans affected the U.S. and we thus had reason to intervene.
Declaration of Rights and Sentiments of Women
Similar to the Declaration of Independence, only including women. Stanton and Mott helped to publish it.
sedition act of 1918
..., added to Espionage Act to cover "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the American form of government, the Constitution, the flag, or the armed forces.
What is the name for the nationlist party in China? Who leads it?
guomindang; chian kai shek
Smith-Connally Act of 1943
aka War Labor Disputes Act. Made it a criminal offense to provoke strikes in industries working on gov contracts and authorized the seizure of companies and plants needed for the war effort
626. Republican Party: 1860 platform, supporter, leaders
1860 platform: free soil principles, a protective tariff. Supporters: anti-slavers, business, agriculture. Leaders: William M. Seward, Carl Shulz.
sherman anti trust act
this was a law that made it illegal to create monopolies or trust that restrained free trade
887. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Founded in 1909 by a group of black and white intellectuals.
London Company
Virginia company
Marbury v. Madison
Judicial review
led Pullman Strike
Eugene Debs
New South
The technologically advanced industrial South
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. nationalism,Political ideology that stresses people's membership in a nation-a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, nationalism was a force for unity in western Europe
Hitler elected Chancelor of Germany
The day after Christmas George Washington suprised a group of Hessians at Trenton and captured them.
Aaron Burr
ran against Jefferson, shot hamilton
Charter of Liberty drafted by Penn
Grimke Sisters
were 19th-century American Quakers, educators and writers who were early advocates of abolitionism and women's rights.
by 1860, america's largest single export was
Hudson River School, painting school for scenery; Thomas Cole and Asher Darand
a form of political organization typical of Mesopotamian civilizations; consisted of agricultural hinterlands ruled by urbanbased king
Julia Lathrop
helped found immigrant protective league spoke out for immigration
Zhou Dynasty
2d Yellow River Valley civilization.
Ben Franklin
A delegate from Pennsylvania and proposed the "Albany Plan of the Union" as a way to strengthen colonies.sent to france to get alliance (LOVED by people there), negotiated treaty of paris, part of constitutional convention etc.
seasonal wind, key for trade across Indian ocean
kent state
an Ohio University where National Guardsmen opened fire on students protesting the Vietnam War on May 4,1970, wounding nine and killing four
243. Great Compromise
At the Constitutional Convention, larger states wanted to follow the Virginia Plan, which based each state's representation in Congress on state population. Smaller states wanted to follow the New Jersey Plan, which gave every state the same number of representatives. The convention compromised by creating the House and the Senate, and using both of the two separate plans as the method for electing members of each.
Elk Hills
California location involved in the Teapot Dome scandal; a priceless naval oil reserve.
Eugene Debs
American union leader of the IWW
Province in northeast China invaded by Japan in September 1931.
Benito Mussolini
Italian politician who led the National Fascist Party and created Fascism
Ignatius Loyola
Spanish soldier who founded the society of Jesus
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion. (p. 230)
Yucatan Peninsula
a peninsula in Central America extending into the Gulf of Mexico between the Bay of Campeche and the Caribbean Sea
all the power and land ownership passes through the father; a male led society;
believed that God created the universe to act through natural laws; Franklin, Jefferson, Paine
Von Herder
rooted national identity in German folk culture.
208. Constitution: Quorum
The minimum number of members of Congress who must be present in order to hold a session. In Congress, this number is more than half of the members.
A subcontinent in the northern half of Asia, consisting of a massive forest (taiga), and north of that, a permanently frigid tundra
a monastery under the supervision of an abbot or a convent under the supervision of an abbess.
James Madison
- Wrote the federalist papers with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay - leader of the First Congress under GW -4th President of the US -founding father of the constitution
Nelson Mandela
Born 1918. 11th President of South Africa. Spent 27 years in prison after conviction of charges while he helped spearhead the stuggle against apartheid. Received Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.
Independent Treasury Act
(1840) promoted by President Martin van Buren. The measure sought to stabilize the economy by preventing state banks from printing unsecured paper currency and establishing an independent treasury based on specie.
In regards to gaining or losing the mandate of heaven the Chinese spoke of what term?
Emma Willard
in 1821 founded Troy Female Seminary in New York which was a model for girls' schools everywhere
Joint Stock Company
private trading company in which shares are sold to investors to finance business ventures
"three sister" farming
farming technique used in North America before exploration; beans grew on the trellis of the cornstalks and squash covered the planting mounds to retain moisture in the soil
John Peter Zenger
1734-1735; newspaper printer in New York who was charged for libel on the royal governor; his lawyer (Andrew Hamilton) argued that he printed the truth but the royal chief justice disagreed; jurors proclaimed him not guilty; his case promoted liberty and freedom of the press and defined libel, freed newspapers to print responsible criticisms of officials
Belief in a single divine entity. The Israelite worship of Yahweh developed into an exclusive belief in one god, and this concept passed into Christianity and Islam.
Taiping Rebellion
The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire. (p. 687)
A state under the control of another, stronger state
John D. Rockefeller
American businessman - founder of Standard Oil Co. (major monopoly)
Treaty of Paris
Ended the Spanish-American War; under its terms, Cuba gained independence from Spain, and the US acquired Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. The US paid Spain twenty million dollars for the Philippines
established by the New Deal during the Great Depression to create manual labor jobs for millions of unemployed. The jobs were merely temporary, for the duration of the hard winter. Harry L. Hopkins was put in charge of the organization. President Franklin D. Roosevelt unveiled the CWA on November 8, 1933.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
colony settled by Separatists and Puritans who wanted to break ties with Church of England; Separatists become Pilgrims when kicked out by James I and talk to VA Co, agreeing to 7 years of labor; end up in Plymouth and are free from contracts when Mayflower goes off-course
453. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882)
Internationally recognized poet. Emphasized the value of tradition and the impact of the past on the present.
Triangular Trade
Most common, profitable form of trade in America
Great Society
late 20th century, LBJ's broad program of welfare legislation and social reform that swept through Congress and included Medicare, civil rights legislation, and the War on Poverty; funding for the programs suffered because of the costs of the Vietnam War
McKinley Tariff Bill
1890 bill calling for the highest peacetime tariff yet: 48.4 percent. It gave a bounty of two cents a pound to American sugar producers, and raised tariffs on agricultural products. The duties on manufactured goods hurt farmers financially.
James Oglethrope
A colonist that got a charter from King George II and wanted that colony a new place where debtors will have a new fresh start. The colony's name is Georgia. He outlawed slavery, no plantations but small farms, and limited the size of granted land.
Way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers for Inca armies on move; relay points for system of runners used to carry messages
James Fenimore Cooper
United States novelist noted for his stories of indians and the frontier life (1789-1851)
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
War II Fought from 1939 to 1945 on fronts including western Europe, northern Africa, the Middle East, Eurasia, southwestern Asia, China, and the Pacific; ended with defeat of Germany and Japan in 1945.
submarine telegraph cables
Insulated copper cables laid along the bottom of a sea or ocean for telegraphic communication. The first short cable was laid across the English Channel in 1851; the first successful transatlantic cable was laid in 1866. (pg 704)
sir edwin sandys
a gifted entrepreneur, led the faction of stockholders who pumped life into the faltering organization, encouraging private investors to develop their own estates in Virginia. He even introduced a new method for distributing land called headright. He urged settlers to diversify their economy (colonist producing iron and tar, silk and glass, sugar and cotton as well as tobacco)
judicial review
right of the supreme court to declare a law passed by congress unconstituitonal/ principle was established in marbuty v madison/
829. Walter Rauschenbusch
New York clergyman who preached the social gospel, worked to alleviate poverty, and worked to make peace between employers and labor unions.
Alexander the Great
From Macedonia, started one of the largest empires in ancient history. Tutored by Aristotle, father was Philip the second of Macedonia.
Define conscience Whigs
a term used to describe politicians who opposed the Mexican War on moral grounds, arguing that the purpose of the war was to acquire more land for the expansion of slavery
Ozone Depletion
Thinning of the layer of the gas ozone high in the Earth's atmosphere ozone serves as protection against the sun's ultraviolet rays
What two great Indian epics commonly portrayed women as weak willed and emotional creatures?
Mahabharata and the Ramayana
Marquis de Lafayette
issed the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Tennis Court Oath
a pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly primarily those of the Third Estate in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
shaft graves
A term used for the burial sites of elite members of Mycenaean Greek society in the mid-second millennium B.C.E. At the bottom of deep shafts lined with stone slabs, the bodies were laid out along with gold and bronze jewelry, implements, and weapons (75
battle of little big horn
1876 between advancing settlers and indians. Gen George Custer and his entire command were killed in the war to clear the Black Hills
Munn V. Illinois 1876
Court case which updeld the Granger laws
Charles Beard's: An economic interpretation of the constitution
Historians Mary and Charles Beard said the framers of the Constitution were chiefly motivated by their own economic interests in preserving their wealth and property.
The Shame of the Cities
This series of artlces was published in McClures in 1902 by Lincoln Steffens. It uncovered the corrupt alliance between big business and municipal government.
Royal African Company
used to have a monopoly on the slave trade
1223. National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
Created to insure fairness in labor-managment relations and the mediate employers' desputes with unions.
Brown vs. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Bologna, Genoa, Mila, FLorence and venice
These feudal monarchies were found in this papacy (the government of the Roman Catholic Church) and Italian city-states
1412. Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma
He wrote this to increase White awareness of the awful discrimination against Blacks.
The Telegraph and the Associated press
In 1844 Samuel F.B. Morse succeeded in transmitting a signal from Baltimore to Washington. The new systems were easy and cheap to install and seemed to solve any long distance communication issues. By 1860 over 50,000 miles of wire connected America and in 1861 a line was set up from New York to San Francisco. This new long distance ability combined with the new rotary press allowed news to travel faster and to more people.
in the philipine war of 1898 to 1902 the united states
with great diffuculty supressed a full-scale revolt that the majoirty of the Filipino people supported
Farming; agriculture
right to vote
Virginia Plan
bicameral congressional representation based on population
In Chinese belief, complementary factors that help to maintain the equilibrium of the world. Yin is associated with masculine, light, and active qualities; yang with feminine, dark, and passive qualities. (p. 63)
began as a military fort
United States suffragist and feminist
Bantu language with Arabic loanwords spoken in coastal regions of East Africa. (p. 542)
andrew johnson was almost impeached but barely survived
Attempted fusion of different systems of thought or belief.
(AL) , payments to encourage volunteers (North not South)
title of kings of ancient Egypt
Rennaissance writer, author of The Prince
6. Tong Dynasty
618 - 907 C.E.
Windell WIllkie
Dynamic but politically inexperienced Republican presidential nominee who attacked FDR on domestic issues but avoided criticizing his foreign policy
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
1842 – Established Maine’s northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states.
Townshend Act
1767, similar to Navigation Acts; raised money to pay colonial officials by American taxes; led to Boston boycott of English luxuries
utopian socialism
Philosophy introduced by the Frenchman Charles Fourier in the early nineteenth century. Utopian socialists hoped to create humane alternatives to industrial capitalism by building self-sustaining communities whose inhabitants would work cooperatively (616
pictures that symbolize an idea or action
Scientific Revolution
The intellectual movement in Europe, initially associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physics, that by the seventeenth century had laid the groundwork for modern science.
State Constitutions
These provide for state legislatures and state capitals
Black Panthers
a militant Black political party founded in 1965 to end political dominance by Whites
Iroquois Confederation
Indian peoples in the Northeastern United States, band of multiple tribes
The most influential of the smaller Middle Eastern groups who gave the world the first clearly developed monotheistic religion.
the philosophical system of the Stoics following the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Zeno -- emphasized reason as a means of understanding the natural state of things, or logos, and as a means of freeing oneself from emotional distress
to rule over others tyrannically, or behave in an overbearing way
Ex: The Portuguese continued to expand along Africa's western shore, taking over or domineering areas like Kongo. (B.185)p
13th amendment
1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Mansa Kankan Musa; converted to Islam, ruler of Mali; made pilgrimage to Mecca; caused inflation in price of gold as Mali was known for gold; brought back architect who built mosques in Mali (Great Mosque of Jenne)
Hernan Cortes
Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519-1521 for Spain. (p. 437)
National Woman Suffrage Association
Militant suffragist organization founded by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony for women's rights.
Roosevelt Panic
Financial downturn in 1907 that featured runs on banks, suicides, and criminal indictments against speculators; paved the way for fiscal reforms
Freedom Riders
civil rights activists that rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States to test the United States Supreme Court decision Boynton v. Virginia
Virtual Representation
Virtual representation means that a representative is not elected by his constituents, but he resembles them in his political beliefs and goals. The colonies only had virtual representation in the British government.
government in which one person has uncontrolled or unlimited authority over others; the government or power of an absolute monarch.
African National Congress
An organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Founded in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress, it changed its name in 1923. Eventually brought equality (809)
Barbed Wire
Improved type of fencing that enabled farmers to enclose land on the treeless plains.
A system of farming after the Civil War where black agricultural workers would work (mainly for white landowners) for a fixed rent or share of their crop, rather than a fixed wage.
putting to death, esp. by hanging, by mob action, and with out legal authority
Reverend Thomas Hooker
Minister who helped form Connecticut. Adopted fundamental orders.
Lever Act
Set up the Food and Fuel Administration, consolidates industry
An ancient religion of India with a small following today of only about 10 million followers. Originated in the 800s BCE. They prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice rely mainly on self-effort to progress the soul up the spiritual ladder to divine consciousness. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state of supreme being is called jina (Conqueror or Victor).
Saddam Husain
President of Iraq since 1979. Waged war on Iran in 1980-1988. In 1990 he ordered an invasion of Kuwait but was defeated by United States and its allies in the Gulf War (1991). (p. 860)
Free-trade imperialism
Economic dominance of a weaker country by a more powerful one, while maintaining the legal independence of the weaker state. In the late 19th century, free-trade imperialism characterized the relations between the latin American republics , on the one hand, and great Britain and the united states , on the other
Currency Act, 1764
British legislation which banned the production of paper money in the colonies in an effort to combat the inflation caused by Virginia's decision to get itself out of debt by issuing more paper money.
A leader or ruler who maintains power by continually waging war, often against other similar rulers or local military leaders.
Prison reform
Began with the Pennsylvania system in 1790, based on the concept that solitary confinement would induce meditation and moral reform. However, this led to many mental breakdowns. The Auburn system, adopted in 1816, allowed the congregation of prisoners during the day.
in World War II the alliance of Germany and Italy in 1936 which later included Japan and other nations
956. Insular cases
Determined that inhabitants of U.S. territories had some, but not all, of the rights of U.S. citizens.
Northwest Ordinance
The Northwest Ordinance took place in 1787. They said that sections of land were similar to colonies for a while, and under the control of the Federal Government. Once a territory was inhabited by 60,000 then congress would admit it as a state. The original thirteen colonies were charters. Slavery was prohibited in these Northwest Territories. This plan worked so good it became the model for other frontier areas.
Intolerable Acts
response to Boston Tea Party; punished all colonies but Massachusetts especially (Boston Port Act)
Indentured Servants
settlers to pay the expenses of a servant's voyage and be granted land for each person they brought over; headright system
vladimir I
ruler of russian kingdom of kiev who converted it to christianity
163. Galloway Plan
A plan proposed at the First Continental Congress which would have created an American parliament appointed by colonial legislatures. It was defeated by one vote.
Compromise of 1833
Taken on by Henry Clay, the legislature lowered tariffs over the course of several years giving the Southerners the relief they demanded and the while maintaining moderate protectionism and allowing northern manufacturers time to adjust to the lower rates.
President Ronald Reagan
offered a New Deal (reminiscent of FDR) of smaller government, reduced taxes, and free enterprise; Washington outsider
Constitutional Convention
The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
War Powers Act
1973. Act which restricted the powers of the president in dealing with an armed crisis. Made the president notify Congress within 48 hours of taking any military action in a foreign country and withdraw them within 60 days if Congress didn't approve.
Isolated plantations
reason for few large cities in the south
English Bill of Rights, 1689
restricted monarch's power, free elections to parliament, fight to fair trial, and elimination of cruel unusual punishments.
Gimilu was
a slave associated with the temple in Uruk
to give up, surrender; to hand over to another
375. Panic of 1819
A natural post-war depression caused by overproduction and the reduced demand for goods after the war. However, it was generally blamed on the National Bank.
John Hancock
Nicknamed "King of the Smugglers" ; He was a wealthy Massachusetts merchant in 1776 who was important in persuading the American colonies to declare their independence from England. He was the ring leader in the ploto store gunpowder which resulted in the battles in Lexington and Concord. These battles began the American Revolution.
an Arab of the desert, in Asia or Africa; nomadic Arab.
Florida Purchase Treaty
In 1819 Spain ceded Florida and other claims to Oregon in exchange for Texas. This gave land to Mexico but later caused Americans to fight against Mexicans for their old land.
Smith Act
1940 act, made it illegal to speak of or advocate overthrowing the U.S. government (used to prosecute communists)
Cross of Gold
Speech made by Bryan declaring for the unlimited coinage of silver at the rate of 16 ounces of silver to 1 of old
Credit Moblier Scandal
1872 - Union Pacific Railway created a ficticious construction company and hired itself to work (using government funds) - scandal broke loose and leaders attempted to bribe Congress with Union Pacific stock
Declatory Act (1766)
This act, which came along with the repeal of the Stamp Act, said that Parlaiment had the right to tax and make laws for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever".
174. George III
Became King of England in 1760, and reigned during the American Revolution.
National Housing Act
(FDR) 1934 , June 28, 1934- It created the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) and the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation. It was designed to stop the tide of bank foreclosures on family homes, it instead gave loans
87. Ann Bradstreet (1612-1692)
A Puritan and the first colonial poet to be published. The main subjects of her poetry were family, home, and religion.
The Mayan Long Count
A system of counting time by using different lunar cycles, The first cycle is supposed to end in the year 2012 .
1075. Archangel Expedition
1917 - U.S. sent troops to the Soviet cities of Murmansk and Archangel to reinforce White Russians (non-Communists). The U.S. troops did not fight Communists, but instead defended the ports.
Who was Moses Austin?
he moved to Texas to create an aristocratic-like estate. he wanted both Mexican and American migrants to live there.
attitude of founding fathers toward political parties
parties are vehicles of ambition and selfish interest that threaten the existence of republican govt
signifigance of the election of 1800
the election was a revolution it represented a return to what considered the original spirit of the revolution
The spread of Islam between 1200 and 1500 encouraged
-The study of classical Greek scholarship in mathematics, medicine, and science-The study of Islamic law, theology, and administration-The introduction of new technology like papermaking
"Put your bucket down where you are"
accept the face that there is race hate; appease and help whites so they like you Brooker T. Washington
Charles V
Pax Mongolica
Mongol Peace
Election of 1808
James Madison
the gradual transformation of habitable land into desert
Emilio Aguinaldo
leader of the Philippines
Turns into political parties; Jefferson v Hamilton; Dem-Rep v Fed
friendly understanding between two nations that lacks binding commitment
Curved iron plate on a plow
preeminent Greek city-states of the late Archaic and Classical periods.
a policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine
20th Amendment
Ratified 1933, determines the beginning and ending terms of elected federal officials
A powerful European family that provided many Holy Roman Emperors, founded the Austrian (later Austro-Hungarian) Empire, and ruled sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Spain. (p. 449)
Victoriano Huerta
Attempted to reestablish centralized dictatorship in Mexico following the removal of Madero in 1913; forced from power in 1914 by Villa and Zapata

Powers specifically given to Congress in the Constitution; including the power to collect
taxes, coin money, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, and declare war.
to ship (commodities) to other countries or places for sale, exchange, etc.
Munich Conference
1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.
Edict of Nantes
granted religious freedom to Protestants. Made by King Henry IV of France.
Square Deal
Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers
A vast epic chronicling the events leading up to a cataclysmic battle between related kinship groups in early India. It includes the Bhagavad-Gita, the most important work of Indian sacred literature. (p. 185)
China visit
Following a series of secret negotiations with Chinese leaders, Nixon traveled to Beijing in February 1972 to meet with Mao Zedong. The visit initiated diplomatic exchanges that ultimately led to US recognition of the Communist govt in 1979.
Enumerated powers
Powers specifically given to Congress in the constitution; including the power to collect taxes, coin money, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, and declare war.
John Stuart Mill
Philosopher, Benthamite, On Liberty, Essay that talked about problem of how to prortect the rights of individuals and minorities in the emerging age of mass electoral paricipation.
replaced Akkad in 1700 BCE; King Hammurabi; Code of Hammurabi
Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. Mamluks eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria. (236)
Home Rule
Self-government in local or national affairs; foreign or commerical policy might remain in the hands of a supreme (and possibly foreign) ruling body
killed many Indians; Old World to New
A secondary or peripheral kahn based in Persia. Khanate was founded by Hulegu, a grandson of Ghengis Khan and was based at Tabariz in Azerbaijan. It controlled much of Iran and Iraq.
Eugene O'Neill
New York dramatist and Princeton dropout who laid bare Freudian notions of sex in plays like "Strange Interlude"
The successive attachment of the soul to some animate form according to merits earned in previous lives
Danish War
1st war of German unification; Russia recieved northern territory of Schleswig
William Sherman
(AL) , scorched earth" policies that he implemented in conducting total war
iran hostage
1978 - President Carter allowed the Shah to come to the U.S. for medical reasons. Young Iranian militants broke into the U.S. Embassy in Tehran and kept the staff hostage for 444 days, releasing them January, 1981
Navigation Acts
Between late 1600s and the early 1700s, the British passed a series of laws to put pressure on the colonists (mostly tax laws). These laws are known as the Navigation Acts. Example: 1651- All goods must be shipped in colonial or English ships, and all imports to colonies must be on colonial or English ships or the ships of the producer. 1660- incorporation of law of 1651. it also enumerated articles, such as sugar, tobacco, and cotton, can only be exported to England from the colonies. 1663- a.k.a. the staple act of 1663- all imports to the colonies must go through England.
a form of social organization in which the father is the supreme authority in the family, clan, or tribe and descent is reckoned in the male line.
Alger Hiss
had an impressive career in gov, clerkship w/ Supreme Court justice, service as assistant counsel to the Nye Committee, and several years in the State Department. Traveled to Yalta w/ FDR, oversaw the creation in the UN, president of Carnegie Endowment for International peace. Couldn't be endicted for espionage but was charged with perjury- 5 years in prison
Johnson Impeachment
(AJohn) fired someone who was on tenure, only republican, democrats looking for reason to get rid of him
war Warfare of the 20th century; vast resources and emotional commitments of belligerent nations were marshaled to support military effort; resulted from impact of industrialization on the military effort reflecting technological innovation and organizational capacity.
Kornilov Affair
in late 1917 Kerensky's commander in chief, General Laver Kornolov led a feeble attack against the provincial government in September; his forces were quickly defeated.
Clippers & Pony Express
clipper ships produced:faster but smaller. mail service:form Missouri to California; collapsed after 18 months due to lack of profit.
decembrist uprising
Political revolt in Russia in 1825; led by middle level army officers who advocated reforms; put down by Tsar Nicolas I.
hero of the decade that flew an airplane
George II
Georgia was named after this English king
william loyd garrison
radical, white abolitionist leader who founded abolitionist newspaper, the Liberator; co-founded the New England Antislavery Society
Progressive Income Tax
taxed rich harder, up to 75%
Abu al-Abbas
leader of the rebellion against the Umayyad; descendant of Muhammad's uncle (750 CE)
All India Muslim League
Political organization founded in India in 1906 to defend the interests of India's Muslim minority. Led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, it attempted to negotiate with the Indian National Congress. In 1940, the League began demanding a separate state for Muslims, to be called Pakistan.
a person who switches to an opposing side or party
Filial Piety
in Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors
Keating-Owen Child Labor Act
Prohibited the sale of interstate commerce goods produced by children
lord baltimore
maryland it was founded by father and son george and sasilias calvert- they take title -lord baltimore-made for catholic haven
801. "New Imigration"
The second major wave of immigration to the U.S.; betwen 1865-1910, 25 million new immigrants arrived. Unlike earlier immigration, which had come primarily from Western and Northern Europe, the New Immigrants came mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, fleeing persecution and poverty. Language barriers and cultural differences produced mistrust by Americans.
Moscow Conference*
1943, (FDR), US, GB, and USSR, talked about principle of sovereign
a city in the western Iraqi Al Anbar Governorate, about 240 km northwest of Baghdad; predominantly Sunni Muslims
starving time
The winter of 1609 to 1610 in Virginia. Only sixty members of the original four-hundred colonists survived. The rest died of starvation because they did not possess the skills that were necessary to obtain food in the new world.
Social Security Act
a social insurance program that is funded through dedicated payroll taxes called Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA). Tax deposits are formally entrusted to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund, the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund, or the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund.
black friday
sept. 24,1869 jim fisk and jay gould's attempt at cornering the gold supply which led to financial panic
228. New state constitutions during the Revolutionary War and after
The first set of constitutions drafted by the individual states placed most of the government’s power in the legislature, and almost none in the executive in order to promote democracy and avoid tyranny. However, without the strong leadership of the executive, the state legislatures argued among themselves and couldn’t get anything done. After the Constitution was written, the states abandoned these old constitutions and wrote new ones that better balanced the power between the legislative and the executive.
Mass flight from the persecution of Archbishop Laud and Charles I
Great Puritan migration
Unrestricted submarine warfare
A policy that the Germans announced on January 1917 which stated that their submarines would sink any ship in the British waters
1336. Point Four
Program proposed by Truman to help the world's backwards areas.
Resumption Act of 1875
called for the gradual redemption of greenbacks for gold starting in 1879, making the value of paper money equal to that of gold. Brought greenbacks up to their full face value and helped restore gov's credit but contest over monetary policy persisted as one of the most divisive issues in American politics.
the cannibal kingdom
Aztecs were known as this kingdom for their widespread practice of human sacrifice
Head of H of R= Speaker of the House; Prez of Senate= VP, VEEP; Prez Pro Tempor= replaces VP if they are absent, member of senate
Fuel Administration
Even prior to a declaration of war by the United States, shortages of coal were experienced in the winter of 1916-17. To address concerns about a steady supply of fuel to support military and industrial operations and for use by consumers, in 1917 the Federal Fuel Administration was established and US President Woodrow Wilson appointed Harry A. Garfield to lead the agency. Garfield in turn selected local administrators for each state. Fuel committees were organized down to the county level.
1273. Quarantine Speech
1937 - In this speech Franklin D. Roosevelt compared Fascist agression to a contagious disease, saying democracies must unite to quarantine agressor nations.
Yalta Declaration of Liberated Europe 
All nations previously under German control would have a democratic government
Stalin barred free elections in Poland and brutally suppressed Polish democratic parties. Poland was "not only a question of honor for Russia, but one of life and death."
1085. Russian Revolutions, 1917, March and Bolshevik
After years of oppression, the peasants rebelled against the czars. The first government was democratic and weak, so another revolution overthrew that government and instituted a Communist government lead by the Bolshevik party under Lenin. Lenin pulled Russia out of WWI (The Germans may have aided his rise to power so they would not have to fight on two fronts).
talkis removal stregthened the hands of westerd ed moderates
how would you characterize the decolonization movement of india
Maryland Act of Religious Toleration (1649)
mandated the toleration of all Christian denominations in Maryland, even though Maryland was founded for Catholics (but majority was protestant)
193. Yorktown, Lord Cornwallis
Because of their lack of success in suppressing the Revolution in the nothern colonies, in early 1780 the British switched their strategy and undertook a series of campaigns through the southern colonies. This strategy was equally unsuccessful, and the British decided to return to their main headquarters in New York City. While marching from Virginia to New York, British commander Lord Cornwallis became trapped in Yorktown on the Chesapeake Bay. His troops fortified the town and waited for reinforcements. The French navy, led by DeGrasse, blocked their escape. After a series of battles, Cornwallis surrendered to the Continental Army on October 19, 1781, which ended all major fighting in the Revolutionary War.
1058. Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925)
Served as Secretary of State under Wilson from 1913-1915, he resigned in protest of U.S. involvement in WW I.
Decline of European colonial empires.
The rise of independent states in Asia and Africa after World War II demonstrates the
Explain how the Dutch and English participation within the Asian sea trading network changed by the middle decades of the 17th century.
The demand for spices declined and their futile efforts to gain control over crops such as pepper that were grown in many places became more and more expensive
Axum was originally a colony of
the Kingdom of Sheba in the Arabian Peninsula.
Coercive Acts / Intolerable Acts / Repressive Acts
All of these names refer to the same acts, passed in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party, and which included the Boston Port Act, which shut down Boston Harbor; the Massachusetts Government Act, which disbanded the Boston Assembly (but it soon reinstated itself); the Quartering Act, which required the colony to provide provisions for British soldiers; and the Administration of Justice Act, which removed the power of colonial courts to arrest royal officers.
Vietnam War
- - -
monotheistic. followers called muslims. led by mohammad. teaching recorded in the Qu'ran. Believe that salvation is due to submission to god, which can be achieved through the five pillars of islam. also guided by the concept of jihad meaning "to struggle". believe that moses, mohammad, and jesus are all prophets and that mohammad was the last great prophet. split into shia and sunni.
political advisor to Chandragupta Maurya; believed in scientific application of warfare
first true empire 911-612 BCE
grandson of Chandragupta Maurya; completed conquests of Indian subcontinent; converted to Buddhism and sponsored spread of new religion throughout his empire
Shawnee Chief Tecumseh’s brother, the Prophet, surrendered to William Henry Harrison at this location in 1809.
The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head. (pp. 258, 445)
797. "Honest Graft"
Justified bribery or cheating.
"Fair Deal"
Nickname of Truman's domestic policy
Persian religion founded by Zoroaster; taught that humans had the freedom to choose between right and wrong, and that goodness would triumph in the end
Fit for servants; humble or low
Samuel F. B. Morse
telegraph, morse code
Calvin Coolidge
Harding's Republican vice president, later became President.
-Believed in limited government Vetoed a lot of bills, even though passed by the Republican majority.
deliberate and without motive or provocation; uncalled-for; headstrong; willful:
Balfour Declaration
Statement issued by Britain's Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine. (p. 761)
simon bolivar
Venezuelan statesman who led the revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule
hard money
scarce money with high purchase value.
Max Planck
German physicist who developed quantum theory and was award teh Nobel Prize for physics in 1918.
Kamakura Shogunate
The first of Japan's decentralized military governments. (1185-1333). (p. 294)
Fourteen Points
Wilson's speech aimed at convincing America that fighting was the right thing to do
founder of Mughal dynasty in India; fine military stategist, wrote 1 of greatest histories of India
A family of languages consisting of most of the languages of Europe as well as those of Iran, the Indian subcontinent, and other parts of Asia
Emilano Zapata
Revolutionary and leader of peasants in the Mexican Revolution. He mobilized landless peasants in south-central Mexico in an attempt to seize and divide the lands of the wealthy landowners. Though successful for a time, he was ultimately assassinated. 819
Hamilton suggested to pay money back to Americans at face value + 6% interest (funding at par); gave the people this money in the form of bonds, they were guaranteed to get their money
jamestown, va
A northeast settlement named after king James, created to reduce the large population of the Cheasapeake colony.
Seneca Falls Convention
Kicked off the equal-rights-for-women campaign led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony (1848)
Rural Eletrification Act
1935, putting up telephone poles/wires, trying to make electric power available to thousands of farmers
Rhode Island
Roger Williams, banished from Mass. Bay colony, started Providence. Here, Native American rights were recognized and there was complete religious toleration. Later, a charter combined it with a region known as Portsmouth, and it became R.I.
spirit of national pride and desire for unity of one's people 
Define appeasement
pacifying an enemy by making concessions
Leisler's rebellion
uprising in late 17th century colonial New York, in which militia capitani seized control of lower New York from 1689 to 1691. The uprising, which occurred in the midst of Britain's "Glorious Revolution," reflected colonial resentment against the policies of King James II. Royal authority was restored in 1691 by British troops sent by James' successor, William III.
Tokugawa Shogunate
founded 1603 when Tokugawa Ieyasu was made shogun by Japanese emperor; ended the civil wars and brought political unity to Japan
glorious revolution
the revolution in 1688 to overthrow king james II of england
546. "Transportation Revolution"
By the 1850s railroad transportation was fairly cheap and widespread. It allowed goods to be moved in large quantities over long distances, and it reduced travel time. This linked cities' economies together.
Shaykhs (sheiks)
Leaders of tribes and clans within bedouin society; usually men with large herds, several wives, and many children
Bantu migrations
the 2,000 year long dispersion of farmers from the Niger and Benue River valleys to south and east Africa
American dream
an American ideal of a happy, successful life, which often includes wealth, a house, a better life for one's children, and, for some, the ability to grow up to be president
Absolute Monarch
ruler with complete control over the government and the lives of the people.
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese ruler that went to Versailles to ask for independence, was ignored
Head Start
Project enacted by Johnson to teach preschoolers of poor families how to be successful in school.
Yuan Shikai
Chinese general and first president of the Chinese Republic (1912-1916). He stood in the way of the democratic movement led by Sun Yat-sen. (p. 768)
General James Wilkinson
the corrupt military governor of Louisiana Territory; made an allegiance with Burr to separate the western part of the United States from the East and expand their new confederacy with invasions of Spanish-controlled Mexico and Florida; betrayed Burr when he learned that Jefferson knew of the plot; Burr was acquitted of the charges of treason by James Madison and he fled to Europe.
During the times of crisis the Romans would appoint an official with absolute power known as a
Henry Cabot Lodge
Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations
Which war in the mid-19th century demonstrated Russia's widening gap with the West?
Crimean War
Gospel of Wealth
Rockefeller said he was successful because of his Protestant work ethic.-everyone had a duty to become rich
Thomas Paine
A British citizen, he wrote Common Sense, published on January 1, 1776, to encourage the colonies to seek independence. It spoke out against the unfair treatment of the colonies by the British government and was instrumental in turning public opinion in favor of the Revolution.
an imposing or collecting, as of a tax, by authority or force.
Foraker Act of 1900
(WMc) Congress accorded the Puerto Ricans a limited degree of popular gov't and in 1917, granted then US citizenship. worked wonders in education, sanitation, transportation, + more
Oliver O. Howard
Union general known as the "Christian general" because he tried to base his policy decisions on his deep religious piety. He was given charge of the Freedmen's Bureau in 1865, with the mission of integrating the freed slaves into Southern society and politics during the second phase of the Reconstruction Era.
In an attempt to foretell the future the Shang made use of what?
Oracle bones
Henry David Thoreau
wrote essays that have had profound effect on modern thought. Wrote Walden: Or Life In the Woods.
Treaty of tilsit
1807, defeats Russia. Alexander I and Napoleon met on a raft near Tilsit(border area between Russia and Prussia).sign Treaty of Tilsit:French and Russia allies against Britian.
Giuseppe Garibaldi
An Italian radical who emerged as a powerful independent force in Italian politics; planned to liberate the Two Kingdoms of Sicily
18th century plantation economy
created widespread weath for many white americans and an umprecedented opportunity for freedom
Khubilai Khan
Last of the Mongol Great Khans (r. 1260-1294) and founder of the Yuan Empire. (p. 351)
Seventeenth Amendment
Direct election of Senators (to keep 1 person from having power in their being chosen).
Presidential Election of 1848
The Whigs nominated General Zachary Taylor, a Southern slaveowner and war hero, and Congressman Millard Fillmore
Committees of Correspondence
These started as groups of private citizens in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New York who, in 1763, began circulating information about opposition to British trade measures. The first government – organized committee appeared in Massachusetts in 1764. Other colonies created their own committees in order to exchange information and organize protests to British trade regulations. The Committees became particularly active following the Gaspee Incident.
- Attempted to let people in the different colonies know what’s going one.
- Established by Sam Adams
- Hoped that if people were upset in New York, the people in South Carolina would know about it.
1296. Office of Price Administration (OPA)
Government agency which successful combatted inflation by fixing price ceilings on commodities and introducing rationing programs during World War II.
Securities and Exchange Commission
New Deal agency established to provide a public watchdog against deception and fraud in stock trading
Boston Port Act
This was one of the Coercive Acts, which shut down Boston Harbor until Boston repaid the East India Company for the lost tea.
Commodore Matthew Perry
The Commodore of the U.S. Navy who compelled the opening of Japan to the West with the Treaty of Kanagawa in 1854. Japan also agreed to help shipwrecked soldiers as a result. Matthew Perry brought many steam ships with him to show America's strength, and to intimidate and persuade the Japanese.
National Industrial Recovery Act
Passed by Congress in June 1933 provided the workers with program which would ensure their salaries with inflation, help create jobs, and a major program of public works spending. This would be classified under the NRA, the organization created by this act 7: 1934-1941
Union Advantages
in the Civil War – Larger number of troops, superior navy, better transportation, overwhelming financial and industrial reserves to create munitions and supplies, which eventually outstripped the South’s initial material advantage.
681. Purchase of Alaska
In December, 1866, the U.S. offered to take Alaska from Russia. Russia was eager to give it up, as the fur resources had been exhausted, and, expecting friction with Great Britain, they preferred to see defenseless Alaska in U.S. hands. Called "Seward's Folly" and "Seward's Icebox", the purchase was made in 1867 for $7,200,000 and gave the U.S. Alaska's resources of fish, timber, oil and gold.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Kaiser of Germany at the time of the First World War reigning from 1888-1918. He pushed for a more aggressive foreign policy by means of colonies and a strong navy to compete with Britain. His actions added to the growing tensions in pre-1914 Europe.
John C. Calhoun
In Congress he and the Speaker of the House, Henry Clay, in 1812 persuaded the House to declare war on Britain. Calhoun was secretary of war in the cabinet of President James Monroe. He was elected vice president of the U.S. in 1824 under President John Quincy Adams. Calhoun was reelected in 1828, when Andrew Jackson won the presidency. In the course of his opposition to the high tariff of 1828, which benefited the industrial North but adversely affected the slaveholding South. In 1832 Calhoun persuaded the South Carolina legislature to nullify the federal tariff acts of 1828 and 1832. The following year Calhoun and Senator Daniel Webster engaged in a historic debate in the Senate over slavery and states' rights 4: 1825-1865
Bible, New England Primer, and hornbook
3 items used for colonial education
1502. Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
Formed in 1962 in Port Huron, Michigan, SDS condemned anti-Democratic tendencies of large corporations, racism and poverty, and called for a participatory Democracy.
New York: Dutch, 1664 English
New York belonged to the Dutch, but King Charles II gave the land to his brother, the Duke of York in 1664. When the British came to take the colony, the Dutch, who hated their Governor Stuyvesant, quickly surrendered to them. The Dutch retook the colony in 1673, but the British regained it in 1674.
502. Supreme Court: Commonwealth v. Hunt
1842 - Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. The case was the first judgement in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members.
what was the welfare reform bill and why was clinton so reluctant to sign it into law?
restricted welfare benefits for all immigrants, reflecting the rise of anti-immigrant sentiment. clinton was hesitant because he knew he would receive criticism from his liberal democrat supporters
what is nafta and what did it do for the us?
north american free trade agreement. created a free trade zone in n. america
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