AP World History 11 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
mandarins
language
Mycenaeans
inhabited mainland Greece
Phoenicians
seafaring civilization that established colonies throughout the Mediterranean
1794
Year of Jay's Treaty
Intelligentisia
Russian term for articulate intellectuals as a class
Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
Euripides
definition: writer of several tragedies involving war and its misery
significance: greek playwright
Ayan
Wealthy and deeply entrenched landed elite
socrates
philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method
Louis Sullivan
Development of skyscraper with steel-skeleton
michelangelo
Florentine sculptor and painter and architect
shogun
a hereditary military dictator of Japan
caliph
head of state, military commander, chief judge, and religious leader in the Islamic empire
Deists
Influenced by the spirit of rationalism, Desists believed that God, like a celestial clockmaker, had created a perfect universe and then had stepped back to let it operate according to natural laws.
Vedas
sacred books; contained info about preclassical period; "Veda" = Knowledge
Anarchists
Who was Alexander II assassinated by?
Aurangzeb
succeeded Shah Jahan, scolded daughter for wearing revealing clothes. screwed up Mughal dynasty, 2 bad ambitions: 1. conquer indian subcontinent 2. purify indian islam.....did extend it lots, but religious policies screwed stuff up, put back in jizya, hugest empire ever
Propoganda
How did Darius use art and sculpture?
Scalwags
(AJohn) , (South) delegates who went along with the Radical Republicans
revolution
an overthrow or repudiation and the thorough replacement of an established government or political system by the people governed
Tippecanoe
Ohio village invaded by William Henry Harrison.Found British gunpowder in village. Warhawks now have an excuse to declare war. War of 1812 is declared.
Monroe Doctrine
proclaimed era of colonization in Americas had ended. And that the U.S. would not interfere w/ existing European colonies in North or South America and would not get involved in European affairs.
varna
A caste in the Hindu caste system
Whiskey Rebellion
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Theodore Parker (-)
A leading transcendentalist radical, he became known as "the keeper of the public's conscience". His advocation for social reform often put him in physical danger, though his causes later became popular.
Lech Walesa
founder of Solidarity and polish politician; won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland from 1990 to 1995 in the first free elections in 50 years
nawab
A Muslim prince allied to British India; technically, a semi-autonomous deputy of the Mughal emperor. (p. 657)
In Indian tradition, the residue of deeds performed in past and present lives that adheres to a spirit and determines what form it will assume in its next life cycle. The doctrines of t and reincarnation were used by the elite in ancient India to encourag
karma
Henry VIII
marries Catherine of Aragon (brother's widow); becomes king; wanted a son, but has a daughter; miscarriages; meets Ann Boleyn; wants a divorce from Catherine; annulled through the Roman Catholic church, but Catherine's from Spain; church doesn't wanna offend Spain; pope won't divorce them
Sanskrit
What was the writing system used during the vedic age in the Indus Valley?
592. John C. Calhoun
Formerly Jackson's vice-president, later a South Carolina senator. He said the North should grant the South's demands and keep quiet about slavery to keep the peace. He was a spokesman for the South and states' rights.
Luo
Nilotic people who migrated from Upper Nile Valley; established dynasty among existin gBantu population in lake region of central eastern Africa; center at Bunyoro
province
an administrative division or unit of a country.
Pottawatomie Creek
John Brown an his sons slaughtered five men as a response to election fraud in Lawrence and the caning of Sumner in Congress
Memphis
The capital of Old Kingdom Egypt, near the head of the Nile Delta. Early rulers were interred in the nearby pyramids. (p. 43)
Bartlome de las casas
16th-century Spanish Dominican priest, writer and the first resident Bishop of Chiapas.
Charlemagne
King of the Franks who conquered much of Western Europe, Great patron of literature and learning, threatened conquered people with conversion to Christianity or death
Necessary and Proper
Elastic clause in the constitution that is an open door for congress
Sit in movement
movement that went to segregated places inorder to support intergration
Alfred Mahan
"sea power", most powerful Navy will control the globe
OPEC
Is a cartel formed in 1960 that controls much of the worlds oil production.
Tokugawa Shogunate
Japanese ruling dynasty that strove to isolate it from foreign influences. shogunate started by Tokugawa Leyasu; 4 class system, warriors, farmers, artisans, merchants; Japan's ports were closed off; wanted to create their own culture; illegal to fight; merchants became rich because domestic trade flourished (because fighting was illegal); had new forms of art - kabuki and geishas
Dar-al-Islam
an Arabic term that means the "house of Islam" and that refers to lands under Islamic rule
Conscience Whigs
Northern Whigs who opposed slavery on moral grounds. When the Whig party disintegrated after 1852, and the Democratic party was dominated by proslavery southerners, most of these northern Whigs joined the new Republican party.
Indian Removal Act
Forced the resettlement of thousands of Native Americans. The Bureau of Indian Affairs was created in 1836 to assist the resettled tribes.
Ming Empire
Empire based in China that Zhu Yuanzhang established after the overthrow of the Yuan Empire. The Ming emperor Yongle sponsored the building of the Forbidden City and the voyages of Zheng He. (355)
John Brown
An abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in Harpers Ferry after capturing an Armory
South American Revolutions
The Latin American Wars of Independence were the various revolutions that took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries and resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America. These revolutions followed the American and French Revolutions, which had profound effects on the Spanish, Portuguese and French colonies in the Americas. Haiti, a French slave colony, was the first to follow the United States to independence, during the Haitian Revolution, which lasted from 1791 to 1804. Thwarted in his attempt to rebuild a French empire in North America, Napoleon Bonaparte turned his armies to Europe, invading and occupying many countries, including Spain and Portugal in 1808. The Peninsular War, which resulted from this occupation, caused Spanish Creoles in Spanish America to question their allegiance to the metropole, stoking independence movements that culminated in bloody wars of independence, which lasted almost two decades. At the same time, the Portuguese monarchy relocated to Brazil during Portugal's French occupation. After the royal court returned to Lisbon, the prince regent, Pedro, remained in Brazil and in 1822 successfully declared himself emperor of a newly independent Brazil.
Currency Act
1764
forbade the colonists to issue paper money.
Mecca
Mecca or Makkah , capital of the Hejaz, W Saudi Arabia. The birthplace c.AD 570 of Muhammad the Prophet, it is the holiest city of Islam , and the goal of the annual Muslim hajj . It is c.45 mi (70 km) from its port, Jidda , and is in a narrow valley overlooked by hills crowned with castles. The city was an ancient center of commerce and a place of great sanctity for idolatrous Arab sects before the rise of Muhammad. Muhammad's flight (the Hegira) from Mecca in 622 is the beginning of the rise of Islam.
This parliamentary law banned colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains to prevent future Native American conflicts (ex. Pontiac’s Rebellion).
Proclamation Act of 1763
Otto vob Bismarck
Prime Minister of Prussia; leader of German unification
Edict of Nantes
1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.
Wilbur and Orville Wright
American bicycle mechanics; the first to build and fly an airplace, at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, December 7, 1903.
Oregon Country
NW Pacific Area. the treaty of 1818 gave Americans and British a joint-occupation of the area
Nikita Krushchev
Leader of the Soviet union during the building of the Berlin Wall and the Cuban Missile Crisis. He and President Kennedy signed the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963, temporarily easing Cold War tensions.
Tale of Genji
definition: story of Prince Genji and his lovers, written by Lady Murasaki Shikibu at end of 11th century, world's first full novel
significance: first novel
Amana Community
A German religious sect set up this community with communist overtones. Still in existence.
Ernest Hemingway
was among the writers most affected by the war (he had seen action on the Italian front in 1917); he responded to pernicious propaganda and the overblown appeal to patriotism by devising his own lean, word-sparing but word-perfect style; in The Sun Also Rises (1926), he told of disillusioned, spiritually numb American expatriates in Europe; in A Farewell to Arms (1929), he crafted one of the finest novels in any language about the war experience; a troubled soul, he finally blew out his brains with a shotgun blast in 1961
Nullification Theory
Each state had the right to decide whether to obey a federal law or declare it null and void.
William Lloyd Garrison
White Abolitionist - Early 1800s - published The Liberator
Social Darwinism:
* states that the strongest or fittest should survive and flourish in society, while the weak and unfit should be allowed to die.
* The rich become rich and the poor become poor
Terrence Powderly
Leader of the Knights of Labor during the 1880s, and witnessed the decline in popularity of labor unions, which had become increaseingly violent.
kentucky and virgina resoulutions
fedral regime had exceeded its constitutional powers and nullification would happen
Sitting Bull
notable for his role in the major victory at The Battle of Little Big Horn
Tupac Amaru II
Member of Inca aristocracy who led a rebellion against Spanish authorities in Peru in 1780-1781. He was captured and executed with his wife and other members of his family. (p. 493)
393. Daniel Webster (1782-1852)
A great American orator. He gave several important speeches, first as a lawyer, then as a Congressman. He was a major representative of the North in pre-Civil War Senate debates, just as Sen. John C. Calhoun was the representative of the South in that time.
Reconstruction Act
(AJohn) 1867 , Law that threw out the southern state governments that had refused to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment
Middle Ages
the period after the fall of the Roman Empire and before the Renaissance
Fredrick Jackson Turner
* Supported Jackson, hero of the west who would protect the will of the people against the moneyed interests
* argued that the democratic tradition of the United States survive because of the rise of the west, and not its roots in the conservative, aristocratic East
* wrote "The Significance of the Frontier in American History"
Dutch claims in European exploration
claimed New York/New Jersey, Hudson, fur trade, Iroquois; made friends with Indians
 
 
 
179. Somerset Case (in Great Britain)
 
 
A slave named James Somerset was purchased in Virginia, then taken to London by his master. In London, he tried to escape. Judge Mansfield ruled that a slave who escaped in England couldn’t be extradited to the colonies for trial.
Why did the abolitionsists split?
Because some Garrison believed that women also deserved equal righst and others did not, so the group spilt into two groups
1313. Hiroshima, Nagasaki
First and second cities to be hit by atomic bombs, they were bombed after Japan refused to surrender and accept the Potsdam Declaration. Hiroshima was bombed on August 6, 1945 and Nagasaki was bombed on August 9, 1945.
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services, 492 U.S. 490 (1989)
upholding a Missouri law that imposed restrictions on the use of state funds, facilities and employees in performing, assisting with, or counseling on abortions
Describe characteristics of the Federalists.
They wanted to pass the constitution (hence their name) but had to add a bill of rights in order to gain the anti-federalist states.
believed in a strong central government and emphasized weakness of the articles
Leaders were G. Washington, B. Franklin, J. Madison, and A. Hamilton
What was the Domino Theory?
A foregin policy begun by U.D. presidentEisenhower that expressed the idea that if any nation becames communist, then the countries aroudn that contry would likely become communist too. This theory served to justify U.S. intervention in Vietnam against the Vietnamese communist forces that controlled the northern part of the country.
Report on the Public Credit
Issued to deal with national debt by Alexander Hamilton, suggest solutions to decrease debt (Nat. Gov. assumes debt, create bonds)
849. William Dean Howells (1837-1920)
Editor of the Atlantic Monthly, and a champion of the realist movement in fiction writing.
John Winthrop (-), his beliefs
1629 - He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and served in that capacity from 1630 through 1649. A Puritan with strong religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of skillful leaders. He helped organize the New England Confederation in 1643 and served as its first president.
Which of the following is the most accurate satement about ancient Roman trade routes?
Most trade routes were focused around the Mediterranean Sea
Tiberius Gracchus
...
WWII & GD
*****
Hinder
put at a disadvantage
Red Army
Military organization constructed under leadership of Leon Trotsky, Bolshevik follower of Lenin; made use of people of humble background.
nation-state
city with its own government
dempsey and tunney
heavy weight champions
ayatollahs
highest religous authorities in safavids gov; no mullahs ever surpass them in power
serf
In medieval Europe, an agricultural laborer legally bound to a lord's property and obligated to perform set services for the lord. In Russia some serfs worked as artisans and in factories; serfdom was not abolished there until 1861. (pp. 254, 553)
Copernicus
The sun-centered model of the universe.
Habsburg
A powerful European family that provided many Holy Roman Emperors, founded the Austrian (later Austro-Hungarian) Empire, and ruled sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Spain. (p. 449)
Bushido
definition: traditional code of the Japanese samurai which stressed courage and loyalty and self-discipline and simple living
significance: provided more time for the Samurai to focus on bettering themselves
Revolution of
Jefferson's election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution."
Hatshepsut
Queen of Egypt (1473-1458 B.C.E.). Dispatched a naval expedition down the Red Sea to Punt (possibly Somalia), the faraway source of myrrh. There is evidence of opposition to a woman as ruler, and after her death her name was frequently expunged. (p.66)
Hartford Convention
Meeting by Federalists dissatisfied with the war to draft a new Constitution; resulted in seemingly traitorous Federalist party's collapse
Andrew Oliver
commissioned to administer the unpopular Stamp Act in Massachusetts. On August 14, he was hanged in effigy from Boston's Liberty Tree in a protest organized by the Loyal Nine, a precursor to the Sons of Liberty. That night his house in Boston was ransacked by an angry crowd. On August 17, he was compelled to publicly resign his commission. On December 17, the Sons of Liberty again forced him to publicly swear that he would never act as stamp distributor
Espionage Act
forbade “false statements” against the draft or the military, and banned anti-war mails
philosophy
the rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct.
hieroglyphics
System of writing in which pictorial symbols represented sounds, syllables, or concepts. Used for official and monumental inscriptions in ancient Egypt.
Credit Mobilier
A construction company that pocketed $73 million for $50 million worth of construction, bribing congressmen
Spoils System
The practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs. Jackson made this practice famous for the way he did it on a wide scale.
Square Deal
This progressive plan made by Roosevelt sought to establish the three C's: control of the corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources.
Silk Road
Caravan routes connecting China and the Middle East across Central Asia and Iran. (p. 203)
Pendleton Act
Replaces Spoils System with Merit System for Civil Service.
all Athenian citizens
Athenian democracy was open to
Triple Entente
Great Britian, France, and Russia allied together to stop Germany's aspirations. They also worked to keep a hold on Austria-Hungary.
Nobles
people who were granted power over sections of the kingdom in exchange for military service and loyalty to the king
Radicals
people who favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people
Land Freedom Army
Radical organization for independence in Kenya; frustrated by failure of nonviolent means, initiated campaign of terror in 1952; referred to by British as the Mau Mau.
Carolina Regulators
Western frontiersmen who in 1768 rebelled in protest against the high taxes imposed by the Eastern colonial government of North Carolina, and whose organization was crushed by military force by Governor Tryon in 1771. In South Carolina, groups of vigilantes who organized to fignt outlaw bands along the Western frontier in 1767-1769, and who disbanded when regular courts were established in those areas.
eastern orthodox
The Christian religion of the Byzantine Empire in the middle east that formed from Christianity's schism between the remains of the western and eastern Roman Empire. The Christian church ruled by the Byzantine emperor and the patriarchs of various historically significant Christian centers/cities.
Golden Horde
Mongol khanate founded by Genghis Khan's grandson Batu. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam. Also known as the Kipchak Horde. (p. 333)
big four
..., Woodrow Wilson (US president), Georges Clemenceau (french premier), David Lloyd George (british prime minister), Vittorio Orlando (italian prime minister)
state who won Election for Jefferson
New York
Marbury v. Madison
early 19th century, precedent-setting Supreme Court case in which Marshall dismissed a Federalist judge's suit but also declared art of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional; established principle of judicial review
XYZ affair
When the French, outraged by Jay's treaty, begin violating the terms of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778, President John Adams sends over three secret go-betweens to talk with Talleyrand, the French foreign minister. The demanded a bribe of $250,000 in order to merely talk with Talleyrand. This occurrence led to Naval Battles between the two countries. But France, already at battling Britain, realized they did not wish to have one more enemy added to their roster.
Resolution Trust Corporation
(GB1) managed the assets and liabilities of institutions that became insovlent between 1989 and 1992.
The Ashburton Treaty
1842, this treaty established a boundary along the Maine-New Brunswick border (between Canada and Maine).
Ottoman Empire
A Turkic empire established in the Asia Minor and eventually extending throughout Middle East; responsible for conquest of Constantinople and end of Byzantine Empire in 1453; succeeded Seljuk turks following retreat of Mongols
highest social class of Egypt
king & high-ranking officials
"Mr. Polk's War"
the Mexican-American war was not supported in the northeast and was nicknamed this. Whigs opposed the war, but party members in Congress voted to support the soldiers and marines during the fighting.
Ku Klux Klan
(AJohn) , White supremacy organization that intimidated blacks out of their newly found liberties
Sino-Japanese
War War fought between Japan and Qing China between 1894 and 1895; resulted in Japanese victory; frustrated Japanese imperial aims because of Western insistence that Japan withdraw from Liaotung peninsula.
The Goths
Germanic people who first settled in Northern Europe outside the Celtic and Roman strongholds.
jackson's defiance of supreme court, removal act passed, and southern states invalidate federal treates, results in
trail of tears
plantocracy
In the West Indian colonies, the rich men who owned most of the slaves and most of the land, especially in the eighteenth century. (p. 502)
marco polo
sailed for italy traveled with his father and went to china and stayed for 17 years. brought back gold, silk, and jewels and he wrote a book which enticed columbus
Sir Edmund Andros
English-placed leader of the Dominion of New England; despised for affiliation with Chruch of England and for heavy restrictions (taxation without representation); sent back to England by Boston mob
Indian reservations
Reform movement to move Indians to reservations so they could be protected from whites while becoming more successful as a group.
Homestead Strike
an industrial lockout and strike which began on June 30, 1892, culminating in a battle between strikers and private security agents on July 6, 1892. It is one of the most serious labor disputes in US history. The dispute occurred in the Pittsburgh-area town of Homestead, Pennsylvania, between the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers (the AA) and the Carnegie Steel Company.
battle of manila bay
Phillipines: Commodore George Dewey fired on spanish vessels in manila bay. The city of manila was captured on august 13.
Coins Financial School
Popular pamphlet written by William Hope Harvey concerning silver
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
1901 - Great Britain recognized U.S. Sphere of Influence over the Panama canal zone provided the canal itself remained neutral. U.S. given full control over construction and management of the canal.
subsidy
a direct pecuniary aid furnished by a government to a private industrial undertaking, a charity organization, or the like.
Wilmot Proviso
Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico (1846)
Why did the French welcome Napoleon?
Gained supporters, promised order
Gulf War
a war fought between a coalition led by the United States and Iraq to free Kuwait from Iraqi invaders
Conformity in the 1950's
Suburbia, consumerism, TV, Dr. Spock, businessmen, fashion
Boston Massacre
March 5, 1770 a crowd of 60 townspeople attacted 10 redcoats. the redcoats opened fired on the civilians, killing/wounding 11 of them.
The Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments to the Constitution that protected individual rights
Boxer Protocol
a protocol that China was forced to sign as a result of the rebellion that shares its name which demanded the China pay the Europeans and Japanese the cost of putting down the rebellion and formally apologize
Southern Song
Rump state of the Song Dynasty from 1127 to 1279; carved out of the much larger domains of the Tang and northern Song; Culturally, one of the most glorious reigns in Chinese history.
Neal S. Dow
Maine Mayor who fought for temperance movement, creates a temperance law in 1851 which prohibits manufacturing and selling of alcohol in Maine
Winfield Scott
He was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. Known as "Old Fuss and Feathers" and the "Grand Old Man of the Army", he served on active duty as a general longer than any other man in American history and most historians rate him the ablest American commander of his time. Over the course of his 50 year career, he commanded forces in the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, the Black Hawk War, the Second Seminole War, and, briefly, the American Civil War, conceiving the Union strategy known as the Anaconda Plan that would be used to defeat the Confederacy.
Rouge River
Location of one of Henry Ford's plants in Detroit that produced a finished automobile nearly every ten seconds

election of 1800
1st time of the changing of parties when there was no riots in the streets
Compromise of 1850
Called for the admission of California as a free state, organizing Utah and New Mexico with out restrictions on slavery, adjustment of the Texas/New Mexico border, abolition of slave trade in District of Columbia, and tougher fugitive slave laws. Its passage was hailed as a solution to the threat of national division.
Bill of Rights
• Added to the Constitution in 1791 • Helped placate the ant-federalists • Introduced by Madison to the United States Congress • They protected the people's rights
377. Jackson in Florida
1817 - The Seminole Indians in Florida, encouraged by the Spanish, launched a series of raids into the U.S. President J. Q. Adams ordered Andrew Jackson, whose troops were on the U.S./Florida border, to seize Spanish forts in northern Florida. Jackson's successful attacks convinced the Spanish that they could not defend Florida against the U.S.
Plessy v Ferguson
Case in which the Supreme Court upheld state racial segregation laws based on "separate but equal" doctrine. Said that making a legal distinction between races didn't violate the 13th amendment .
Fourth Crusade, 1204
The worst of the crusades that ended by the army conquering and living off the the wealth from the byzantine empire and happened in this year.
John winthrop, first governor of massachuttes bay, advocated building a model society that would set example for englad , reffered to seettlement as
a city on a hill
Harriet Beecher Stowe
United States writer of a novel about slavery that advanced the abolitionists' cause (1811-1896)
318. Trevett v. Weeden, 1786-1787
Occurred under the Articles of Confederation, when each state had a different type of currency. Acts passed by the Rhode Island Legislature imposed heavy fines on those who refused to accept the state’s depreciated currency at face value. Weeden was acquitted on the grounds that the acts were unconstitutional.
Seven Years War
Another name for the French & Indian War
1422. Little Rock, Arkansas Crisis
1957 - Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine Black students from entering Little Rock Central High School. Eisenhower sent in U.S. paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class.
Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
First time a state law is declared unconstitutional; contract clause ofthe Constitution overrode state law.
Western land problem
7 of the 13 original states had made claims to areas in the West. The "landed" states had a great advantage over the six "landless" states. It was assumed that the future sale of western lands would enrich the landed states and possibly allow them to operate without any form of taxation. The landless states feared that they would lose residents and dwindle into insignificance.
265. Sec. of War Knox
A Revolutionary War hero, Henry Knox had served as Secretary of War under the Articles of Confederation, and stayed on in that capacity as part of Washington’s cabinet.
413. Cherokee Indian removal, "Trail of Tears"
A minority of the Cherokee tribe, despite the protest of the majority, had surrendered their Georgia land in the 1835 Treaty of New Echota. During the winter of 1838 - 1839, troops under General Winfield Scott evicted them from their homes in Georgia and moved them to Oklahoma Indian country. Many died on the trail; the journey became known as the "Trail of Tears".
HIV/AIDS impact in Africa
The death toll is expected to have a severe impact on many economies in the region. In some nations, it is already being felt. Life expectancies in some nations is already decreasing rapidly, while mortality rates are increasing.
Louis XIV managed to control the nobles of France and their activities by
Requiring the nobility to live at Versailles where he could distract them and keep an eye on them.
What was the purpose of the tank?
an armored vehicle designed to move people through "no-man's land"
494. Supreme Court: Martin v. Hunters Lessee
1816 - This case upheld the right of the Supreme Court to review the decisions of state courts.
pseudonym
rr
renounce
give up
Chinese Immigration Act
...
Islam
Five Pillars of Faith
Renaissance
14th - 15th century
Timbuktu
Commercial exchange flourished here.
Located on the flood plains on the bend of the Niger River.
Liberty League
Anti-socialist and anti-Roosevelt, tried a Coup-de-état
Minutemen
name of the colonial militia
George Washington
Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
ayllu
Andean lineage group of kin-based community
Samuel de Champlain
Father of New France
obruk
Labor obligations of Russian peasants to either their aristocratic landlords or to the state; typical of increased labor burdens placed on Russian peasantry during the 18th century.
Stokely Carmichael
-advocated black nationalism
-, head of the SNCC making a separatist philosophy of black power as the official objective of the organization
-member of Black Panthers
Embargo
a government order preventing the movement of merchant ships and/or the prohibition of trade
baroque
Major Western artistic style from 1500s to 1700s. Climactic, dramatic, dark vs. usage, shocking/ gruesome
trustee
role played by elected representatives who listen to constituents' opinions and then use their best judgement to make final decisions
diaspora
the dispersion or spreading of something that was originally localized (as a people or language or culture)
who was jackson least popular with
federalists
Gag Resolution
(MVB) 18-36-1844, Strict rule passed by prosouthern Congressmen in 1836 to prohibit all discussion of slavery in the House of Representatives
Hopewell culture
Second of the mound-building cultures; lasted from c. 200 to 500 c.e.; more complex than Adena culture.
Maori
the name for Polyneians in New Zeland
William Tennant
A strong Presbyterian minister and leader during the Great Awakening. Founded a college for the training of Presbyterian ministers in 1726.
Dutch Learning
Western learning embraced by some Japanese in the eighteenth century
Calvinism
Set of beliefs that the Puritans followed. In the 1500's John Calvin, the founder of Calvinism, preached virtues of simple worship, strict morals, pre-destination and hard work. This resulted in Calvinist followers wanting to practice religion, and it brought about wars between Huegenots (French Calvinists) and Catholics, that tore the French kingdom apart.
witch-hunt
The pursuit of people suspected of witchcraft, especially in northern Europe in the late 16ht and 17th centuries
Lord Baltimore
Founds Maryland as haven for persecuted English Catholics; allowed free worship
Gurus
Originally referred to as Brahmans who served as teachers for the princes of the imperial court of the Guptas
1533
Date: Pizarro Toppled the Incas (Hint: 1__3)
Shoguns
Military leaders who were controled by prominent families.
Aztecs
The people of this civilization were victims of Cortes's meddling. Their gold enticed the explorer and thus a war emerged. The population of this tribe dwindled down from 20 million to 2 million people in less than a century.
Grantism
coined by Charles Sumner in 1872, differentiated between Grant and the Republican Party.
clientage
relation of a client to a patron
Ulysses S. Grant*
1869-1877, Republican, bloody shirt (blamed south for civil war), Liberal Republicans (Horace Greeley)
charles 5th
holy roman emperor; controlled large territory; wanted dynasty to have complete control; lutheran princes defeated him - peace of augsburg; rulers determine religion;
horse nomads
A form of pastoralism dependent on domesticated horses; common to Indo-European peoples of central Eurasia.
Alexandria
a city in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great; site of ancient Mediterranean's greatest library; became a major center of literary studies
Stalwart
a person who is loyal to their allegiance (especially in times of revolt)
Germany
After WW1, what country has to borrow money from Britain and France in order to restore themselves after being hampered from the Treaty of Versailles?
Alger Hiss
was a U.S. State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. He was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950
Henry the Navigator
Opens up first major navigational school
On Civil Disobedience
-essay by Thoreau
-strong influence in furthering idealistic thought in America and abroad
George Creel
Journalist who sold America and the world on the war with words and propaganda
Cultural Revolution
Movement initiated in 1965 by Mao Zedong to restore his dominance over pragmatists; used mobs to ridicule Mao's political rivals; campaign was called off in 1968
Treaty Ports
Cities opened to foreign residents as a result of the forced treaties between the Qing Empire and foreign signatories. In the in these cities, foreigners enjoyed extraterritoriality.
Treaty of Rome
Treaty that established the European Economic Community
Lucretia Mott
Early 1800s - Feminist - helped organize SenThe Mason and Dixon Line was created in the 1760s to set the boundary between the colonial charters of William Penn and Lord Baltimoreeca Falls
Toltecs
70 miles north of Mexico City. Toltecs built their capital city there. 10th-12th centuries the Toltecs dominated most of mexico
Trail of tears
forced relocation and movement of native Americans from present day us
legalism
1. was practiced by some in china specifically during the qin dynasty.
2. was based upon the belief that peace and order could only be obtained through a centralized government, harsh punishment, and unquestioned authority.
3. does not trust human nature to sustain a viable society without harsh regulations, also prized farming and the military as the two most worthy professions.
Lusitania
(WW), British passenger boat sunk by a German submarine that claimed 1,000 lives. One of main reasons US decided to join the war.
Population Revolution
Huge growth in population in Western Europe beginning about 1730; prelude to Industrial Revolution; population of France increased 50 percent, England and Prussia 100 percent.
Congress of Vienna
Meeting in the aftermath of Napoleonic Wars (1815) to restore political stability in Europe and settle diplomatic disputes.
David Walker
He was a black abolitionist who called for the immediate emancipation of slaves. He wrote the "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World." It called for a bloody end to white supremacy. He believed that the only way to end slavery was for slaves to physically revolt.
Matthew Perry
He was able to persuade the Japanese to open up their borders, leading to the Meiji Restoration opening up ideas and trade
Cohens v Virginia
The Cohens were a Virginia family accused of selling lottery tickets illegally. The Virginia Supreme Court found the Cohens guilty, so they appealed to the Supreme Court in 1821. Virginia won in having the Cohens convicted. Virginia lost in that Judge Marshal made it so that the federal Supreme Court had the right to review any decision involving powers of the federal government. This was a major blow on states' rights.
Virginia Resolves
In response to the 1765 Stamp Act, Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia House of Burgesses to adopt several strongly worded resolutions that denied Parliament's right to tax the colonies. Known as the Virginia Resolves, these resolutions persuaded many other colonial legislatures to adopt similar positions.
Battles of Lexington and Concord
Colonists defeated at Lexington; stopped before Concord
War of 1812
A war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France.
Yuan, Kubilai Khan
Mongol Dynasty in China. Controled by ______.
Sir Walter Raleigh
An English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, Raleigh sponsored the fist English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is kown as "the Lost Colony"
Imperialism
the race to gain more and more land via colonies; before WWI, the scramble for what little land that was left increased tension
Ostend Manifesto (1854)
Drafted by James Buchanan, John Mason, and Pierre Soule, it suggested that the U.S. should take Cuba from Spain by force if Spain refused to sell it. Abolitionists saw Ostend as a plot to extend slavery. southerners supported the manifesto, as they feared Cuba would be a free "black republic."
Lend Lease Act*
(FDR) , 1941 March; Congress' act which allied the president to lend or sell war materials to any country he deemed vital to that country's defense, had to return things though, Taft was against, used "gum theory"
National Origins Act
(CC) 1924 was a United States federal law that limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890, according to the Census of 1890. It excluded immigration of Asians, first was from 3%
Kaiser Wilhelm II:
German emperor in World War I; his aggressive foreign policy is often blamed for starting the war. King of England and King of Germany were related to each other
101. John Peter Zenger trial
Zenger published articles critical of British governor William Cosby. He was taken to trial, but found not guilty. The trial set a precedent for freedom of the press in the colonies.
Tanakh
a term for the books of the Bible that make up the Hebrew canon.
the cannibal kingdom
Aztecs were known as this kingdom for their widespread practice of human sacrifice
All of the following are considered to be common elements of complex societies EXCEPT....
location near ocean
Presidential Succession Act*
(HT) , allowed for the speaker of the house to take over as president if there is no vice president
135. Patrick Henry (1736-1799)
An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence. In connection with a petition to declare a "state of defense" in virginia in 1775, he gave his most famous speech which ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me death." Henry served as Governor of Virginia from 1776-1779 and 1784-1786, and was instrumental in causing the Bill of Rights to be adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution.
Tenure of Office Act
1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet - was created to protect the job of the secertary of state Edwin M. Stanton
480 million marks
The price of a loaf of bread in October 1923 in Germany; Toy has said this number how many times?
What was the immigration Act of 1965?
least controversial but most imprtant pieces of Johnsons great society legislation ended national orgin quotas, 20,000 for every country, priority to those with close family ties or special skills. refugees
the industrial revolition ahd which of the following affects on slavery and the atlantic slave trade?
with one excpetion all nations that industrialized....
Frederick Turner
Frontier
moctezuma 2
Aztec ruler
Intelligentsia
highly educated, cultured people
Vietcong
-1960s
-These were South Vietnamese communist revolutionaries.
-They took part in insurgent attacks against the U.S. and South Vietnamese forces, helping unify the nation.
primogeniture
the condition of bing first-born
European Middle Ages Church
Roman Catholic
Soviets
Russian elected councils that originated as strike committees during the 1905 St. Petersburg disorders; they represented a form of local self-government that went on to become the primary unit of government in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The term was also used during the cold war to designate the Soviet Union
Mameluks
Muslim slave warriors; established a dynasty in Egypt; defeated the Mongols at Ain Jalut in 1260 and halted Mongol advance.
The popes blocked Frederick Barbarossa in his attempt to gain control over
Lombardy
Sumerians
The earliest urban-based society in Mesopotamia, they developed cuneiform writing
Republicans 1780-1801
States' rights, strict interpretation, encouraged agriculture and rural life, South and West, France, Civil liberties and trust in people
piety
devotion to religious duties and practices
Warsaw Pact
Alliance against democracy, supporting communism
James Watt
steam engine 1765, burned coal
Zhu Xi
Most prominent neo-Confucian scholar during the Song dynasty; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life.
Roger Williams
confirmed separatist, engaging but controversial minister. Wanted the Mass church to abandon the church of England and separation of church and state! Founded Rhode island 1: 1607-1763
William H. Taft
1909-1913, Republican, issue - conservation policies, antitrust laws, tariff, against Bryan
Jurchens
Founders of the Qin kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of Yellow River basin and forced Song to flee to south.
Osei Tutu
Asante leader; uses European firearms to centrailize and expand empire
Tea Act
Eliminated all remaining import duties on tea entering England and thus lowered the selling price to customers.
Treaty of Versailles:
Wide-ranging postwar conference that promoted much of Wilson's idealistic plan for peace but at the same time blamed and punished Germany for starting the war; included creation of a League of Nations
"black legend"
The idea developed during North American colonial times that the Spanish utterly destroyed the Indians through slavery and disease while the English did not. It is a false assertion that the Spanish were more evil towards the Native Americans than the English were.
6.3 16th amendment, 1913
Establishes federal income tax.
JQ Adams
Wrote Monroe Doctrine, which had little effect until Polk reinstated it
Petticoat Wars
Internal Dispute In Andrew Jackson's Cabinet. Concerned the Marriage of Peggy Timberlake and John Henry Eaton. Resulted in the Purge of his Cabinet.
Manor
A large estate consisting of fields, agricultural tools, domestic animals, and serfs bound to the land.
persecution
punishment or harassment usually of a severe nature on the basis of race, religion, or political opinion in one's country of origin
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson's philosphy - trusts were busted so government must now regulate business
Mongol Empire
Which empire failed to conquer Vietnam, Cambodia, Burma, Java and Japan?
Olympic Games
One of the pan-Helenic rituals observed by all Greek city-states; involved athletic competitions and ritual celebrations
the constitution was drafted by delegates from
12 states
Sigmund Freud
(1856 -1939) Viennese physician who developed theories of the workings of the human subconscious; argued that behavior is determined by impulses
French Revolution of 1830
Second revolution against Bourbon dynasty; a liberal movement that created a bourgeois government under a moderate monarchy
One of the central factors in the establishment of TransSaharan trade was
merchants
Robert La Salle
Named Louisiana after exploring the Miss. R. for France
cotton-boll weevil
This insect wreaked havoc on Southern crops around the 1890's.
Thomas Jefferson
a Republican who believed that the future of the U.S. would lie in the hands of farmers. "Long Tom" Jefferson was inaugurated to the presidency in the swampy village of Washington on March 4, 1801. While Jefferson was president, the Louisiana Purchase was made, Lewis and Clark were sent to explore the newly acquired land, the Barbary Pirate threat was silenced, and the Embargo Act was passed. While all of Jefferson's presidential acts were not always successful, he always put the country ahead of himself. His patriotism and loyalty to the U.S.
Byzantine Empire
eastern half of the Roman empire; survived until 1453; retained Mediterranean, especially Hellenistic, culture.
Samuel Gompers
Founder of the American Federation of Labor
Specie Circular
Money backed by hard currency, usually silver or gold
Fair Deal
Truman's extension of the New Deal that increased min wage, expanded Social Security, and constructed low-income housing
Caesar Augustus
Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate. He established his rule after the death of Julius Caesar and he is considered the first Roman Emperor.
Woodrow Wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
bicameral legislature
a legislature divided into two houses; the U.S. Congress and the state legislatures are bicameral except Nebraska, which is unicameral
papyrus
a paper material made from the stems of the reeds that grew in the Nile marshes
visible saints
those Puritans who have received a vision from God telling them that they are one of the elect
ferdinand magellan
1. a portugese explorer who sailed around the tip of south america to the pacific ocean.
2. traveled to the philippines.
ida that a stockholder is not responsible for a corps debt
limited liability
John D. Rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
Federal Trade Commission
(WW) 1914 , A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy, support antitrust suits
Rulers among the Mexica were chosen by
most successful warriors
New York
It belonged to the Dutch, but King Charles II gave the land to his brother, the Duke of York in 1664. When the British came to take the colony, the Dutch, who hated their Governor Stuyvesant, quickly surrendered to them. The Dutch retook the colony in 1673, but the British regained it in 1674.
My Lai Massacre
1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war.
136. Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Rever
Indentured Servant
Migrants work 7 years to pay passage; used before slavery and Bacon's Rebel.
Chinggis Khan
his heirs split his realm into 4 empires
The treaty of Tordesillas
split Central and South American between Spain and Portugal
Judiciary Act of 1789
established a Supreme Court and district courts (1789)
Ostend Manifesto
was a secret document written in 1854 by U.S. diplomats at Ostend, Belgium, describing a plan to acquire Cuba from Spain. The document declared that "Cuba is as necessary to the North American republic as any of its present members, and that it belongs naturally to that great family of states of which the Union is the Providential Nursery.", stated that if Spain didn't allow America to buy Cuba for $120 million, then America would attack Cuba on grounds that Spain's continued ownership of Cuba endangered American interests. The document eventually leaked out and the Northerners foiled the President's slave-driven plan.
battle of britain
1. after winston churchill refues to stike a deal with hitler, germany began a bombing campaign.
2. the british used radar to detect and repel the german forces.
Platt Amendment
(WMc) 1) Cuba makes no treaty with others if in endangers independence 2) can't borrow money if they can't pay back 3)US can get involved with Cuba affairs 4)US has navy there
John Adams's Party
VP - Thomas Jefferson SS - Timothy Pickering, John Marshall
Patrick Henry (1736-1799)
One of the main opponents of the Constitution, he worked against its ratification in Virginia.
John C. Calhoun
was part of the New Southern Congress of 1811. He was a representative for South Carolina and one of the original War Hawks. Calhoun supported the Tariff Bill of 1811 because he thought the bill would lead to manufacturing in the south and cultivation of cotton. He later changed his mind, though, and opposed it because the bill was being used to enrich Northern manufacturers.
Marbury vs. Madison
Case in which the supreme court first asserted th power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional
Samuel Adams
Samuel Adams played a key role in the defense of colonial rights. He had been a leader of the Sons of Liberty and suggested the formation of the Committees of Correspondence. Adams was crucial in spreading the principle of colonial rights throughout New England and is credited with provoking the Boston Tea Party..
cardinal richelieu
1. a catholic and chief advisor to the bourbons who was charged with strengthening the french crown.
2. compromised with the protestant huguenots and helped them attack the catholic hapsburgs of the holy roman empire.
3. under him a new bureaucratic class was established. the noblesse de la robe
Knights of Labor
(GC) , one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century. Founded by seven Philadelphia tailors in 1869 and led by Uriah S. Stephens, its ideology may be described as producerist, demanding an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories. Leaderships under Powderly, successful with Southwest Railroad System, failed after Haymarket Riot
Abrams v. United States
(1919) , The court upheld the Sedition Act of four Russian immigrants who had printed pamphlets denouncing American military intervention in the Russian Revolution. The nation's highest court thus endorsed the severe wartime restriction on free speech. Unlike in Schenck's case, there were dissenters for two of the Justices felt that the men prose absolutely no threat to America
Treaty of Paris (1783)
While there have been many Treaties of Paris throughout history. The most important in American History is the treaty signed in September 1783 and ratified by Congress in January 1784, which ended the Revolutionary War and granted the United States its independence. It further granted the U.S. all land east of the Mississippi River. While generally accepted, the Treaty of Paris opened the door to future legislative and economic disputes.
Bretton Woods Conference
1944, (FDR) , The common name for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in New Hampshire, 44 nations at war with the Axis powers met to create a world bank to stabilize international currency, increase investment in under-developed areas, and speed the economic recovery of Europe.
british troops sent to enforce order in boston
were responsible for the boston massacre
The Portuguese dominance of trade was dependent on their ability to
force merchant ships to call at fortified trading sites and pay duties
What were the sugar and stamp acts designed to do
raise funds for the defense of the colonies
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