AP World History 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Jati
subcaste
laissez-faire
government hands off
sunnis
followers of the umayyads
Vedes
religious texts-indian sacred knowledge. Refer to Aryan life.
Madrasas
Islamic institutions of higher education that originated in the 900s.
Neolithic Revolution
succession of technological innovations and changes in human organization that led to development of agriculture; 8,500 BCE-3,500 BCE
Sun Yat-Sen
Chinese nationalist revolutionary, founder and leader of the Guomindang until his death. He attempted to create a liberal democratic political movement in China but was thwarted by military leaders. (p. 768)
propaganda
information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc.
joint stock company
brought jobs to england
Ming
after Yuan dynasty; Zeng He explorations and centralized government
Hessians
the thirty thousand German soldiers hired by King George III to fight in the Revolutionary War
Shrivijaya
Trading empire centered on Malacca Straits between Malaya and Sumatra; controlled trade of empire; Buddhist government resistant to Muslim missionaries; fall opened up southeastern Asia to Muslim conversion.
Gothic Cathedrals
Large churches originating in twelfth-century France; built in an architectural style featuring pointed arches, tall vaults and spires, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows.
John Adams
America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained." Won against hamilton. hamilton got his cabinent against him.
Caste System
describes the social stratification and social restrictions in the Indian subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups.
Johnathan Edwards
An american theologian and congregational clergyman whose sermons stirred the religious revival called the great awakening, known for "sinners in the hands of an angry god" sermon
Darwinism
Charles Darwin's theories of the revolution of human beings, written after his recognition of the transformation of genetic traits in unique environments of islands in Southeast Asia.
Buddha
An Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama, who renounced his wealth and social position. After becoming 'enlightened' (the meaning of Buddha) he enunciated the principles of Buddhism. (180)
Volstead Act
(WW), implemented the 18th Admendment. It established illegal alcohol at above .5%, but then comes the speakeasies
peter abelard
university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology
What was Shi Huangdi's original name?
Qin Chang
Fertile Crescent
first domestication of plants and animals occurs here
"Quarantine Speech"
Roosevelt urged a "quarantine of aggressor nations to isolate the "epidemic of international lawlessness"
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the Second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain. Written by Thomas Jefferson.
European Union
Began as European Economic Community, an alliance of Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands, to create a single economic entity across national boundries in 1958; later joined by Britian, Ireland, Denmark, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Austria, Finland and other nations for further European economic integration.
Proclamation of
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
"Affirmative Action"
Program supported by LBJ encouraging institutions to favor recruiting minorities
Golden Horde
Mongol khanate founded by Genghis Khan's grandson Batu. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam.
1619 first slaves arrived in the region that would become what state in america
virginia
Gilbert Tennant
William Tennant's son. Developed a theology of revivalism.
horace mann
Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he was a prominent proponent of public school reform, and set the standard for public schools throughout the nation.
headright system
method of attracting settlers to virginia/ after 1618, it gave 50 acres of land to anyone who paid for their own passage or for that of any other settelers who might be sent or brought to the colony (passage of immigrants).
Amendment Nine
The amendment states that the enumeration in the constitution shall not be construed to deny or desparage others retained by the people. It was written by James Madison in 1791 to stop the possibilty that enumerating such rights might possibly lead to the assumption that the rights were the only ones protected.
revenue
the income of a government from taxation, excise duties, customs, or other sources, appropriated to the payment of the public expenses.
Committee on Un-American Activities
attacked public figures (Hollywood, New Dealers, liberals) to root out communist spies
Muslim
An adherent of the Islamic religion; a person who 'submits' (in Arabic, Islam means 'submission') to the will of God. (p. 231) )
anaconda plan
Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through heart of south
tribute system
A system in which defeated peoples were forced to pay a tax in the form of goods and labor. This forced transfer of food, cloth, and other goods subsidized the development of large cities. An important component of the Aztec and Inca economies.
prophet
A person believed to speak with divine power or special gifts.
New Left
new political movement of the late 1960s that called for radical changes to fight poverty and racism
Tokugawa
A powerful family in Japan that ruled as shoguns, 1603-1867, characterized by a samurai ruling class, urbanization, and the growth of a merchant class. Top-down approaches worked to solve environmental problems. isolation Policy
clergy
the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion
Perfectionism
Due to the new liberal movements and religious fervor, many Americans believed that perfection was attainable. Therefore, a series of movements took place to perfect society, such as prison reform, temperance, etc.
Ivan III
The Russian ruler of the Muscovy; broke from the Mongols in 1480 when he stopped paying tribute and declared Russia free
George III
King of England during the American Revolution
Patriarchal Society
A social class society that recognizes differences of wealth by land ownership; a male-dominated society
colonialism
Policy by which a nation administers a foreign territory and develops its resources for the benefit of the colonial power. (p. 731)
John Tyler
elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died 1841-1845, President responsible for annexation of Mexico after receiving mandate from Polk, opposed many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery
Maya
During the time period of the Han, Roman, and Gupta.
They had human sacrifice and war for the sole purpose of getting slaves for the human sacrifice.
The government was a bunch of city-states under one king.
navigation laws
originally aimed at Dutch; said all colonial trading had to be done in British ships, certain goods only w/ Britain, and tariffs on goods traded
Famous boat that beats the British fleet
USS Constitution
Anti-Masonic Party
Party that spoke against the famous secret society of the Masons, but was also considered to be very anti-Jackson. Followers often sought moral and religious reform.
Gupta Empire
Powerful Indian state based, like its Mauryan predecessor, on a capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley. It controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture (186)
Treaty of Westphalia
ended Thirty Years War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-- either Protestant or Catholic.
Gold Bugs
Popular term for those who favored the "status quo" in metal money and opposed the pro-silver Bryanites in 1896.
New Economic Policy
Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the soviet economy by allowing small provate enterprises. Joseph Stalin ended the N.E.P. in 1928 and replaced it with a series of Five-Year Plans.
Morris (Penn) and Solomon (NY)
Financeers of the American Revolution
nullification
a refusal of the states to accept a federal law, part of Jefferson's interpretation of compact theory; in terms of Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions in response to Alien and Sedition Acts
Constitution: Senate
The other of the two parts of Congress, considered the "upper house." Senators were originally appointed by state legislatures, but now they are elected directly by the people. Each state has two senators.
Khubilai Khan
Last of the Mongol Great Khans (r. 1260-1294) and founder of the Yuan Empire. (p. 351)
Boer war
A conflict, lasting from 1899 to 1902, in which the Boers and the British fought for control of territory in South Africa.
hundred year war
lasted between 1337 - 1453, between England and France, was a series of wars not one continuous battle, William, Duke of Normandy claimed to be the rightful king of England, 1066 William captured England in something called the Norman Invasion He became known as William the Conqueror and tied the nobility of France and England , but over the years they argued over who should rule, the war started when the king of France tried to take the territory claimed by England in southern France, 1337- England attacks France, 1428- English attacked Orleans, one of France's last major strong holds this was all lead by a French peasant girl who was known as Joan of Arc and lead the French to a victory, 1453- French drove English out and ended the war
Roger Williams and Rhode Island
Roger Williams?- Challenged the legality of the MA Bay Charter.  He said the government couldn't regulate religious behavior.  He supported Indian rights and founded Rhode Island, which had complete religious freedom.  Christians and Jews, even Quakers.  Rhode Island offered remarkable opportunity.  It was called a "sewer".  It became very individualistic and independent.
181. Abigail Adams
Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America’s women in the new government he was helping to create.
Law that turned Indians into farmers and emphasized the treatment of natives as individuals instead of tribes, and as a result Indians were expected to assimilate into American society.
Dawes Severalty Act
European-style families
married in late 20's & have a nuclear family of parents and children. Marriage is now based on access to property.
966. Election of 1900: candidates, issues
Republican, William McKinley defeated Democrate, Williams Bryan. The issue was imperialism.
President George H W Bush
In office 1989-1993, he invaded responsible for Dessert Storm and Afghanistan War I.
Mandate of Heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
Hunting and Gathering
The use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather nuts, plants, and roots for food.
Palace at Versaille
is a royal château in Versailles, the Île-de-France region of France. In French, it is known as the Château de Versailles. When the château was built, Versailles was a country village; today, however, it is a suburb of Paris, some twenty kilometres southwest of the French capital. The court of Versailles was the center of political power in France from 1682, when Louis XIV moved from Paris, until the royal family was forced to return to the capital in October 1789 after the beginning of the French Revolution. Versailles is therefore famous not only as a building, but as a symbol of the system of absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime.
511. San Jacinto
A surprise attack by Texas forces on Santa Ana's camp on April 21, 1836. Santa Ana's men were surprised and overrun in twenty minutes. Santa Ana was taken prisoner and signed an armistice securing Texas independence. Mexicans - 1,500 dead, 1,000 captured. Texans - 4 dead.
Gross National Product
the value of all the goods and services produced by the nation in one year; it dropped from 104 billion to 56 in 4 years, while national income declined by over 50%
428. Clay: Compromise Tariff of 1833
Henry Clay devised the Compromise Tariff of 1833 which gradually reduced the rates levied under the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. It caused South Carolina to withdraw the ordinance nullifying the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. Both protectionists and anti-protectionists accepted the compromise.
Religion in PA, MD, and RI
PA= provide protection for quakers
MD= form where Catholics are free from persecution
RI= haven to all persecuted religions including christians and jews
code of hammurabi
the set of 282 laws drawn up by Babylonian king Hammurabi dating to the 18th century BC, the earliest legal code known in its entirety
What is the A&M bureaucracy?
seeks to maximize their budget and works to expand their power.
what was the most important result of greek colonization between 750 and 550 bce
established greek culture throughout the med
690. Election of 1876: Hayes and Tilden
Rutherford B. Hayes - liberal Republican, Civil War general, he received only 165 electoral votes. Samuel J. Tilden - Democrat, received 264,000 more popular votes that Hayes, and 184 of the 185 electoral votes needed to win. 20 electoral votes were disputed, and an electoral commission decided that Hayes was the winner - fraud was suspected.
What was the "Southern Manifesto?" How did Southerners respond to the Brown v. Board of Education case?
Southern states writing in defense and say that the federal govt is overreaching itself and shouldn't be allowed to mess with the states. They reacted horribly had national guards block them from going to school and when they were called off they protested in large mobs trying to block black people from going to school
933. Pollock v. Farmer's Loan and Trust Company
1895 - The court ruled the income could not be taxed. In response, Congress passed the 16th Amendment which specifically allows taxation of income (ratified 1913).
Ashoka
...
Roman Republic
509-31 BCE
Ulama
Orthodox religious scholars, suspicious of non-Islamic thoughts and ideas
middle colonies
NY, PA, NJ
Sixteenth Amendment
This constitutional amendment established a federal income tax in 1913.
Bolsheviks
The "majority" - Communist party led by Lenin. Although they were not the majority and actually received a terrible percentage of the Russian Congress's vote, Lenin kept the name to create attraction and support. After the Russian Congress received the low voting, the Bolsheviks and Lenin took over and simply disregarded the Russian Congress from there on out.
royal colony
ruled by the government
Legitimacy
monarchs were replaced to their 'rightful' thrones
ka'ba
most revered religious shrine in pre-islamic arabia
Samoa
a constitutional monarchy on the western part of the islands of Samoa in the South Pacific
Fasting
Gandhi's method of protesting violence and demanding independence.
Sumerian Civilization
southern Mesopotamia; calendar, math, geometry; polytheistic; city-states (Ur, Erech, Kish); overthrown in 1700 BCE
Legalism
(in Chinese philosophy) the principles and practices of a school of political theorists advocating strict legal control over all activities, a system of rewards and punishments uniform for all classes, and an absolute monarchy.
Quran
Book composed of divine revelations made to the Prophet Muhammad between ca. 610 and his death in 632; the sacred text of the religion of Islam. (p. 232)
Holocaust
The Holocaust (from the Greek:"whole" and "burnt"), also known as The Shoah (Hebrew "calamity"; Yiddish: Churben or Hurban, from the Hebrew for "destruction"), was the genocide of approximately six million European Jews during World War II, a programme of systematic state-sponsored extermination by Nazi Germany throughout Nazi-occupied territory. Of the nine million Jews who had resided in Europe before the Holocaust, approximately two-thirds perished. Some scholars maintain that the definition of the Holocaust should also include the Nazis' genocide of millions of people in other groups, including Romani (more commonly known in English by the exonym "Gypsies"), Soviet prisoners of war, Polish and Soviet civilians, homosexuals, people with disabilities, Jehovah's Witnesses and other political and religious opponents, which occurred regardless of whether they were of German or non-German ethnic origin. Using this definition, the total number of Holocaust victims is between 11 million and 17 million people.
Federalists
A United States political party consisting of the more respectable citizens of the time; Federalists lived along the eastern seaboard in the 1790's; believed in advocating a strong federal government and fought for the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1787-1788.
what nomadic group founded the Liao dynasty of manchuria and remained a longtime threat to the songs?
Khitans
royal colonies
charter granted and controlled by king
Mahabharata
A vast epic chronicling the events leading up to a cataclysmic battle between related kinship groups in early India. It includes the Bhagavad-Gita, the most important work of Indian sacred literature. (p. 185)
stratification
the act or an instance of stratifying
Autonomy
The condition of being self governing; independent.
National Recovery Act
Created the Works Progress Administration that created jobs to put people back to work right away and the NRA who worked in conjunction with industry to bolster the industial sector and create more lon lasting jobs.
Sasanid Empire
The last pre-Islamic Persian Empire, from 224 to 651 CE. The Sassanid Empire, was recognized as one of the two main powers in Western Asia and Europe alongside the Roman Empire and later the Byzantine Empire for a period of more than 400 years
Calpulli
Aztec clans that distributed land and provided labor and warriors
Pennsylvania
1681- William Penn received a land grant from King Charles II, and used it to form a colony that would provide a haven for Quakers. His colony allowed religious freedom. William Penn allowed anyone to emigrate there in order to provide a haven for persecuted religions.
Alexander Graham Bell
invented the telephone in 1876
Fascist Party
Italian political party created by Benito Mussolini during World War I. It emphasized aggressive nationalism and was Mussolini's instrument for the creation of a dictatorship in Italy from 1922 to 1943. (See also Mussolini, Benito.) (p. 786)
This new religion which emphasized a cosmic struggle between good and evil and that theologically derived from Zoroastrianism was spread along the Silk Road
Manichaeism
Peter Stuyvesant
one Dutch directors-general in New Netherland (NY) who fought off Swedes and surrendered to English
Frontier Thesis
Frederick Jackson Turner's writing on the origin of the distinctive aggressive, violent, innovative and democratic features of the American character.
Women
Mao Zedong was committed too the liberation of who?
1517. Czechoslovakia invaded
1968 - Liberalization of Czechoslovakia was crushed by the Soviet Union invasion.
What did system did Spain implement to deal with labor shortages in New Spain? What did this system entail?
Encomiendas. Large manors/estates worked by Indian slaves.
jingoism
extreme patriotism in the form of aggressive foreign policy
Fair Deal
preservation of New Deal, attempt at additions; raised minimum wage, public housing, old-age insurance extension, agricultural price supports
Middle Passage
The part of the Great Circuit involving the transportation of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic to the Americas. (p. 508)
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806.
Sunni
One of the two main branches of orthodox Islam. Felt that the Caliph should be chosen from the Ummayyad and believed in the importace of the Umma in making political decisions
King Author
Legendary King, subject of a popular English novel
Patriots (Whigs)
colonists who did not support the crown; called "Whigs" after the opposition factors in Britain
india
what nation was the first to pioneer paterns of decolonization
sandinista
A group of nicaraguans that tried to overthrow the Government in 1960's-1970's.
Cuban Missile Crisis
A confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962 over the presence of missile sites in Cuba
African Union
first known as the Organization of African Unity when it was founded in 1963; the organization now of 53 African nations founded in 1963 which grew to include all the states of the continent except South Africa until 1994; a political body that has tried to resolve regional conflicts such as the Conlfict in the Sudan
Nicholas Trist
Chief clerk in the State Department who was sent to negotiate a peace treaty with a defeated Mexico in 1847. Before he could open negotiations he was summoned to return, but he ignored the order and stayed to negotiate the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Carpet Baggers
Northeners who went to the South during Reconstruction to work
Crusades
Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. The Crusades brought an end to western Europe's centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation. (p. 270)
James Monroe
5th President of the U.S. 1817-1825 acquired Florida from Spain; declared Monroe Doctrine to keep foreign powers out. President during the time of good feelings.
Battles of Lexington and Concord
The British fundamentally underestimated that the strength of the growing pro-revolutionary movement. Therefore, the English dispatched troops to raid suspected weapons cache in Concord MA in April 1775. First, however, they had to pass through Lexington, where a small force of colonial “minutemen” attacked them, but retreated, having suffered 8 dead and 10 wounded. At Concord, however, a much larger force of minutemen attacked the British and drove them back. The colonists were now committed to independence, and the two nations dug in around Boston.
define authoritarians
want government to advance society and individuals through expert central planning. They often doubt whether self-government is practical.
Established uniform procedures for surveying new western land by organizing territories into townships.
Land Ordinance of 1784
Xi Xia
Kingdom of the Tangut people, north of Song Kingdom, in the mid-11th century; collected tribute that drained Song resources and burdened chinese peasantry.
Horatio Gates
he started in the English army and worked his way up through the ranks. Latter during the revolution he turned sides and was appointed to take charge of the Continental army of the North. One of his accomplishments was his victory at Saratoga. His career in the army ended when he lost to General Charles Cornwallis.
Proclamation of 1763
An order in which Britain prohibited its American colonist from settling west of the Appalachian Mtns
Battle of Saratoga
In October 1777 americans won this victory against general john Burgoyne who surrended 5700 british troups- this victory convince the French that it was worth allying with the Americans whichc ultimately helped them win their independence.
Lady Bird Johnson
The first lady; she contributed to improving the environment with her Beautify America Campaign.
Townshend Acts
tax on glass, white lead, paper, paint and tea. More protesting
Hamilton-Burr duel
After Burr lost to Jefferson as a Republican, he switched to the Federalist party and ran for governor of New York. When he lost, he blamed Hamilton (a successful Federalist politician) of making defamatory remarks that cost him the election. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel, in which Hamilton was killed on July 11, 1804.
Dutch trading empire
The dutch system extending into Asia with fortified towns and factories, warships on patrol, and monoply control on a limited number of products.
15 Amendment
All US born citizen has voting rights. Banned racial restrictions on voting. United States may not prevent a citizen from voting based on that citizen's race, color.
The Pinckney Treaty
Treaty with Spain which opened trade and redefined Florida boundary (1795)
Tea Act (1773)
intended to save British East India Company from bankruptcy, could sell directly to consumers rather through wholesalers (lower prices to compete with smuggled tea)
People's Party
Refers to the political arm of the Populist movement and called for the following:
A. generous supply of silver coin
B. government ownership of railroads and telegraphs
C. graduated income tax
D. direct election of US senators
E. shorter workdays.
pg. 912
P
NATO
NATO was formed and officially set the iron curtain between communism and democracy as germany and France joined forces with one another and then the Warsaw pact was developed
Bush v. Gore
early 21st century, a U.S. Supreme Court case where the Court held that a ballot recount being conducted in certain counties in FL was to be stopped due to Equal Protection issues arising from a lack of a consistent standard across counties
King Leopold II
King of Belgium (r. 1865-1909). He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the ruler of the Congo Free State (to 1908). (p. 732)
1241. Second New Deal
Some thought the first New Deal (legislation passed in 1933) did too much and created a big deficit, while others, mostly the elderly, thought it did not do enough. Most of the 1933 legislation was ineffective in stopping the Depression, which led F. D. R. to propose a second series of initiatives in 1935, referred to the Second New Deal.
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
(JFK) 1963, Wake of Cuban Missile Crisis (climax of Cold War, closest weve ever come to nuclear war) Soviets & US agree to prohibit all above-ground nuclear tests, both nations choose to avoid annihilating the human race w/ nuclear war, France and China did not sign
Boston Tea Party
In 1773, group of colonists dressed as Indians boarded three British tea chips and dumped tea chests into the Boston harbor to protest Tea Act.
Election of 1844
Van Buren and Calhoun competed for the Democrats' seat, but lost the nomination to dark horse candidate James K. Polk. He was a war hero and... and... did we mention he was a war hero? Meanwhile, Whigs were unable to harness the same sort of energy towards their candidate Henry Clay, and votes were also taken by a third party (Liberty Party) to give Polk the presidency.
Compromise Tariff
Was proposed to be a resolution to the nullification crisis caused by the Tariff of Abomination in 1828 and the Tariff of 1832. Was to gradually lower import taxes until 1842 (1833).
 
 
 
 
299. French Alliance of 1778
 
 
France aided the U.S. in the American Revolution, and the U.S. agreed to aid France if the need ever arose. Although France could have used American aid during the French Revolution, the U.S. didn’t do anything to help. The U.S. didn’t fulfill their part of the agreement until World War I.
What was the Zimmerman telegram?
the communication from Germany to Mexico asking for their addition to the Central Powers in return for help to regain Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona
1473. Daniel Ellsberg, Pentagon Papers
Papers were part of a top-secret government study on the Vietnam War and said that the U.S. government had lied to the citizens of the U.S. and the world about its intentions in Vietnam.
primary purpose of the stamp act
raise revenues to support british troops stationed in america
William "Big Bill" Haywood
- leader of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) - 1893 joined the West Fed of Miners- black eyepatch & great orator- LEADER OF THE WOBBLIES
Election 1824 and Corrupt Bargain
Q. Adams v. JAckson, there' no majority, clay, the speaker of the house, gets house to vote for Q. Adams., Adams wins,"Corrupt Bargain"
Which was the most effective unifying force in early Indian culture
Widely practiced and similar Hindu tradition, including the caste system
354. Macon’s Bill No. 2
1810 - Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.
Supreme Court: Cherokee Nation vGeorgia
1831 - Supreme Court refused to hear a suit filed by the Cherokee Nation against a Georgia law abolishing tribal legislature. Court said Indians were not foreign nations, and U.S. had broad powers over tribes but a responsibility for their welfare.
What is the purpose of the caliph?
To head up the Muslim community (much like a Pope and Catholics).
Solidarity
urban
of the city
Beginnings of Christianity
32 CE
16th Amendment
Enacted income tax.
Pizzaro
spanish conquistador, 1533- conquered Incans, started trend of shipping gold and silver
Humanism
Philosophy that emphasizes human reason and ethics; sometimes denies the existence of a god
Missouri Compromise
nullified by Kansas-Nebraska Act
Federalism
strong central government provided by power divided between state and national governments, checks and balances, amendable Constitution
Brook Farm
This experimental community was developed by George Ripley which allowed members to equally take part in labor so everyone could enjoy the leisure equally. It inspired Robert Owen to open New Harmony.
sharia
Islamic law, defined among other things that patrilineal nature of Islamic inheritance
Goa
Indian city developed by the Portuguese as a major Indian Ocean base; developed an important Indo-European population
Mexica
what we know today as Mexicans
what disease were indians immune to?
syphilis
Dhimmi
Literally "people of the book"; applied as inclusive term to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories; later extended to Zoroastrians and even Hindus & Buddhists
Cyrus
Founder of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Between 550 and 530 B.C.E. he conquered Media, Lydia, and Babylon. Revered in the traditions of both Iran and the subject peoples.
Puritan society
close-knit communities helped them live together, men are head of house and church, very politcall involved (town hall meetings, democracy, taxes to support church)
Assyrians
World’s first true empire (large state created by conquest of neighbors)
Sugar Act
1764. England needed more money because it went into debt from the Fr&Ind. war. taxed colonists. Justification was that it was them paying for protection. replaced the molasses act which placed 3 pence tax on each gallon of molasses
Longhouses
homes of the Iroquois- shared by maternal families
oregon treaty
1846 agreed to settle dispute peacefully by extending Oregon Terrotory-Canadian Border along the 49th parallel.
526. Spot Resolutions
Congressman Abraham Lincoln supported a proposition to find the exact spot where American troops were fired upon, suspecting that they had illegally crossed into Mexican territory.
Stock Watering
Dishonest device in which railroad promoters artificially inflated the price of their stocks and bonds
Huey Long
Louisiana senator and popular mass agitator who promised to make "every man a king" at the expense of the wealthy
City Organization
City can't support its population, increased use of civil servants and administrators
Dominion status
Term describing the self governing lands under the British Empire.
Mauryan Dynasty
Chandragupta Maurya born in powerful kingdom of Magadha, centered on the lower Ganges River, ruled for centuries by the Nanda family. gathered an army and took over in about 321 B.C. Chandragupta gathered an army and took over in about 321 B.C.
pastoral societies
human societies that rather than hunting and gathering herded domesticated animals; societies characterized specifically by the domestication of animals
Silk Road
Caravan routes connecting China and the Middle East across Central Asia and Iran. (p. 203)
Dewitt Clinton
United States politician who as governor of New York supported the project to build the Erie Canal (1769-1828)
Ku Klux Klan
White terrorist group, anti-black rights
Currency Act
prohibited colonies from issuing paper money, destabilized colonial economy
Diaz
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 was the first European to get round the Cape of Good Hope (thus establishing a sea route from the Atlantic to Asia) (1450-1500)
 
 
 
 
184. Lafayette
 
 
Marquis de Lafayette was a French major general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War. He and Baron von Steuben (a Prussian general) were the two major foreign military experts who helped train the colonial armies.
John Locke
Locke was a British political philosopher and a leading figure of Enlightenment. He believed that governments derived their authority from the people. He argued that humans were created equal and had certain inalienable rights, including life, health, liberty, and possessions. Locke's political thought greatly influenced Thomas Jefferson and the writing of the Declaration of Independence.
penitence
the state of being penitent; regret for one's wrongdoing or sinning; contrition; repentance.
John Marshall
a. (See Marshall court) b. Supreme court justice and Adam's secretary of state c. Presided over Marbury vs. Madison d. Instigated judicial review
William Crawford
was Sec. of Treasury under James Monroe Presidency; and a canidate for Presidency in 1824 he represented the south in this election
Earl Warren
He was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 20th Attorney General of California, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). As Chief Justice, his term of office was marked by numerous rulings affecting, among other things, the legal status of racial segregation, civil rights, separation of church and state, and police arrest procedure in the United States.
Who is the most important of the humanistic thinkers?
Erasmus
Feudalism
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
thirty-eighth parallel
The line dividing Korea into two sections, north of the the parellel the communist Soviet Union was in charge and south of the parellel was democratic America was in charge. This line would become the demilitarized zone after the Korean conflict.
Revolution of 1800
change of political parties. jefferson won 1800election. he is federalist. made 12th amendment
CCC
New Deal agency that put over 3 million young men aged 18-25 to work on conservation and rural improvement projects- received room. board, and shelter + $30 per month; required to send $25 home to families; organization created in 1938 that allowed farmers to store surplus crops in government warehouses until prices improved; farmers could borrow against the crop and pay off the loan when they sold the crop,
Ming Empire
Empire based in China that Zhu Yuanzhang established after the overthrow of the Yuan Empire. Among other things, the emperor Yongle sponsored the building of the Forbidden City and the voyages of Zheng He.
Constitutional Convention
Meeting in 1787 of the elected representatives of the thirteen original states to write the Constitution of the United States. (p. 583)
Viceroy
The title for an English or Spanish governor-general of a colony during the 16th through the 19th centuries
Russo-Japanese War
War between two foriegn powers that Roosevelt helped negiotate a peace treaty for, and recieved a Nobel Peacy Prize for his work
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
raised the duties on imported foreign goods to all-time highs; intended to boost American industry and employment; deepened the Depression
Wilson Gorman Tariff
In 1894, government slightly reduced the United States tariff rates from the numbers set in the 1890 McKinley tariff and imposed a 2% income tax.
the west was responsible
for destruction of global civilizations
1406. Sputnik
October, 1957 - The first artificial satellite sent into space, launched by the Soviets.
Captain John Smith
credited with saving Jamestown from disappearing like Roanoke. Declared, "If you don't work, you don't eat."
Emilio Aguinaldo
late 19th to mid-20th century, leader of the Filipino insurgents who aided Americans in defeating Spain and taking Manila and Filipino leader of a guerilla war against American rule
Treaty of Paris 1783
1783 Februrary 3; American delegates Franklin, Adams, John Jays; they were instructed to follow the lead of France; John Jay makes side treaty with England; Independence of the US End of Loyalist persecution; colonies still had to repay its debt to England. America very lucky
submarine telegraph cables
Insulated copper cables laid along the bottom of a sea or ocean for telegraphic communication. The first short cable was laid across the English Channel in 1851; the first successful transatlantic cable was laid in 1866. (pg 704)
First Continental Congress
a convention and a consultative body that met for seven weeks, from September 5 to October 26, 1774, in Philadelphia; it was the American's response to the Intolerable Acts; considered ways of redressing colonial grievances; all colonies except Georgia sent 55 distinguished men in all; John Adams persuaded his colleagues toward revolution; they wrote a Declaration of Rights and appeals to British American colonies, the king, and British people; created the Association which called for a complete boycott of English goods; the Association was the closet thing to a written constitution until the
Battle of Kulikova
Russian army victory over the forces of the Golden Horde; helped break Mongol hold over Russia.
Indentured Servant
A poor person obligated to a fixed term of unpaid labor, often in exchange for a benefit such as transportation, protection, or training
Thomas Edison
he invented the phonograph and by 1900 it was used in over 150,000 homes. His invention made going to the symphony outdated. He also invented the light bulb. This invention changed the way of life for thousands of Americans.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
President of the United States during most of the Depression and most of World War II.
Demographic Transition
A change in the rates of population growth. Before the transition, both birth and death rates are high, resulting in a slowly growing population; then the death rate drops but the birth rate remains high, causing a population explosion. (867)
Article X
Part of the Treaty of Versaille that created the League of Nations
Agrucutural Revolution
The shift to basic crops from hunting and gathering. The transition resulted population growth, and establishment of earnest villages.
235. Annapolis Convention, 1786
A precursor to the Constitutional Convention of 1787. A dozen commissioners form New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Virginia met to discuss reform of interstate commerce regulations, to design a U.S. currency standard, and to find a way to repay the federal government’s debts to Revolutionary War veterans. Little was accomplished, except for the delegates to recommend that a further convention be held to discuss changes to the form of the federal government; the idea was endorsed by the Confederation Congress in February, 1878, which called for another convention to be held in May that year in Philadelphia.
What did Germany want?
economic control of the declining Ottoman empire
Define isolationism
supportin g the withdrawl of the US from involvement with nations beyoknd its borders, especially avoidance of entangling diplomatic relations
akkadian empire
Began in 2350 BCE when Sargon - King of Akkad - began conquering Sumerian cities. The empire was the first to unite city-states under a single ruler and ruled for 200 years.
Marquis de Lafayette
frenchman who was made a major general in the colonial army at the age of 19. The "French Gamecock"; his services were invaluable in securing further aid from France.
Immigration Act of 1965
Kept limit on number if newcomers allowed each year; allowed immigrants from Europe, Asia, and Africa to enter on equal basis.
What is martial law?
The law temporarily imposed upon an area by state or national military forces when civil authority has broken down or during wartime military operations.
Natural Rights Philosophy
Proposed by John Locke, it said that human beings had by nature certain rights, such as the rights to life, liberty, and property.
"loose construction"
Idea that something did not have to be directly mentioned in the Constitution but rather simply implied
Charles Sumner/Preston Books
As a senator from Mass., he was a leading abolitionist. His speech, "The Crime Against Kansas." was an assault of the pro-slavery South Carolina and the South in general. The insult angered Preston Brooks of South Carolina. Brooks walked up to his desk and beat him unconscious. This violent incident helped touch off the war between the North and the South.
Root Takahira Agreement
1908 - Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door policy in China.
Rotation in office
The theory that any American can be in office; Jackson replaced jobs
23. Harvard founded
1636 - Founded by a grant form the Massachusetts general court. Followed Puritan beliefs.
Jay's Treaty
1794 – It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain. It dealt with the Northwest posts and trade on the Mississippi River. It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain for the attacks on neutral American ships. It was particularly unpopular with France, because the U.S. also accepted the British restriction on the rights of neutrals.
la follette seamen's act of 1915
Required decent treatment and a living wage on American merchant ships
1235. Coalition of the Democratic Party: Blacks, unions, intellectuals, big city machines, South
Union took an active role providing campaign funds and votes. Blacks had traditionally been Republican but 3/4 had shifted to the Democratic party. Roosevelt still recieved strong support from ethnic whites in big cities and Midwestern farmers.
John Winthrop "A Model of Christian Charity"
John Winthrope's sermon given in 1630. This speech was given aboard the Arbella just before landing or in England before departure. The speech inspired the Puritans that they must have a holy duty to increase their chances of survival in the New World. he believed that England had cracked the covenant between God and the people so the Puritans must leave England. He wanted his people to have a new covenant with God where everything was very strict. "City upon a hill" was mentioned in his speech. he believed that their new home in America would be the model place if they made the right choices with God.
What was England's response to the 9th century invasions?
Series of small kingdoms est. by Angles, Saxons and other Germanic peoples merged into one single realm
Neo-Babylonian kingdom
(blank)
"Anglo-Saxon"
Of English heritage
Georgia
military/buffer colony. criminals. John Wesley founded Methodism. Oglethorpe. everyone allowed but Catholics
prospective
potential, likely, or expected:
Bland-Allison
helped to bolster the economy
Mesopotamia
First big civilization
Between the Tigris and Euphrates
Umayyad
capital moved to damascus, non-islamic tax, and expansion
agricultural village
a farming-based settlement; relatively small in population
manumission
to release from slavery or slavitude.
Both moderate and radical Republicans agreed that
A) federal power must be used to bring about a social and economic revolution in the South.
B) blacks should be the foundation of the southern Republican Party.
C) the federal government must become inv
e
Ghost Dance
Indian religious movement
Originating out of the sacred Sun Dance that the federal government made illegal in 1890
Eugene McCarthy
Minnesota senator who publicly interrogated suspected communists; usually had no evidence.
gregory
(Roman Catholic Church) a pope distinguished for his spiritual and temporal leadership
William Seward
Secretary of state; dedicated expansionist, he purchased Alaska, acquired Midway Island, and tried to buy the Virgin Islands
Communist Revolution
political revolution in Russia starting in 1917; the Bolsheviks overthrew Czar Nicholas II and created a socialist system based upon views of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin (Bolshevik revolution)
Stance
a way of holding the body
Joseph Brant
Mohawk leader who supported the British during the American Revolution. (p. 581)
cajmarca
city in which atahualpa lived- there is one entrance a court yard and a palace in the back, where hernan de soto is sent
Prague Spring
was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union
Qur'an
the holy book of Islam... recitations of revelations received by Muhammad
Swahili
the most widely spoken Bantu language, the official language of Kenya and Tanzania and widely used as a lingua franca in east and central Africa
hooversvilles
camps and shantytowns of unempoyed and homeless on the outskirts of major cities during the early days of the Depression. they were symbols of the failure of Hoover's program and the way the nation held him responsible for the hard times
Lusitania
Ship sent into German waters during the war that was shot down by a torpedo. It initiated the US's involvement in WWI
Gobi
The desert to the north of China
Hebrews
the ethnic group claiming descent from Abraham and Isaac (especially from Isaac's son Jacob)
Mandate System
Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I, to be administered under League of Nations supervision. (p. 770)
Juula
Malinke merchants that formed a small partnership to carry out trade throughout Mali Empire
Delhi Sulatanate
Centralized Indian empire of varying extent, created by Muslim invaders. (p. 374)
Ali
Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; one of orthodox caliphs; focus for Shi'is. (p. 285)
Pickney Treaty
influenced by Jay's Treaty, Spain negotiated a treaty with the U.S. to open lower Mississippi River and New Orleans to American trade

National-Republicans
or Anti-Jacksonians created and run by Henry Clay.
The decisive early battle of the American Revolution that led to the alliance with France.
Saratoga
mural
a large picture painted or affixed directly on a wall or ceiling.
(William C.) Gorgas
This colonel, who helped exterminate yellow fever in Havana, helped make the sanitation-troubled Canal Zone "as safe as a health resort."
Protestant missionaries
These advocates from a branch of Christianity came to Hawaii from New England in 1820. They were quite successful here.
American Protective Association
An organization created by nativists in 1887 that campaigned for laws to restrict immigration
solid south
term used to describe the domination of post-Civil War southern politics by the Democratic Party
Gag Rule
1835 law passed by Southern congress which made it illegal to talk of abolition or anti-slavery arguments in Congress
James Oglethorpe
He repelled Spanish attacks, was an able military leader, saved the "Charity Colony"
Vedas
Aryan hymns written in sacred books in 6th century BCE
Atahualpa
Last ruling Inca emperor of Peru. He was executed by the Spanish. (p. 438)
Forbidden City
The walled section of Beijing where emperors lived between 1121 and 1924. A portion is now a residence for leaders of the People's Republic of China. (p. 355)
Opium Wars
Fought between the British and Qing China beginning in 1839; fought to protect British trade in Opium; resulted in responding British victory, opening of Hong Kong as British port of trade
Yellow Turbans
Daoist leaders promised a golden age to be brought about by divine magic. Attacked the weakness of the emperor and self indulgence of current bureaucracy
Delhi Sultanate
An Indian empire of varying extent which existed from 1206-1526, and was created by Muslim invaders.
Halfway Covenant
A partial church membership led by Solomon Stoddard who believed people were drifting away from the original beliefs.
South Carolina Ordinance of nullification
Vice-President Calhoun anonymously published this essay, which proposed that each state in the union counter the tyranny of the majority by asserting the right to nullify an unconstitutional act of Congress. It was written in reaction to the Tariff of 1828, which he said placed the Union in danger and stripped the South of its rights. South Carolina had threatened to secede if the tariff was not revoked; Calhoun suggested state nullification as a more peaceful solution.
295. 12th Amendment
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
Tecumseh
He was a shawnee indian twin brother to the Prophet. They made a stand against western moving settlers by uniting other tribes. He died in the Battle of Thames while fighting for the British. He was one of the most gifted and noble indian leaders in American history.
Public Works Administration
this administration allotted money to stae and local governments for building roads, bridges, dams, and other public works. This created thousands of jobs
Henry David Thoreau
in Brook Farm Community, lived in seclusion for two years writing Walden, provided that man could provide for himself without materialistic wants
Mesabi Range
Region where rich deposits of iron ore were found in the late 1850s
1541. Impeachment proceedings
Special committee led by Ervin began impeachment talks about Nixon. Impeachment hearing were opened May 9, 1974 against Nixon by the House Judiciary Committee. The Committee recommended 3 articles of impeachment against Nixon: taking part in a criminal conspiracy to obstruct justice, "repeatedly" failing to carry out his constitutional oath, and unconstitutional defiance of committee subpoenas. Nixon resigned on August 9.
Mestizos
Term used to refer to Latin people of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry in the Americas
Samuel Slater
He memorized the way that the British made machines and he brought the idea to America.
Shah Abbas
Also known as Abbas the Great, took the throne in 1587 and helped create the Safavid culture
French Revolution
Overthrow of the Monarchy in France in which Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI are executed
Suleiman the Magnificent
The most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire (r. 1520-1566); also known as Suleiman Kanuni, 'The Lawgiver.' He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean. (p. 526)
Eugene V. Debs
Supreme Court case that upheld state restrictions on the working hours of women
The Scarlet Letter
Hawthorne's 1850 novel in which he wrote about the price individuals pay for cutting themselves off from society.
Iran (persia)
What became a frontline between the US and USSR during the cold war?
903. Safety Valve Thesis
Proposed by Frederick Jackson Turner to explain America's unique non-European culture, held that people who couldn't succeed in eastern society could move west for cheap land and a new start.
"Buffer state", "The Charity State" and "The Penal Colony"
Three nicknames for Georgia
massachusetts bay company
a company, chartered in England in 1629 to establish a colony on Massachusetts Bay, that founded Boston in 1630.
Pottawatomic Massacre
John Brown moved to Kansas to fight to make it a free state. He killed pro-slavery advocates in what became known as this.
Muller v. Oregon
In this 1908 Supreme Court case, Louis D. Brandeis persuaded the judges to accept the constitutionality of laws protecting women workers. Though the reasoning was sexist and discriminatory, it was still hailed as a triumph by progressives.
tributary system
A system in which, from the time of the Han Empire, countries in East and Southeast Asia not under the direct control of empires based in China nevertheless enrolled as tributary states, acknowledging the superiority of the emperors in China.
War of Spanish Succession
war between France and Spain united with the rest of Europe lasting between 1701 and 1714 sparked when one of Louis XIV's grandson's, Philip V, inherited the throne of Spain; other European powers fought to prevent the uniting of Spain and France because it would be a super power
King Williams war
One of the four wars fought between France, Spain, England and France's indian allies for control of North America. No major battles fought but brought terrifying indian raids.
Bill of Attainder
A law that declares a person, without a tria, to be guilty of a crime.
Frederick Jackson Turner's frontier thesis
closing of frontier would cause America to follow strict class divisions, people couldn't have a fresh start anymore. He said before, the frontier stood for independence and individualism.
Tariff of Abominations
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.
how was rome able to expand successfully
disciplined trained army, rich agricultural economy, governement was flexible and tolerant, made city out of conquered elites
The Birth of a Nation
Was a movie which promoted the resurrection of the KKK. It used revolutionary filming techniques
1278. Invasion of Poland, Blitzkrieg
September, 1939 - Germany used series of "lightning campaigns" to conquer Poland. The invasion caused Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany.
Mahabharata

[muh hŠ bŠr uh tuh]
Indian epic of war, princely honor, love, and social duty; written down in the last centuries B.C.E.; previously handed down in oral form
Why war against Britain rather than against France?
Britain practiced impressment and was believed to be supplying weapons to the Indians on the frontier and encouraging them to attack the U.S. Also, Britain held land near the U.S. which the Americans hoped to acquire, and a war with Britain would allow the U.S. to seize Florida from Britain's ally Spain. Although France had also seized American ships, France had agreed to lift its neutral trading restrictions, and the U.S. had resumed trade with France.
What is a correct statement about the US at the end of the revolutionary war?
Aristocratic priveldges were reduced or eliminated
The stable food source allowed for more permanent homes and larger families
The development of agriculture led to an increase in population because
870. "New South," Henry Grady (1850-1889)
1886 - His speech said that the South wanted to grow, embrace industry, and eliminate racism and Confederate separatist feelings. Was an attempt to get Northern businessmen to invest in the South.
William Holden
...
trans-Atlantic slave trade
portugese>dutch>britain
Relief, Recovery, and Reform
(FDR)
Clovis
united franks in 5th century
Year US got into WWI
1917
Voltaire
Enlightenment philosopher who believed strongly in religious freedom
Cash & Carry/ Lend-Lease Act
****
Inca
Largest and most powerful Andean empire. Controlled the Pacific coast of South America from Ecuador to Chile from its capital of Cuzco. (p. 316)
Charles III
Spanish Enlightened monarch; ruled from 1759-1788.
Thomas Aquinas
(Roman Catholic Church) Italian theologian and Doctor of the Church who is remembered for his attempt to reconcile faith and reason in a comprehensive theology
Chesapeake
area where malaria, dysentery, and typhoid cut off ten years of life expectancy; many unmarried pregnancies; lack of women;
Allies
Composed of France, Britain, and Russia, and later Japan and Italy, the Allies fought the Central Powers in World War I - eventually many other countries joined such as the US, China, India, Belgium, Serbia, Greece, Romania,
Leon Trotsky
Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army; ousted from the Communist Party by Stalin and eventually assassinated in Mexico
East African highland nation lying east of the Nile River.
Ehiopia
Antebellum
phrase meaning before the civil war
Sovereignty
supreme political power. When the Continental Congress in 1776 asked the colonies to draft new constitutions, it was asking them to become new states, whose ___________, according to republicanism, would rest on the peoples authority. Power in the peoples hands is the basis for democracy.
Underwood Tariff
Substantially reduced import fees. (1913)
Louis Sullivan
led architectural movement to create building designs that reflected buildings' functions, especially in Chicago
Scientific Revolution
The intellectual movement in Europe, initially associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physics, that by the seventeenth century had laid the groundwork for modern science. (p. 466)
babylonians
they extended their own empire and therefore helped bring civilization to the Middle East; Hammurabi introduced his code of law; it established rules of procedure for courts of law and regulated property rights and the duties of family members, setting harsh punishments for crimes
Chivalry
European medieval code of conduct for knights based on loyalty and honor
e
Which of these items promoted vigorous nationalism and at the same time provoked the LEAST sectional dispute and disunity?
A) Alexander Hamilton's financial program
B) The Battle of the Alamo
C) Henry Clay's "American System"
D) James K. Polk's "manifest destiny"
E) Washington's demand for Genet's recall
George McGovern
George Stanley McGovern, Ph.D (born July 19, 1922) is a former United States Representative, Senator, and Democratic presidential nominee. McGovern lost the 1972 presidential election in a landslide to incumbent Richard Nixon. McGovern was most noted for his opposition to the Vietnam War. He is currently serving as the United Nations global ambassador on hunger.
Borobodur
A massive stone monument on the Indonesian island of Java, erected by the Sailendra kings around 800 C.E. The winding ascent through ten levels, decorated with rich relief carving, is a Buddhist allegory for the progressive stages of enlightenment. (193)
Han Dynasty
imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time) from 206 BC to 221 and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy
Triple Entente
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
Absolute Monarchy
Concept of government developed during rise of nation-states in western Europe during the 17th century; featured monarchs who passed laws without parliaments, appointed professionalized armies and bureaucracies, established state churches, imposed state economic policies
song dynasty
military kept under civil control, only scholarly gentry could be govenors
Peter the Great
(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg. (p. 552)
Credit Mobilier
A joint-stock company organized in 1863 and reorganized in 1867 to build the Union Pacific Railroad. It was involved in a scandal in 1872 in which high government officials were accused of accepting bribes.
"good neighbor policy"
Franklin Roosevelt described his foreign policy as that of a "good neighbor." The phrase came to be used to describe the U.S. attitude toward the countries of Latin America. Under Roosevelt's "Good Neighbor Policy," the U.S. took the lead in promoting good will among these nations.
Horizontal integration
merging competing companies into one giant system.
Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren, a Democratic-Republican Senator from New York, rallied the factory workers of the North in support of Jackson. He became Jackson's V.P. after Calhoun resigned. New York politics at that time was controlled by a clique of wealthy land-owners known as the Albany Regency, of which Van Buren became the leader.
- Passed the Independent Treasury System with Polk after the National Bank was destroyed. It was a way to maintain government funds with minimum risk.
Hittites
A people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze Age. With wealth from the trade in metals and military power based on chariot forces, the hittites vied with New Kingdom Egypt over Syria (p.64)
Swahili Coast
East African shores of the Indian Ocean between the Horn of Africa and the Zambezi River; from the Arabic sawahil, meaning 'shores.' (p. 383)
saladin
muslim leader in the last decades of the 12th century
Triangular Trade
Trade between Europe, Africa, and the Americas that featured finished
products from Europe, slaves from Africa, and American products bound for Europe.
Frenzied Finance
This series by Thomas W. Lawson exposed the practices of his fellow accomplices on the stock market. Its publication made Lawson a good deal of enemies among the rich, but it boosted the sales of Everbody's, the magazine in which it was published.
Champa
A state formerly located in what is now southern Vietnam. It was hostile to Annam and was annexed by Annam and destroyed as an independent entity in 1500. (p. 366)
Reagan Revolution
the policies of the first reagan administration which increased defense spending reduced social programs and cut taxes they were based on supply side theory of growing the economy by cutting government interference and taxes
Great Sioux Reservation
Reservation established in the 1860s by the federal government in the Dakota Territory
Mansa Musa
a king of Mali in the 1300s
Encomienda system
priviledge given by Spain to Spanish settlers in the Americas which allowed to control the lands and people of a certain territory
Spanish Armada, 1588
Spanish Invasion fleet which the Engish triumphed over in the English channel. This gave support to protostants everywhere and hindered Spain
Embargo Act
In response to impressment, this bill halted all foreign trade with disastrous economic consequences (1807)
Articles of Confederation
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
Holy experiment
William Penn's term for the government of Pennsylvania, which was supposed to serve everyone and provide freedom for all.
Non-Importation Agreements
Agreements not to import goods from Great Britain. Deigned to put pressure on the British economy and force the repeal of unpopular Parliamentary acts.
Monroe Doctrine
Said that if Europe intervened with any American country then USA will protect it.
Define gag rule.
Procedure in the House of Representatives from 1836-1844 by which antislavery petitions were automatically tabled when they were received, so that they could not become the subject of debate in the House
Works Progress Administration
New Deal program that provided work for unemployed constructed public works etc., through emergency relief appropriation act; much like Civil Works Administration
Dynastic decline was caused by
Negligent rulers, factions, and government corruption
137. Internal taxes
Taxes which arose out of activities that occurred "internally" within the colonies. The Stamp Act was considered an internal tax, because it taxed the colonists on legal transactions they undertook locally. Many colonists and Englishmen felt that Parliament did not have the authority to levy internal taxes on the colonies.
Industrial Revolution
Began about 1760 in England and later in other countries, characterized chiefly by the replacement of hand tools with power-driven machines, as the power loom and the steam engine, and by the concentration of industry in large establishments.
Edmund Pettus Bridge
the bridge that connects Selma and Montgonery; the bridge that the SNCC and the SCLC marched over
woodblock printing
It is a technique for printing used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China sometime between the mid-6th and late 9th centuries
code of chivalry
honor system among feudal lords that strongly condemned betrayal and promoted mutual respect
Louis XIV
( 1638- 1715) French monarch of the late 17th century who personified absolute monarchy
Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro
Spanish conquistadors who explored North America
The _______ was a popular treatise that emphasized humility, obidence, subservience, and devotion to their husbands as the virtues most appropriate for women
Admonitions for Women
Santa Ana
Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876)
806. Denis Kearney
Irish immigrant who settled in San Fransicso and fought for workers rights. He led strikes in protest of the growing number of imported Chineseworkers who worked for less than the Americans. Founded the Workingman's Party, which was later absorbed into the Granger movement.
entail
to cause or involve by necessity or as a consequence:
What countries made up the Triple Entente?
France, Russia, Great Britain
Indian Removal Act
An act made to force Native American tribes ceed their lands to the US government for land hungry settelers.
Countries from which many of the "New Immigrants" came included
Poland and Italy
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution. (p. 586)
treaty of tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
New England Confederation
1643 - Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies.
1796 elections campaign adams
believed in jays treaty the majority of the campagin took place in papers it was huge
Tenure of Office Act*
(AJohn) In 1867 this Act was passed which limited the President's power by prohibiting the President from removing civil officers w/o Senate consent. Goal was to bar Johnson from firing Secretary of War Stanton.
Domestic and economic policies of Eisenhower
Social Security, Minimum wage, Highway Act, NDE Act, NASA
Tenure Office Act of 1867
An act prohibiting the president from removing officials who had been appointed with the consent of the Senate without first obtaining Senate approval. Johnson "violated this" when he fired Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton. Congress impeached him. During the trial Johnson's lawyers argued the Act was unconstitutional. The senate failed by a single vote to convict Johnson.
1249. Adkins v. Children's Hospital
1923 - The hospital fired employees because it didn't want to pay them what was reqired by the minimum wage law for women and children.
10. The treaty that ended the Sino-Japanese War. It granted Japan Chinese port city trading rights, control of Manchuria, the annexation of the island of Sakhalin, and Korea became its protectorate. Was put together by TR.
TR and the Treaty of Portsmouth
Some reforms successful, some not
In the 1800's, it was usually because the general public either didn't vocally support the reform or was opposed it. Not all people wanted change. In general, reforms failed if they were too far out on the political spectrum.
on black Thursday(24 October 1929)
the stock market crashed and 11 people committed suicide
What were the effects of the machine on labor?
devaluation of skill
women and child labor to save money
decreased independence, as workers had little control
The 3 R's of the New Deal
1. Relief for people out of work
2. Recovery for businesses and the economy
3. Reform of American economic institutions
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