AP World History 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Reconstruction
...
Gempei Wars
Gempei Wars.
Commodore Perry opens Japan
1853
Mawali
non-arab converts to islam
Abbasid
Arabic dynasty (750-1258) that replaced the Ummayyads, reaching its peak under Harun al-Rashid
Mesopotamia
"between the rivers"; civilizations that arose between the Tigris-Euphrates river valleys
Enlightenment
A philosophical movement in eighteenth-century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and were just as scientific as the laws of physics. (pp. 468, 574)
Lord Baltimore
found maryland(refuges for catholics), then people from virgina came and they were portestant so it caused problems.
Constantine
Roman emperor. after reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion.
Clovis
Early Frankish king; converted Franks to Christianity c.496; allowed establishment of Frankish kingdom.
Sahara
Desert running across northern Africa; separates the Mediterranean coast from southern Africa.
Afrikaners
South Africans descended from Dutch and French settlers of the seventeenth century. Their Great Trek founded new settler colonies in the nineteenth century. Though a minority among South Africans, they held political power after 1910.
George Washington
Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
innovation
the explanation that similar cultural traits,techniques,or objects found among different groups of people were invented independently rather than spread from one group to another
Virginia
Had been saved from the spaniards
OPEC
Following increases in oil prices during the 1970s, the world's major oil producers formed a monopoly called the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. OPEC includes Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Nigeria, and Venezuela.
New Imperialism
Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories. (p. 726)
Richard Nixon*
1969-1974, Republican, , he was elected to be US President after Johnson decided to not to run for US president again. He promised peace with honor in Vietnam which means withdrawing American soliders from South Vietnam, American Independent Party - George C. Wallace (resistance to desegregation in public schools, wanted victory in military
city-state
a city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
Mestizos
In the Spanish colonies, persons of mixed European and Indian descent
Bhagavad-Gita
most important work of Indian sactred literature, a conversation between a warrior and a god
Wounded Knee
started by an accidental gunfire, accused both sides to believe warfare had begun. Result was a bloodbath. Indians harbored resentment for the massacre, but for the most part they sought an end to the Indian Wars and allowed themselves to be integrated into American society
John Burgoyne
British general in the American Revolution who captured Fort Ticonderoga but lost the battle of Saratoga in 1777 (1722-1792)
John Hancock
Wealthy president of the Continental Congress and "King of the Smugglers"
Whiskey Rebellion
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Berlin Wall
Wall separating democratic West Berlin from communist East Berlin; symbol of Cold War hostilities.
Patronage
Giving jobs to friends; William Marcy (Jackson's BFF) coined the phrase "to the victor belongs the spoil"
1701 to 1810
peak period of slave trade
New Orleans
fortified post that guarded France from the Gulf of Mexico- fur trade industry
george whitefield
Preacher who traveled throughout the colonies: He said the key test of election (salvation) is an emotional conversion experience
separatists
wanted to break all connections with the church of england as opposed to most puritans who believed it was possible to reform the church/ pilgrims were separatists/ plymouth colony/ pilgrims first fled to holland/ william bradford/ mayflower compact
First Continental Congress
There, they enumerated their grievances and develop an appropriate response to those grievances. They issued a boycott of all British goods, and set up Committees of Observance to enforce the boycott. Perhaps most importantly, it issued a set of parameters within which it felt British interference in colonial affairs to be justified.
Loyalists
(Tories) Colonials loyal to the king during the American Revolution.
profiteering
a person who seeks or exacts exorbitant profits, esp. through the sale of scarce or rationed goods.
AFL-CIO
Labor union forged by the 1955 merger of the AFL and the CIO
satrap
The governor of a province in the Achaemenid Persian Empire, often a relative of the king. He was responsible for protection of the province and for forwarding tribute to the central administration. Enjoyed much power. (pg118)
election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
European Union (EU)
established by the Maastricht Treaty in 1993, a supranational organization for even greater European economic and political integration.
folklore
The common traditions and stories of a people.
Balkan Wars
two wars (1912-1913) that were fought over the last of the European territories of the Ottoman Empire and that left the area around Constantinople (now Istanbul) as the only Ottoman territory in Europe
John Locke
Wrote Two Treatises on Government as justification of Glorious Revolution and end of absolutism in England. He argued that man is born good and has rights to life, liberty, and property. To protect these rights, people enter social contract to create government with limited powers. If a government did not protect these rights or exceeded its authority, Locke believed the people have the right to revolt. The ideas of consent of the governed, social contract, and right of revolution influenced the United States Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. He also laid the foundations for criticism of absolute monarchy in France.
Ramadan
Islamic month of fasting from dawn to sunset
Social Gospel
Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization
Shi'ite (Shia)
believes that the leader of Islam should be a blood relative of Mohammad
Edward Braddock
a British commander during the French and Indian War. He attempted to capture Fort Duquesne in 1755. He was defeated by the French and the Indians. At this battle, he was mortally wounded.
Phoenicians
A group that had many colonies between the Mediterranean Sea and the Lebanon Mts. They influenced trade networks greatly and formed the basis of the Greek alphabet.
Mohandas K. Gandhi
Leader of the Indian independence movement and advocate of nonviolent resistance. After being educated as a lawyer in England, he returned to India and became leader of the Indian National Congress in 1920. (813)
Articles of Confederation
This document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781 during the revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
Colombian Exchange
It is the biological exchange between the Americas and the rest of the world (Eastern + Western Hemisphere).
Biological: food (potato) disease (bubonic plague) animals (horse)
Russo American treaty 1824
problem?
Settled what issue?
Problem?  Alaska
Settled what issue?  The line 54 50 as the southernmost boundary of Russian holdings in North America.
Utopian settle meant that failed bacause it was lazy.
New Harmony Indianna
Virginia Company
The London Group of the Virginia Company established the first permanent colony in Virginia in 1607 on the James River. Reorganized Jamestown governance was completed in 1609 to interest new investors. In 1618, Sir Edwin Sandys instituted reforms such as the headright policy and the first Representative Assembly in 1619.
Potosi
Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America. (p. 479)
Rosie the Riveter
Symbol for all women
Be nurses and make weapons for the war
Post Revolution Period
After fifty years of Latin America revolts, people were still not truly free in Latin America. Slavery was still practiced in most areas of Latin America for decades, peasants still worked the land, and the Catholic Church was very powerful and owned most of the land and kept the male dominated hierarchy in place. Most economies still relied on Europe for exports (except Chile) and a widespread merchant and middle class was not created like the one in the United States.
Caravel
A small vessel with a high deck and three triangular sails.
Nathan Hale
Hung as a spy after sneaking behing the British lines in the Battle of Long Island (1776)
coup de tat in britain
chase james the II out
Denmark Vesey
A mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one of them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before the revolt started.
ethnic cleansing
Effort to eradicate a people and its culture by means of mass killing and the destruction of historical buildings and cultural materials. Ethnic cleansing was used by both sides in the conflicts that accompanied the disintegration of Yugoslavia (883)
agricultural revolutions
the change from food gathering to food productions that occurred between ca. 8000 and 2000 B.C.E. Also known as the Neolithic Revolution.
Anne Hutchinson
Anne Hutchinson was a dissenter in the Massachusetts Bay Colony who caused a schism in the Puritan community. Eventually, Hutchinson's faction lost out in a power struggle for the governorship. She was expelled from the colony in 1673 and traveled southward with a number of her followers, establishing the settlement of Portsmouth, Rhode Island
Lowell, Francis Cabot
Boston Merchant who improved on the power loom and opened America's fist mill. 3: 1775-1825
Battle of Sarratoga
When?
Why Important?
Decisive colonial victory in upstatw New York, which helped secure French support for the Revolutionary cause (october 1777)
Seven Years War
(French and Indian War); Between France (along with Indians) against Britain. 1754-1763
Wrote The Impending Crisis of the South which called upon non-slaveholders to abolish slavery in their own economic interest.
Hinton R. Helper
Europe and Americas
What areas of the world does "the west" refer to?
332. Vice-President Burr
Aaron Burr was one of the leading Democratic-Republicans of New york, and served as a U.S. Senator from New York from 1791-1797. He was the principal opponent of Alexander Hamilton's Federalist policies. In the election of 1800, Burr tied with Jefferson in the Electoral College. The House of Representatives awarded the Presidency to Jefferson and made Burr Vice- President.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Tanakh
a term for the books of the Bible that make up the Hebrew canon.
Social impact of the war
The Revolutionary War saw the emergence of the first anti-slavery groups, and many of the northern states abolished slavery after the war. Women gained a small status increase for their efforts in the war, but they were primarily valued as mothers of future patriots.
Ethiopia and Imperialism
The Scramble for Africa, also known as the Race for Africa, was a process of invasion, occupation, colonisation and annexation of African territory by European powers during the New Imperialism period, between 1881 and World War I in 1914. As a result of the heightened tension between European states in the last quarter of the 19th century, the partitioning of Africa may be seen as a way for the Europeans to eliminate the threat of a Europe-wide war over Africa.
Ethiopia was the only African country to resist the italian imperialism stuff
512. Sam Houston (1793-1863)
Former Governor of Tennessee and an adopted member of the Cherokee Indian tribe, Houston settled in Texas after being sent there by Pres. Jackson to negotiate with the local Indians. Appointed commander of the Texas army in 1835, he led them to victory at San Jacinto, where they were outnumbered 2 to 1. He was President of the Republic of Texas (1836-1838 & 1841-1845) and advocated Texas joining the Union in 1845. He later served as U.S. Senator and Governor of Texas, but was removed from the governorship in 1861 for refusing to ratify Texas joining the Confederacy.
buying on margin
this allowed people to borrow most of the cost of the stock, making down payments as low as 10 percent. Investors depended that the price of the stock would increase so that they could repay the loan. When stock prices dropped, the market collapsed.
791. American Railway Union
Led by Eugene Debs, they started the Pullman strike, composed mostly of railroad workers.
Cult of Domesticity/ Republican Motherhood
centered on the belief that children should be raised to uphold the ideals of republicanism, making them the ideal citizens of the new nation. Republican motherhood meant a new and important role for women, especially regarding civic duty and education, but it did not soon lead to the vote for women.
Treaty of Nanking (1842)
Treaty ending the Opium War that ceded Hong Kong to the British.
How can the standard of living be measured?
1. comparing personal incomes
2.comparing the total market value of a nation's product.
Land Ordinance of 1785
Broke up the old NW into townships 6 mi. square where section 16 is for schools; by Congress of the Confederation
363. Jackson’s victory at New Orleans
January, 1815 - A large British invasion force was repelled by Andrew Jackson’s troops at New Orleans. Jackson had been given the details of the British army’s battle plans by the French pirate, Jean Laffite. About 2500 British soldiers were killed or captured, while in the American army only 8 men were killed. Neither side knew that the Treaty of Ghent had ended the War of 1812 two weeks before the battle. This victory inspired American nationalism.
What was the start of Japanese government?
In the 600s when two uji formed
1504. Charles Reich, The Greening of America
Written in 1970, it predicted a coming revolution with no violence. It offers an interpretation of how the U.S. went wrong and predicts a rebirth of human values through a "new" generation.
Mencius
...
Articulated
Clearly told; expressed.
Grover Cleveland
1885-1889, 22nd President
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Attila The Hun
Barbarian, Germanic Invasions
Black Muslims
preached black nationalism, separatism, self improvement, used violence, known for Malcolm X
jihad
Islamic holy war. (p. 288)
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Lincoln challenged Douglas, probably the nations most devastating debater, to a debate. Lincoln brought up the question of whether or not a territory could vote slavery down without the Supreme Court overruling. Douglas responded with what's known as the Freeport Doctrine, stating that no matter how the court ruled, if people vote slavery down it will stay down. Although Lincoln was defeated in the running for Illinois, the rippling effect of these debates led to his potential Republican nomination for President.
jati
(Hinduism) a Hindu caste or distinctive social group of which there are thousands throughout India
keiretsu
Alliances of corporations and banks that dominate the Japanese economy. (p. 861)
Patriarchy
Social organization marked by the supremacy of the father, legal dependence of wives and children, and inheritance through the make line.
iconoclastic controversy
religious controversy with the Byzantine Empire in the 8th century; emperor attempted to suppress veneration of icons
satrapy
the twenty provinces that Darius divided the empire into; each province was ruled by a governor
Apartheid
Policy of racial segregation practiced by the South African government against black and other colored peoples
European Community
An organization promoting economic unity in Europe formed in 1967 by consolidation of earlier, more limited, agreements. Replaced by the European Union (EU) in 1993. (p. 834)
appeasement
Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.
Wilberforce
British statesmen and reformer, leader of abolitionist movement in English Parliament, lead abolition of slave trade in 1807.
Democratic Republican
Founded by Thomas Jefferson, the Democratic Republicans favored states rights and opposed the Federalist Party. The victory of the Democratic Republicans marked the first party overturn in American history.
Atlantic Colonies
British colonies in North America along atlantic coast
shaykhs
leaders of tribes and clans within bedouin society
Quipu
System of knotted strings utilized by the Incas in place of a writing system; could contain numerical and other types of information for censuses and financial records
Reconquista
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
Hellenism
the culture, ideals, and pattern of life of Classical Greece
enumerated goods
Certain specified goods from the Colonies, including tobacco, cotton, sugar, and furs, which were to be shipped only to England or other English colonies.
zakat
bligatory tax for Muslims used for charity
Ecumene
A Greek word referring to the inhabited world and designating a distinct historical community.
Bronze Age
the period when metallurgy was developed beginning in approximately 3000BCE
ma'at
Egyptian term for the concept of divinely created and maintained order in the universe. Reflecting the ancient Egyptians' belief in an essentially beneficent world, the divine ruler was the earthly guarantor of this order. (See also pyramid.) (p. 42)
Batavia
Fort established in ca. 1619 as headquarters of Dutch East India Company operations in Indonesia; today the city of Jakarta. (p. 795)
Strict Construction
way of interpreting the Constitution that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take
The ancient maya built ______ designed to trap silt carried by the numerous rivers passing through the messoamerican lowlands
terraces
Empress Wu
Ruled during the Tang Dynasty
Expanded Empire
Supported Buddhism
1564. SALT II
Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks. A second treaty was signed on June 18, 1977 to cut back the weaponry of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation for U.S.S.R.'s invasion of Afghanistan, and later superseded by the START treaty.
GEORGE W BUSH
2000 election republican candidate; supported tax cuts and patriot act
alliance
a formal agreement or treaty between two or more nations to cooperate for specific purposes.
Thomas Aquinas
Christian realist who said the faith and reason are not in conflict
Neolithic
The period of the Stone Age associated with the ancient Agricultural Revolution(s). It follows the Paleolithic period. (p. 11)
Greek fire
Byzantine weapon used to drive back Arab fleets that attacked Constantinople
Zebulon Pike
A pioneer who explored the Louisiana territory between 1805 - 1807. He explored Colorado, New Mexico, & Mississippi. He was a leader of the new land.
Great Compromise
the agreement by which Congress would have two houses, the Senate (where each state gets equal representation-two senators) and the House of Representatives (where representation is based on population).
Cajuns
name of the 1 million descendants (in Louisiana) of Acadians forced out of Nova Scotia by the British
Massive retaliation
idea that united states should depend on nuclear weapons to stop Communist agression; prompted by the frustration of the Korean War stalemate and the desire to save money on military budgets, the concept reduced reliance on conventional forces
Rutherford B. Hayes
winner of the 1876 presidential election
ended reconstruction
Temple
(Judaism) the place of worship for a Jewish congregation
Charles J. Guiteau
An American lawyer who assassinated U.S. President James A. Garfield on July 2, 1881. He was executed by hanging.
Dust Bowl
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Comstock Lode
First discovered in 1858 by Henry Comstock, some of the most plentiful and valuable silver was found here, causing many Californians to migrate here, and settle Nevada.
In general the populist movement was primarily supported by
small farmers
408. Jacksonian Democracy: characteristics
The Jacksonian era (1829-1841) included many reforms: free public schools, more women's rights, better working conditions in factories, and the rise of the Abolition movement. In the election, Jackson was portrayed as a common man and his opponent, J.Q. Adams, was attacked for his aristocratic principles. Electors in the electorial college were also chosen by popular vote. Common man, nationalism, National Nominating Conventions.
Adam Smith
Author of the Wealth of Nations; strong proponent of laissez-faire economic theory.
When was farming developed in the Middle East?
10,000-8,000 BCE
3/5 compromise
It was a compromise that yielded a slave counting as 3/5 of a person in regard to a states representation in the House of Representatives. As opposed to the disputes between small and large states, this compromise "settled" disputes between northern and southern colonies (the southern being the main slave-holders). However this proved to only be the beginning of disputes regarding slavery between the north and south.
Darius I
Third ruler of the Persian Empire (r. 521-486 B.C.E.). He crushed the widespread initial resistance to his rule and gave all major government posts to Persians rather than to Medes.
Compromise of 1877
Compromise that enables Hayes to take office in return for the end of Reconstruction
homo sapiens
A species of the creatures Hominid who have larger brains and to which humans belong, dependent of language and usage of tools.
White Huns
different from the Huns who were led by Attila invading the Roman Empire. They are described as a kindred steppe people originally occupied the pasture-lands in the Altai mountain of southwestern Mongolia.Toward the middle of the 5th century, they expanded westward probably because of the pressure from the Juan-juan, a powerful nomadic tribe in Mongolia. Within decades, they became a great power in the Oxus basin and the most serious enemy of the Persian empire.
Petition of Right
A document drawn up by Parliament's House of Commons listing grievances against King Charles I and extending Parliament's powers while limiting the king's. It gave Parliament authority over taxation, declared that free citizens could not be arrested without cause, declared that soldiers could not be quartered in private homes without compensation, and said that martial law cannot be declared during peacetime.
Otto von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire (714)
Jose clemente Orozco
Mexican muralist of the period after the Mexican revolution; like Rivera's, his work featured romantic images of the Indian past with Christian symbols and Marxist ideology
Lowell System/Waltham System
dormitories for young women where they were cared for, fed, and sheltered in return for cheap labor, mill towns, homes for workers to live in around the mills
Tampico Affair
When U.S ships went into a mexican port to pick up a shipment of oil from a warehouse mexican troops took 9 U.S soldiers by gunpoint to thier headquarters. U.S demanded formal apology, mexico gave a written but would not give a 21 gun sallute so president Wilson made them.
Loyalists and Patroits
The groups remaining loyal to the crown were mostly government officials, devout Anglicans, wealthy merchants, and religious and ethnic minorities. Many slaves also believed their chances of freedom to be better with the English, strengthened by the royal governor of Virginia offered to free slaves who escaped their colonial masters and join the British army. Therefore, the immediate pre-Revolutionary War era saw an increase in the numbers of slaves. The Patriots were mostly white Protestant property owners and colonial aristocrats, and anyone who turned a profit by supporting the rebels. Everyone else was wary of both the revolutionists and the English.
Washington Irving
author who wrote "Rip Van Winkle" and "Knickerbocker Tales"
The 100 days
FDR called a special session of congress to deal with the weak American banking system
Congress assed an emergency act on banking and continued the session to deal with unemploymen and failing farm prices
known as100 days, session launched first new dea
Tupac Amaru II
Member of Inca aristocracy who led a rebellion against Spanish authorities in Peru in 1780-1781. He was captured and executed with his wife and other members of his family.
1162. Marcus Garvey (1887-1940), Universal Negro Improvement Association
Black leader who advocated "black nationalism," and financial independence for Blacks, he started the "Back to Africa" movement. He believed Blacks would not get justice in mostly white nations.
Yalta Conference
(FDR) 1945, want quick end to war "The Big Three" FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War, Stalin broke promise on free elections and representative govt.
religion liked by new middle class in earlys 1800s
enthusiastic evangelistic approach
Church of England (Anglican Church)
The national church of England, founded by King Henry VIII. It included both Roman Catholic and Protestant ideas.
Federal Trade Commission Act
1914 - empowered a president - appointed position to investigate the activities of trusts and stop unfair trade practices such as unlawful competition, false advertising, mislabeling, adulteration, and bribery
incorporation
to take in or include as a part or parts, as the body or a mass does:
1078. Triple Alliance; Central Powers
Germany, Austria and Hungary formed an alliance for protection from the Triple Entente.
Zhu Yuanzhang
a former monk that led this army in a final victory over the Mongols, became emperor of China and founded the Ming Dynasty
Dartmouth college vs Woodward
Dartmouth was given a charter by King George III in 1769 but new hampshire wanted to take it away.  Marshall ruled in favor of the colllege saying that the charter was a contract and must remain
What was the Great Awakening?
What other movement did it respond to?
 
A series of religious revival
Divided America's churchgoers between "old lights" and "new lights"
"Old lights" opposed the revivals
"New Lights" supported revivals
 
It responded to "Enlightenment".
British East India Company of 1773
overstocked with 17 million poundes of unsold tea. If the company collapsed, the London government would lose much money. therefore, the london governemtn gave the company a full monopoly of the tea sell in America. Fearing that it was trick to pay more taxes on tea, the Ameicans rejected the tea and hence, the boston tea party
1492. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963
Reacting to Soviet nuclear tests, this treaty was signed on August 5, 1963 and prohibited nuclear testing undersea, in air and in space. Only underground testing was permitted. It was signed by all major powers except France and China.
the growth of a new kind of political community in ny state was largely due to
martin van buren's organizational strengths
Engel vs. Vitale ,School District of Abington Township vs. Schempp
(1962, 1963)were two cases that led to the Court ruling against required prayers and having the Bible in public schools, basing the judgment on the First Amendment, which separated church and state.
atman
essential self
British Southern Strategy
....
Scholasticism
Dominant medieval philoshophical approach; so called because of its base in the schools or universities, based on use of logic to resolve theological problems
Nationalism
The spirit of national-consciousness or national oneness. An essential ingredient to every empire. The national spirit manifested itself into distinct American literature, a revived national bank, a handsome national capital, and an expansion of the army to 10000 men.
YMCA
Spiritual organization meant to provide healthy activities for young workers in the cities
polis
A city-state in ancient Greece
monetary
relating to or involving money
Harvard
Theodore Roosevelt graduated from this university with Phi Beta Kappa honors.
Where was D-Day launched from?
Great Britain
inflation
..., a general and progressive increase in prices
Roger Williams
Extreme separatist- condemned Bay colony for taking land from Indians- thought government should not regulate religious behavior
Estates General
a "governing body" in pre-revolutionary France that was made up of representatives of all three estates; last called in 1789 and at that time sparked the French Revolution
bacon's rebellion
violent conflict begining with settlers attack on indians but culminating in a rebellion led by bacon against virginias government
bureaucracy
system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials
Know-Nothing Party
The Know-Nothings opposed immigration and Catholic influence. They answered questions from outsiders about the party by saying "I know nothing." They were against the Irish and German immigrants because they created a Catholic Church, and the “natives” were Protestant. They were afraid that a Catholic Church would be established. The name came from its secretiveness.
Mikhail Gorbachev
Soviet leader undergoing tensions on superpower and domestic level
kamikaze
The 'divine wind,' which the Japanese credited with blowing Mongol invaders away from their shores in 1281. (p. 365)
cesare beccaria
law
cesare beccaria -essays on crime and punishment- italian philosoph-3 priciples of law-1-prevention- punishemnt prevents crime 2-swift- justice should be swift 3-sure- justoce should be sure- regardless of social status if you commit the crime you should recieve same punishment as someone else of different social status
Iron Curtain
state of political tension and military rivalry
Retributive
done as a penalty or punishment
Ex: Among the ancient Hebrews, legal pratices operated on a retributive principle- an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth-that was common throughout the ancient Middle East. (B81)
China visit
Following a series of secret negotiations with Chinese leaders, Nixon traveled to Beijing in February 1972 to meet with Mao Zedong. The visit initiated diplomatic exchanges that ultimately led to US recognition of the Communist govt in 1979.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
president (1933-1945) elected four times, he led the country's recovery from the Depression and to victory in WWII. he died in office, however, just weeks before Germany's surrender. He is generally considered the greatest president since Abraham Lincoln.
Boxer Rebellion
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
Balfour Declaration
Statement issued by Britain's Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine.
Zoroastrianism
system of religion founded in Persia in the 6th century BC by Zoroaster
Mercantilism
idea that a country's economic wealth could be measured by the amount of gold in its treasury
Hunting & Gathering
predecessor to agriculture; required more land per person; family groups were smaller; not a lot of work done, averaging 2.5 hours per day; resisted agriculture as long as possible-found it too complicated, difficult or unexciting; H & G people lacked immunity to diseases carried by agriculturalists;
Mohenjo-Daro
Largest city of the Indus Valley civilization. It was centrally located in the extensive floodplain of the Indus River. Little is known about the political institutions of Indus Valley communities, but the large-scale implies central planning. (p. 48)
Stephen Foster
United States songwriter whose songs embody the sentiment of the South before the American Civil War (1826-1864)
Freeport Doctrine
Doctrine developed by Stephen Douglas that said the exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. It was unpopular with Southerners, and thus cost him the election.
Janette Rankin
First congresswoman ever elected. Was the only one who voted against WWI.
Wendell Wilkie
The Republicans chose Wendell L. Willkie to run against President Roosevelt. Willkie's great appeal lay in his personality. The Republican platform condemned FDR's alleged dictatorship, as well as the New Deal. Willkie was opposed not so much to the New Deal as to its extravagances and inefficiencies.
convene
to come together or assemble, usually for some public purpose.
Anasazi
Important culture of what is now the southwest (1000-1300 C.E.). Centered on Chaco Canyon in New Mexico and Mesa Verde in Colorado, the Anasazi culture built multistory residences and worshipped in subterranean buildings called kivas. (pg 308)
Sussex pledge
German would not sink passenger ships and merchant vessels without warning unless US persuaded the Allies to modify the Allies illegal blockade
Taino Indians
Indians native to Puerto Rico, who were enslaved by the Spaniards after Columbus's claim on the island. They were subjected to hard labor in mining and farming, and in 1511 they rebelled, but were crushed by the Spanish. Because the Spanish began importing Africans for labor, the island is now rather multiracial.
Gunboat Diplomacy
refers to the pursuit of foreign policy objectives with the aid of conspicuous displays of military power — implying or constituting a direct threat of warfare, should terms not be agreeable to the superior force.
Admiral Alfred T. Mahan
American navy commander, urged government to build up naval forces
Brigham Young
United States religious leader of the Mormon Church after the assassination of Joseph Smith
concession
A privilege granted by a government to another government, private company, or individual.
Red Baiting
Accusing someone of being a communist without evidence
Hanseatic League
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century.
free-trade imperialism
Economic dominance of a weaker country by a more powerful one, while maintaining the legal independence of the weaker state. In the late nineteenth century, free-trade imperialism characterized the relations between the Latin American republics. (744)
seljuk turks
nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly
Good Neighbor Policy
The foreign policy of the administration of United States President Franklin Roosevelt toward the countries of Latin America. Its main principle was that of non-intervention and non-interference in the domestic affairs of Latin America. It also reinforced the idea that the United States would be a "good neighbor" and engage in reciprocal exchanges with Latin American countries. Overall, the Roosevelt administration expected that this new policy would create new economic opportunities in the form of reciprocal trade agreements and reassert the influence of America in Latin America.
FDR :
launches 100 days and New Deal; elected four times ***
914. Farmer's Alliance
Movement which focused on cooperation between farmers. They all agreed to sell crops at the same high prices to eliminate competition. Not successful.
Charles Townshend
Charles Townshend was control of the British ministry and was nicknamed "Champagne Charley" for his brilliant speeches in Parliament while drunk. He persuaded Parliament in 1767 to pass the Townshend Acts. These new regulations was a light import duty on glass, white lead, paper, and tea. It was a tax that the colonist were greatly against and was a near start for rebellions to take place.
Anglo-American Treaty
Betweem Britain and US, allowed for joint occupation of Oregon
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
attempted to boost economy by making loans to banks and insurance companies, hoping to restart them
middle passage
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
296. Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
The Columbian Exchange
The exchange of items (food, animals, diseases) between the new world and the Old World
Supply Side Economics
An economic philosophy that holds the sharply cutting taxes will increase the incentive people have to work, save, and invest. Greater investments will lead to more jobs, a more productive economy, and more tax revenues for the government.
Robert Morris
an American merchant and a signer to the United States Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution. Significance: He played an important role in personally financing the American side in the Revolutionary War from 1781 to 1784. Hence, he came to be known as the 'Financier of the Revolution'.
Atlantic Slave Trade
Lasted from 16th century until the 19th century. Trade of African peoples from Western Africa to the Americas. One part of a three-part economical system known as the Middle Passage of the Triangular Trade.
Robert de la Salle
explorer who found Louisiana- later killed by men when he couldn't find it again
Treaty of Tordesillas
divided the New World between Portugal and Spain
Crimean War (1854-1856)
War between Russia and Ottoman Empire, Britain and France help the Ottomans and win, lead to Russian reforms of industrialization
Multinational Corporations
is a corporation or an enterprise that manages production or delivers services in more than one country. It can also be referred to as an international corporation. The Dutch East India Company was the first multinational corporation in the world and the first company to issue stock.It was also arguably the world's first megacorporation, possessing quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to wage war, negotiate treaties, coin money, and establish colonies.
436. Independent Treasury Plan
Idea that federal government should have its own treasury; never put into practice.
Anthony Wayne A General
, nicknamed "Mad Anthony". Beat Northwest Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794. Left British made arms on the fields of battle. After that the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 led to the Indians ceding their claims to a vast tract in the Ohio Country.
korean war
the war, begun on June 25, 1950, between North Korea, aided by Communist China, and South Korea, aided by the United States and other United Nations members forming a United Nations armed force: truce signed July 27, 1953.
Admiral de Grasse
French admiral who operated a fleet in the West Indies adivsed them that he was free to join them in an assualt on Cornwallis. He cornered Cornwallis at Yorktown by blocking the sea.
Ch'in Dynasty
221 BCE - 206 BCE
Shi Huang di, unified China using legalism, cruel to Confucians, Great Wall, Terra Cotta army, standardized money, weights, roads and centralized power
Second New Deal
name was given to a series of proposals that FDR requsted and congress passed to reinvigorate the NEw Deal as recovery from the Depression began to lag; they were antibusiness in tone and intent and included he Public Utility Holding Company Act, Social Security Act, National Labor Relaitons Act, and the Wealth Tax Act
Magna Carta
a document signed in 1215 by King John of England that limited the power of the king by reinstating the feudal rights of nobles and establishing an assembly of nobles; the first document in history to limit the power of a monarch
matriarch
a woman who rules a family or clan; a highly respected woman who is a mother
Battle of New Orleans
General Jackson won the battle. Rise of Andrew Jackson as a War Hero.
Federal Housing Administration (FHA)
insured bank loans for building new houses and repairing old ones
-gave construction industry and homeowners a boost
Civil Rights Act
(LBJ) 1964 , LBJ passed this in 1964. Prohibited discrimination of African Americans in employement, voting, or public accomidations. Also said there could be no discrimination against race, color, sex, religion, or national origin, had to take literacy test
No, not a sixpence!
US response to France in the XYZ affair
principal results of colonial violence and disorder in last quater of seventeenth century was conversion of most colonies into royal colonines and
more concern with tightening controls from London
213. Constitution - Minority leader
The person elected, by the minority party of Congress, to be leader of the minority party in Congress.
They tried to convert the local natives to Christianity.
How successful was religious conversion in New France?
Cherokee Indian removal, "Trail of Tears"
A minority of the Cherokee tribe, despite the protest of the majority, had surrendered their Georgia land in the 1835 Treaty of New Echota. During the winter of 1838 - 1839, troops under General Winfield Scott evicted them from their homes in Georgia and moved them to Oklahoma Indian country. Many died on the trail; the journey became known as the "Trail of Tears".
104. A democratic society or not?
The Founding Fathers were not sure that democracy was the right form of government for America. They feared anarchy and the rise of factions whose policies would not represent the true will of the people. Hence, the government which they designed contains many aspects of a republic; that is, an indirect democracy in which the people do not vote directly on the laws, but instead elect representatives who vote for them.
the us war effort in cuba suffered from all of the following problems...
shortage of modern rifles and ammunition, heavy, cold-weather uniforms in a hot climate, inadequate medicine and food, and poor racial relations in the us army
427. Jefferson Day Dinner: toasts and quotes
April 13, 1830 - At the Jefferson anniversary dinner, President Jackson toasted, "Our federal union! It must and shall be preserved!" making it clear to the nullifiers that he would resist the states' rights supporters' claim to nullify the tariff law. V.P. Calhoun's response to the toast was, "The union, next to our liberty, most dear. May we always remember that it can only be preserved by distributing evenly the benefits and burdens of the Union." Calhoun had wanted Jackson to side with him (for states' rights) in public, but he didn't succeed.
ayan
wealthy elite
mesolithic
Middle Stone Age
Aristotle
Later Christian scholastic philosophers refer to this person as "masters of those who know."
Olmsted
United States landscape architect primarily responsible for the design of Central Park in New York City (1822-1903)
Edo
Tokugawa capital, modern-day Tokyo; center of Tokugawa shogunate
Long March
The 6,000-mile (9,600-kilometer) flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek. (789)
Fourteen Points
which included self-determination, freedom of the seas, lower tariffs, arms reduction, open diplomacy, blah, blah, blah…and the League of Nations.
Ford and Congress
(GF)relations weren't that good
Eugene McCarthy
1968 Democratic candidate for President who ran to succeed incumbent Lyndon Baines Johnson on an anti-war platform.
proletariat
how did early marxist philospophers characterize all of chinese society
Leo Tolstoy
Greatest russian realist, combines realism in description &character development w/ atypical moralizing. War and Peace
Cold War
The ideological struggle between communism (Soviet Union) and capitalism (United States) for world influence. The Soviet Union and the United States came to the brink of actual war during the Cuban missile crisis but never attacked one another. (831)
Boyars
Russian aristocrats with less power than Western counterparts
Vaclav Havel
writer/critic elected president in Hungary
Alien and Sedition Acts
 
Causes
Immigrants that became republicans stated flowing into the United States and started to critisize the Federalists and vote against them.
 
Features 
The residency changed from 5 to 14 years.
Presidents could deport Aliens without due process.
The sedition act made it illegal for anyone to criticize the president or his party.
This was written to expire in one year.
 
Effects
Jefferson and Madison wrote the Virgina and Kentucky Resolutions to assert the right of states to nullify or declare laws unjust.
Eventually Jefferson pardoned the Alien and Sedition act Martyrs.
Untouchables
Outcaste in Hindu society; performed tasks that were considered polluting, street sweeping, removal of human waste, and tanning
Sunnis
succession should be from a wider base
constitutionalism
The theory developed in early modern England and spread elsewhere that royal power should be subject to legal and legislative checks. (p. 452)
Sweatshop
A factory where employees are forced to work long hours under diffcult conditions for meager wages.
Impeachment
to accuse a public official of misconduct in office.
Isma'il
Sufi commander who conquered city of Tariz in 1501; first Safavid to be proclaimed shah or emperor
Census
An official count of population, often also including other information about the population
Pendleton Act
first national civil service measure; required that some federal jobs be filled by competitive written exams rather than by patronage
Pax Mongolica
Mongol Empire established Yuan Dynasty in China in 1279, ushering in a period known as *what*?
Puranas
a collection of ancient stories that feature Hindu gods such as Vishnu and Shiva
capitalism
The economic system of large financial institutions-banks, stock exchanges, investment companies-that first developed in early modern Europe. Commercial capitalism, the trading system of the early modern economy. (506)
muckrakers
1906 - Journalists who searched for corruption in politics and big business
Nobunaga
Japanese daimyo; 1st to make extensive use of firearms; in 1573 deposed of the last of the Ashikaga shogunate;unified much of central Honshu under his command.
Guptas
dynasty the succeeded the Kushans in the 3rd century CE; built empire that extended to all but the southern regions of Indian subcontinent; less centralized than Mauryan Empire; claimed divine rule; demanding system of taxation; established universities
McKinley Tariff
1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history
Democrats
their philosophy war the stamp of Andrew Jackson, believing the federal government should be limited in power, except to a degree that it worked to eliminate social and economic arrangements that entrenched privilege and stifled equal opportunity.
Dawes Plan
established cycle of payments flowing for US to Germany to Allies.
"Salutary neglect"
Period in which English officials loosely enforced, if even at all, the Nagivation Laws.
division of labor
Manufacturing technique that breaks down a craft into many simple and repetitive tasks that can be performed by unskilled workers. Pioneered in the pottery works of Josiah Wedgwood and in other eighteenth-century factories, increasing productivity, (603)
Reservationists
Senators who pledged to vote in favor of the Treaty of Versailles if certain changes were made - led by Henry Cabot Lodge
Opium War
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China. (p. 684)
Yankee ingenuity
was often necessary for New England colonists. Unlike the rich and fertile soil of Virginia, New England had poor soil as well as a harsh winter and had to rely on improvisation and other means for economic success.
trans-Saharan Caravan Routes
Trading network linking North Africa with sub-Saharan Africa across the Sahara. (p. 210)
Blacks in the South relied on the Union League to
A) help them escape to the North during the Civil War.
B) provide them with relief payments until the Freedmen's Bureau was established.
C) educate them on their civic duties.
D) gain admittance to the
c
Grand Canal
is the longest canal or artificial river in the world.Starting at Beijing, it passes through Tianjin and the provinces of Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the city of Hangzhou. The oldest parts date back to the 5th century BC, although the various sections were finally combined during the Sui Dynasty (581-618 AD).
Ka'aba
A black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
Nature of sovereignty
Americans believed that powers should be divided between leading governing force and smaller forces; British believed all governing power should be under one single leader and the Parliament.
Ming Empire
Empire based in China that Zhu Yuanzhang established after the overthrow of the Yuan Empire. The Ming emperor Yongle sponsored the building of the Forbidden City and the voyages of Zheng He. (554)
War Hawks
members of Congress who wanted to fight Great Britain
Quartering Acts
Acts that forced colonists to house soldiers against their will
Babylon
the largest and most important city in Mesopotamia; it achieved particular eminence as the capital of the Amorite king Hammurabi and the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar
Macons Bill #2
Passed by President Madison, opened trade with entire world again, but cut off Britain later. Lead to War of 1812
Spices
The Dutch policy in Indonesia was to control the production of this
 
 
 
1112. Senate rejection, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, reservations
 
 
 
Lodge was against the League of Nations, so he packed the foreign relations committee with critics and was successful in convincing the Senate to reject the treaty.
French King
The government of New France (Canada) was controlled by this person
rivalry
the action, position, or relation of a rival or rivals; competition:
(Hugo) Chavez
Leader of Venezuela, where oil is an important resource.
mcculloh v maryland
1819. case involves state of Maryland trying to tax the bank of US. Holding:Supremacy clause established, federal government is supreme over the states..bank of US is constitutional
39. James Oglethorpe
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.
Joseph Smith
reported to being visited by an angel and given golden plates in 1840; the plates, when deciphered, brought about the Church of Latter Day Saints and the Book of Mormon; he ran into opposition from Ohio, Illinois, and Missouri when he attempted to spread the Mormon beliefs; he was killed by those who opposed him.
Direct Primary
(TR) run for office may circulate a petition and get the required number signatures, voters a more direct role in govt
Paxton Boys
had a march on Philadelphia in 1764, protesting Quaker tolerance of Indians; the Scots-Irish had a large role in this group
Gideon vs. Wainwright
(1963) said that all criminals were entitled to legal counsel, even if they were too poor to afford it.
James A. Garfield
20th President of the United States; assassinated by a frustrated office-seeker.
Embargo Act of 1807
Resulted in hurt New England economics
Daniel Dulany
Maryland, a bright attorney and son of an indentured servant became an early opponent of the Stamp act, but soon supported the governor against patriot Charles Carroll of Carrollton.
Congregational Church, Cambridge Platform
The Congregational Church was founded by separatists who felt that the Church of England retained too many Roman Catholic beliefs and practices. The Pilgrims were members of the Congregational Church. The Cambridge Platform stressed morality over church dogma.
773. National Labor Union
Established 1866, and headed by William Sylvis and Richard Trevellick, it concentrated on producer cooperation to achieve goals.
IRAN CONTRA SCANDAL
Reagan wants to end Sandinista regime in Nicaragua and wants hostages back; We tell Iran that we will sell them missiles id they get our hostages back and we use that money to give to the Sandinistas
Myron (athletes, chariotees), Phideas (Athena and Zeus, giant), Phaxitoles
List Greek sculptors and their works
Church of England
Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope, Pope would not let Henry divorce his wife caused the Puritans to form to pure the Church of England
Virginia and Kentucky Resolves
opposed the Alien and Sedition acts and argued the Federal government had no right to exercise powers not specifically delegated to it; states could decide constitutionality
George McClellan
He was a Union general that was in charge during the beginning of the war. He defeated Lee, at Antietam, securing a much needed Union victory.but overcautious so lincoln fired him
102. William Henry Harrison
military hero from War of 1812; elected president 1840, died of pneumonia a month later, gave presidency to Tyler
643. Suspension of habeas corpus
Lincoln suspended this writ, which states that a person cannot be arrested without probable cause and must be informed of the charges against him and be given an opportunity to challenge them. Throughout the war, thousands were arrested for disloyal acts. Although the U.S. Supreme Court eventually held the suspension edict to be unconstitutional, by the time the Court acted the Civil War was nearly over.
What were four causes of the war?
militarism, alliances, nationalism, imperialism
What company was in charge of India before 1858?
British East India Company
Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine
Asserted US right to intervene in other American nations who could not manage their own finances.
Judiciary Act of 1789
In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures. The law that provided for the Supreme Court with 6 justices, 3 circuit courts and 13 district courts
29. Virginia: purpose, problems, failures, successes
Virginia was formed by the Virginia Company as a profit-earning venture. Starvation was the major problem; about 90% of the colonists died the first year, many of the survivors left, and the company had trouble attracting new colonists. They offered private land ownership in the colony to attract settlers, but the Virginia Company eventually went bankrupt and the colony went to the crown. Virginia did not become a successful colony until the colonists started raising and exporting tobacco.
Explain how successful the Portuguese monopoly was on the Asian products.
They managed for some decades to manage the flow of spices, which would fund their plans for empire. But control of the market and key condiments deluded them
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
1837) interest of community are above corporate rights case settled a dispute over the constitutional clause regarding obligation of contract
The "triple wall of privilege"
Wilson called for a war against these three things, tariff, banks, and trusts.
1441. "I have a dream" speech
Given August 1963 from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
What would the admossion of California as a free state do to the US?
It would cut off expansion of slavery to the Pacific and threaten the balance in the Senate
Richard Nixon
****
pedagogical
pertaining to teaching
Cyrus McCormick
Invented mechanical reaper
neolithic revolution
succession of technological innovations and changes in human organization that led to the development of agriculture
Suffrage
The legal right to vote.
kushanas
dynasty that succeeded the Mauryas;
Awarded fifty-acre “headrights” for each person entering to the colony to whoever paid that person’s passage.
Headright System
Manchus
Federation of Northeast Asian peoples who founded the Qing Empire. (p. 556)
GI Bill
provided college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as G.I.s) as well as one year of unemployment compensation. It also provided many different types of loans for returning veterans to buy homes and start businesses.
Pericles
Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon, Aristocratic leader who guided the Athenian state through the transformation to full participatory democracy for all male citizens
Mali
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade (see Mansa Musa)
Xiongnu
A confederation of nomadic peoples living beyond the northwest frontier of ancient China. Chinese rulers tried a variety of defenses and stratagems to ward off these 'barbarians,' as they called them, and dispersed them in 1st Century. (168)
Sumer
An ancient region of southern Mesopotamia which rose around 3300 B.C. The first empire that ruled in Mesopotamia and is credited with inventing writing.
Transportation Revolution
1815 dramatic improvements in transportation-more and better roads, steamboats, canals, and finally railroads-tied old communities together and penetrated previously isolated areas. Made transition to a market society physically possible.
billion-dollar Congress
During Harrison's presidency, Congress passed the first billion dollar budget. It included.1. McKinley Tariff act - tariffs of 48%2. increases in pensions to Civil War vets.3. Sherman AntiTrust Act4. Sherman Silver Purchase Act - increased coinage of silver.
monasticism
the monastic system, condition, or mode of life.
Hammurabi
Amorite ruler of Babylon (r. 1792-1750 B.C.E.). He conquered many city-states in southern and northern Mesopotamia and is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on a black stone pillar, illustrating the principles to be used in legal cases. (p. 34)
yaroslav
last of kievan monarchs who issued legal codification based on codes from byzantine empire
Meridian
In geography, any of the imaginary lines of longitude running north and south on the globe.
Albert Einstein
German physicist who developed the theory of relativity. (1879-1955)
Rajputs
Members of a mainly Hindu warrior caste from northwest India. The Mughal emperors drew most of their Hindu officials from this caste, and Akbar I married a Rajput princess. (p. 537)
Chateau -Thierry
first major engagement of american troops in European war
Xuanzong
Leading Chinese emperor of the Tang dynasty who reigned from 713 to 755 though he encouraged overexpansion.
Ismail
Sufi cmmander, took city of Tabriz where he proclaimed self shah
confucius
He taught that people are basically good, should be tolerant of others and respect the elderly.
Moche
Civilization of north coast of Peru (200-700 C.E.). An important Andean civilization that built extensive irrigation networks as well as impressive urban centers dominated by brick temples. (p. 313)
English
British soldiers on US territory: Ft. Detroit, Ft. Niagara, Ft. Michilimackinac
congregationalists
Puritans who wanted to reform the church from within.
The Analects
moral and social teachings of Confucius, including the 5 relationships
Farm Belt
Hoover had done Agricultural Marketing Act (lending money to farmers which created overproduction) so FDR and Secretary of Agriculture Henry Wallace began paying farmers to take land out of production, AAA favored big farmers, was found unconstitutional in Butler vs. US (1936, so made Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act which was the same thing but phrased differently (not to "raise prices" but to "conserve land")
Connecticut
T. Hooker started Hartford in 1636, unhappy with Mass. authorities. Settlers drew up the first constitution in U.S., which established a representative gov. with legislature elected by popular vote and a governor chosen by them. Southern New Haven combined with the royal charter allowing a limited degree of self-government.
Agricultural Transition
men begining to domesticate animals instead of jest hunting them by providing for their needs and supeervising the breeding
 
women begin to cultivate crops instead of foraging
Who was the Confederates provisional president?
Jefferson Davis
Dominion of New england
1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros) Charters and self rule were revoked, and the king enforced mercantile laws. The new setup also made for more efficient administration of English Navigation Laws, as well as a better defense system.
Imperialism
the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies.
francisco de coronado
great exploration to northwest he starts from mexico city in 140 and he goes to kansas nebraska- he was looking for th eseven cities of cibula- seven cities of gold- long expedition- 2500 miles there and back=5000 miles on horseback- by the time corinado gets out there these indians have allreay heard of how the indians behave-
539. Willamette Valley
The spot where many settlers travelling along the Oregon trailed stopped.
Jizya
Head tax paid by all nonbelievers in Islamic territories
Punic Wars
three wars between Rome and Carthage; Rome defeated Carthage
Intolerable Acts
Passed by Parliamet in 1774. Punished the MA people for Boston Tea Party, which restricted their rights. the laws restricted town meetings and stated that enforcing officials who killed colonies in the line of duty would be sent to Britain for trial.
urbanization
movement of people from rural areas to cities
Woodrow Wilson
American president during WWI, his 14 points and soldiers helped the the Allied Forces win the war
"The Kennedy Round"
Trade negotiations held in Geneva, Switzerland from 1964-1967; major step towards free trade and globalization.
Zulu
A people of modern South Africa whom King Shaka united beginning in 1818. (p. 649)
Enlightenment Thinkers
strongly believed in the power of human reason
Samuel Chase
supreme court justice of whom the Democratic-Republican Congress tried to remove in retaliation of the John Marshall's decision regarding Marbury; was not removed due to a lack of votes in the Senate.
the chinese emperor who was notorious for his hatred of confucianism and for his burning of books was
Qin Shihuangdi
Russo-Japanese War
War between two foriegn powers that Roosevelt helped negiotate a peace treaty for, and recieved a Nobel Peacy Prize for his work
The civilization of the Maya developed in the
Yucatan Peninsula.
Oklahoma Territory
once set aside for Native Americans but opened for settlement in 1889
Sam Adams
He was opposed to the constitution until the Bill of Rights was added, and then he supported it.
dole
a dealing out or distributing, esp. in charity.
Newlands Act (Reclamation Act)
(TR) 1902 irrigation projects for western states
New Immigrants
Term for the post- 1880 newcomers who came to America primarily from southern and eastern Europe.
What is a caravansary?
A roadside inn for caravan traders
The New Jersey Plan
offered a unicameral Congress with each state having 1 vote. Congress would sit atop the governmental hierarchy with the most power, they would have the powers to tax and regulate trade. Resembled the unicameral gov described in the Articles
Ku Klux Klan
a secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep african americans from obtaining their civil rights
Operation Desert Storm
Operation Desert Storm was the code name given to the first U.S.-led war against Iraq in the Persian Gulf on January 17, 1991.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary; assasinated in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip
growth african american community based on
relationship between creoles and africans and between the slaves and their masters
Library of Ashurbanipal
A large collection of writings drawn from the ancient literary, religious, and scientific traditions of Mesopotamia. It was assembled by the sixth century B.C.E. Assyrian ruler Ashurbanipal. (98)
joint-stock
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
Population growth in the 1700's
Population had increased tenfold within about 75 years. This was due to an increase in immigration and in natural birth rate.
 
English, Germans, Scotch-Irish, and other Europeans all immigrated to the English colonies. The largest amount of immigrants were the African slaves, who made up 20 percent of the colonial population by 1775.
Federalist Papers, authored by
James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay.
Committee on Public Information
Was created to "sell" the war to those people who were against it and gain support for it. To do this, men devlievered speeches and gave out pamphlets. It was headed by George Creel
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
(JFK) 1963, Wake of Cuban Missile Crisis (climax of Cold War, closest weve ever come to nuclear war) Soviets & US agree to prohibit all above-ground nuclear tests, both nations choose to avoid annihilating the human race w/ nuclear war, France and China did not sign
1576. Olympic Boycott, 1980
The U.S. withdrew from the competition held in Moscow to protest the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. About 64 other nations withdrew for this and other reasons.
MIssissippi Valley
This region was struck by a drought in 1930, causing thousands of farms to be sold at auction. Farm tenancy and rental was on the rise.
Constitution: Minority whip
The person who tells members of the minority party in Congress how they should vote.
buddhist
were not taxed so they were seen as a threat & persecuted
Admirality Courts
Courts with no jury and it was guilty until proven innocent.
1048. Theodore Roosevelt, New Nationalism
A system win which government authority would be balanced and coordinate economic activity. Government would regulate business.
John Foster Dulles
As Secretary of State. he viewed the struggle against Communism as a classic conflict between good and evil. Believed in containment and the Eisenhower doctrine.
1033. City Manager Plan, Commission Plan
Legislation designed to break up political machines and replace traditional political management of cities with trained professional urban planners and managers.
Pope Innocent IV
What was the name of the pope which sent missionaries to convert the Mongol Khan
Era of Good Feelings
The year 1815 marks a watershed in American history. Before that date American history was closely tied to European history—particularly to the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. With Napoleon's defeat and the success of the Congress of Vienna in 1815, a long period of peace began in Europe. American leaders paid less attention to European trade and European war, and more to the internal development of the United States 3: 1775-1825
"the Articles of Confederation succedded in guiding the United States through its first decade" what actions support this statement
the land ordinance of 1785, the northwest ordinance, the signing of a favorable peace treaty, US government conducting a war effort that resulted in American Idenpendence
481. Samuel F.B. Morse, Imminent Dangers to the Free Institutions of the U.S. Through Foreign Immigration, and the Present State of the Naturalization Laws
He was briefly involved in Nativism and anti-Catholic movements, asserting that foreign immigration posed a threat to the free institutions of the U.S., as immigrants took jobs from Americans and brought dangerous new ideas.
election of 1800, jefferson and burr
two dmeocratice rep. TJ and AB, defeated john adams but tied with one another. the house of rep were to make final call over a tie. after long series, house jefferson was chose. led to 12th admenment, same party to run under same ballat
1203. National Industrial Recovery Administration (NIRA)
Founded in 1933 to carry out the plans of the National Industry Recovery Act to fight depression. It established code authorities for each branch of industry or buisness. The code authorities set the lowest prices that could be charged, the lowest wages that could be paid, and the standards of quality that must be observed.
why did the agreement between israeli premier yitzhak rabin and palestine liberation organization (PLO) leader yasir arafat fall apart in 1995? what has the two sides been working toward?
agreed on self rule for palestines living in israel. fell apart when rabin was assassinated in '95. both sides momentary peace was ruined and they continue their struggle over the land of israel as palestine tries to create an independent state
do you think america has entered into an age of no confidence since 1960? why or why not
no, i believe america hasnt entered an age of no confidence. since 1960s america has made many incredible advances in science, medicine, and technology. through tech. america has led the way in an electronic global economy, allowing it to 'outsource' its businesses all over the world. tech has also led to the creation of weapons that will protect america. america economy has driven the world in economic growth. influx of immigrants are forming the base of america's economy and haring their sense of pride.
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