AP World History 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
exacting
demanding
Quebec
1st French settlement
carolingians
royal house of franks
1892 election
grover won again
Jainism
Indian religion associated with Vardhamana Mahavira (54-468 BCE), believed in nonviolence because every physical object possesses a soul.
Kushans
dynasty that succeeded Mauryan; sponsored Buddhism
Daoism
Philosophy associated with Laozi; stressed need for alignment with Dao, or cosmic force
Nongovernmental Organizations
Nonprofit international organizations devoted to investigating human rights abuses and providing humanitarian relief. Two NGOs won the Nobel Peace Prize in the 1990s: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (1997) and Doctors Without Borders (1999). (p. 8
William Penn
planned philadelphia, liked indians, no immigration restcrictions, freedom of worship
filibuster
senator's speech designed to halt congressional action
Moldboard
Heavy plow introduced in northern Europe during the Middle Ages; permited deeper cultivation of heavier soils; a technological innovation of the medevial agricultural system.
San
Martin, José de Leader of independence movement in Rio de la Plata; led to independence of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata by 1816; later led independence movement in Chile and Peru as well.
Iconoclast
Opposing or even destroying images, especially those set up for religious veneration in the belief that such images represent idol worship.
Tories
The Tories were colonists who disagreed with the move for independence and did not support the Revolution.
Federalists
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
strict construction
constitution is narrowly interpreted to give the federal govt only those powers specifically delegated to it
Ghana
Early kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth adn thirteenth centuries CE. There is evidence of trade of gold and salt between merchants in Ghana and Muslim merchants in North Africa
Seperate Spheres
Nineteenth-century idea in Western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have different roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics (711)
War of 1812
(JM), 1812-1815, Resulted from Britain's support of Indian hostilities along the frontier, interference with American trade, and impressments of American sailors into the British army (Leopard on Chesapeake) (1812 - 1815), Embargo Act
abraham
the first of the Old Testament patriarchs and the father of Isaac
Dutch learning
Western learning embraced by some Japanese in the eighteenth century
Mahabharata
epic about cousins battling for the throne, includes the BHagavad-Gita the most important work of Indian sacred literature
Robert Fulton
"Fulton's Folly" the Clermont, 1st successful steamboat. 5 miles an hour up stream. Yay
Unitarianism
a system of Christian belief that maintains the unipersonality of God, rejects the Trinity and the divinity of Christ, and takes reason, conscience, and character as the criteria of belief and practice
Charles Townshend
government official, close to the king, likeable, sponsored taxes, "Champagne Charlie", sponsored taxes for: lead, glass, paper, paint & tea,
Currency Act,
This act applied only to Massachusetts. It was an attempt to ban the production of paper money in Massachusetts, but it was defeated in Parliament.
Tet Offensive
Major attack by communist forces against South Vietnam; made war very unpopular in U.S. despite military victory.
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world. (p. 431)
columbus first products introduced to new world
sugar cane
King William's War
British colonists against French coureurs de bois- recruted Indians- guerrila warfare
Lucy Stone
sister-in-law of Blackwell; took major step by keeping her maiden name after marriage.
The Carolingians
Aristocratic clan that displaced the line of Clovis & asserted authority
James Otis
James Otis published a pamphlet, called The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted, in which he coined the phrase, “no taxation without representation”.  The British jeered at the notion, claiming the theory of virtual representation, which stated that the members of Parliament represented all citizens regardless of whether they elected them or not.
Andrew Jackson
He was the seventh president, supported mostly but the West and South (the common people). He had no formal education. His beliefs were simple, but his military background often influenced him. He introduced the spoil's system into American gov't, or rotation in office as he called it. His cabinet was called the "kitchen cabinet" because they were thought of as Jackson's friends, not political office holders.
prohibited
to forbid the action of (a person).
Burned-Over District
heavily evangelized to the point there were no more people left to convert to other religions, upstate New York, home to the beginning of Smith's Mormonism movement
Shi'ite Islam
Branch of Islam believing that God vests leadership of the community in a descendant of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali. Shi'ism is the state religion of Iran. (See also Sunnis.) (pp. 225, 531)
antietam
the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation
Four Noble Truths
the foundation of Buddhist thought: life is pain, pain is caused by desire, elimination of deisre will bring an end to pain, living a life based on the Noble Eightfold Path will eliminate desire
Swahili
A Bantu language of the coast and islands of eastern Africa from Somalia to Mozambique
Earth Day
A day created in 1970 about celebrating and caring for the Earth
The Dancing Cabinet
Meigi Government Ministers who hosted many galas
Louis IX
Louis IX or Saint Louis,1214-70, king of France (1226-70), son and successor of Louis VIII
Domino Theory
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
mulattos
people who were a mix between Spanish and African; third social class in Spanish ruled Latin America with the mestizos
Asantehene
Title taken by ruler of Asante Empire; supreme civil and religious leader; authority symbolized by golden stool.
Abigail Adams
Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create.
Rashid al-Din
Adviser to the Il-khan ruler Ghazan, who converted to Islam on Rashid's advice. (p. 334)
Tecumseh
A famous chief of the Shawnee who tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing white settlement (1768-1813)
30 years war
War in Europe. Religious conflicts blow up into a political war on the continent
Virginia Plan
Representation for both houses in a bicameral Congress should be based on population.
Jefferson compared slavery to what?
holding a wolf's ear
William Bradford
Bradford was the leader of the Pilgrims and the Governor of Plymouth. Bradford kept a tight rein on the settlement, allowing ver little latitude to the colonists. He intuitively understood that their safety lay in their numbers.
Crystal Palace
Building erected in Hyde Park, London, for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Made of iron and glass, like a gigantic greenhouse, it was a symbol of the industrial age. (p. 606)
Act of Toleration
law that guaranteed tolerance for all Christians, but not for Jews or Atheists
Most-favored-nation status
A clause in a commercial treaty that awards to any later signatories all the privileges previously granted to the original signatories.
jeremiads
a new form of sermon in the Puritan churches in the mid-seventeenth century; preachers scolded parishioners for their waning piety
Silk Road Trade
the trade route that linked the Eurasian land mass
roanoke
first attempt at a colony in America - known as the lost colony - mysterious
National Republicans
After the 1824 election, part of the Democratic - Republican party joined John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson. They favored nationalistic measures like recharter of the Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense. They were supported mainly by Northwesterners and were not very successful. They were conservatives alarmed by Jackson's radicalness; they joined with the Whigs in the 1830's.
Great Western Schism
A division in the Latin (Western) Christian Church between 1378 and 1417, when rival claimants to the papacy existed in Rome and Avignon. (p. 411)
Assyrians
They are the next group to take over the Fertile Crescent after the Sargon. Their king was king Ashurbanipal. They were defeated by the Medes and the Chaldeans. They reached their height during the 7th and 8th centuries.
Boston Massacre
In March 1770, a crowd of colonists protested against British customs agents and the presence of British troops in Boston. Violence flared and five colonists were killed.
Prigg v Pennsylvania
This court case ultimately held that federal law superseded state law. It declared unconstitutional all fugitive slave laws enacted by the states on the ground that the federal law provided the exclusive remedy for the return of runaway slaves. Prigg was indicted by Pennsylvania for returning slaves to their owners despite state laws; the Supreme Court reversed the decision, holding that it was in conflict with the Constitution, which required slaves to be returned to states from which they came 4: 1825-1865
Maryland Toleration Act
Maryland finally gave approval to the Articles of Confederation (Maryland was the last of the 13 to give approval) on March 1, 1781.
Treaty of Paris (1782)
granted the US independence and generous territorial rights
This “power” was enjoyed by colonial legislatures, because they controlled the royal governor’s salary.
Power of the Purse
Shakespeare & Cervantes
wrote a new set of classics for literary traditions in major western languages.
13. Anne Hutchinson, Antinomianism
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
National Interstate and Defense Highways Act
1956, Authorizes the building of 41,000 miles of highways in the nations biggest public works project ever. Pattern of Community development is fundamentally changed.
Shah Abbas I
Shah of Iran (r. 1587-1629). The most illustrious ruler of the Safavid Empire, he moved the imperial capital to Isfahan in 1598, where he erected many palaces, mosques, and public buildings. (p. 533)
Yorktown, Lord Cornwallis
Because of their lack of success in suppressing the Revolution in the nothern colonies, in early 1780 the British switched their strategy and undertook a series of campaigns through the southern colonies. This strategy was equally unsuccessful, and the British decided to return to their main headquarters in New York City. While marching from Virginia to New York, British commander Lord Cornwallis became trapped in Yorktown on the Chesapeake Bay. His troops fortified the town and waited for reinforcements. The French navy, led by DeGrasse, blocked their escape. After a series of battles, Cornwallis surrendered to the Continental Army on October 19, 1781, which ended all major fighting in the Revolutionary War.
Rousseau
(28 June 1712 - 2 July 1778) was a major Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of 18th-century Romanticism. His political philosophy heavily influenced the French Revolution, as well as the American Revolution and the overall development of modern political, sociological and educational thought. His novel, Émile: or, On Education is a seminal treatise on the education of the whole person for citizenship. His sentimental novel, Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse, was of great importance to the development of pre-romanticism and romanticism in fiction. Rousseau's autobiographical writings: his Confessions, which initiated the modern autobiography, and his Reveries of a Solitary Walker were among the pre-eminent examples of the late 18th-century movement known as the Age of Sensibility, featuring an increasing focus on subjectivity and introspection that has characterized the modern age. His Discourse on the Origin of Inequality and his On the Social Contract are cornerstones in modern political and social thought and make a strong case for democratic government and social empowerment. Rousseau also made important contributions to music as a theorist. During the period of the French Revolution, Rousseau was the most popular of the philosophes among members of the Jacobin Club. He was interred as a national hero in the Panthéon in Paris, in 1794, 16 years after his death.
1065. Adamson Act, 1916
Wilson pushed passage of this act which mandated an eight hour workday and time and a half for overtime.
Frances Perkins
the first woman to ever serve in a president's cabinet
529. General Winfield Scott
Led the U.S. forces' march on Mexico City during the Mexican War. He took the city and ended the war.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
A 1946 United Nations covenant binding signatory nations to the observance of specified rights.
Virginia Statue of Religious Freedom
In 1786 (written by Thomas Jefferson) declared that men had total religious freedom,it helped shape the course that religion would take in the US, which was pluralistic and voluntary rather than state supported and monolithic.
What does Federal Gov't operate under when involved in economy?
competition; makes sure american business can compete globally.
Battle of Vera Cruz
US was trying to seize the city to protect it from Germany but the Mexicans rebelled.
1331. Yugoslavia, Marshall Tito
An election was held in 1945 in which the moderate candidates were not allowed to run. On November 29, 1945, the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed. Following the adoption of a new constitution, the assembly reconstituted itself into a parliament. Tito was the Premier of the cabinet.
Why did Diocletian divide the Empire into four parts?
So it would be easier to manage.
946. Assistant Secretary of Navy Theodore Roosevelt
In charge of the navy when the Maine crisis occurred, he had rebuilt the navy and tried to start a war with Cuba.
Spanish-American War
1898
dispossessed
The economically deprived.
Phoenicians
created first simplified alphabet
scholasticism
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century. (p. 408)
comintern
Communist International, founded by Lenin to spread revolution throughout the world
King saul
First King of Israel
McCarthy
McCarthyism introduced the existence or communism in various government departments. It lead to blacklisting of many authors, performers, and educators who were unwilling to prove their loyalty to the country.
clipper ship
Large, fast, streamlined sailing vessel, often American built, of the mid-to-late nineteenth century rigged with vast canvas sails hung from tall masts. (p. 666)
tatars
mongols who captured Russian cities and largely destroyed Kieven state
Pequot War
War between Massachusetts and Plymouth.
Lucretia Mott
1793-1880, U.S. social reformer: advocate of women's rights.
Il-khanate
Mongols declined because of Economic troubles, but that was also couled with fractional struggles in Persia, and when the last Mongol rulers died without an heir in 1335, *what* collapsed?
Pericles
Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon
An Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama, who renounced his wealth and social position. After becoming "enlightened," he enunciated the principles of Buddhism. This doctrine evolved and spread throughout India and to Southeast, East, and Central Asia
Buddha
David Ben-Gurion
first prime minister of Israel
George Washington
Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
Ostend Manifesto
Secret document that urged administration to offer $120 for Cuba.
Woodrow Wilson
stood for antitrust, monetary change, and tariff reduction, far less active than Roosevelt, Clayton Antitrust Act
Augustus
Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate. (151)
What country led the Industrial Revolution?
Great Britain
Amon-Re
Egyptian god, combination of the sun god Re and the air god Amon
c
What reason was given by President Cleveland for intervening with federal troops in the Pullman Strike of 1894?
A) The Governor of Illinois requested the troops.
B) The strike endangered national health and safety.
C) The strike interfered with the United States mails and interstate commerce.
D) The strike endangered the national defense.
E) Federal property was being destroyed.
committees of correspondence
intracolonial committees that spread the spirit of resistance by exchanging letters and thus kept alive opposition to British policy; Virginia created the first intercolonial committee in 1773 as a standing committee of the House of Burgesses; supremely significant in stimulating and disseminating sentiment in favor of united action; evolved directly into the first American congress
Bartholomeu Dias
Portugese who rounded the southernmost tip of Africa in 1488, seeking a water route to Asia
Balboa
(1475-January 15, 1519) was a Spanish explorer, governor, and conquistador. He is best known for having crossed the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean in 1513, becoming the first European to lead an expedition to have seen or reached the Pacific from the New World.
mestizo
The term used by Spanish authorities to describe someone of mixed native American and European descent.
Cecil Rhodes Asante
British entrepreneur and politician involved in the expansion of the British Empire from South Africa into Central Africa. The colonies of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) were named after him. (p. 736)
John Jay
first chief justice of the US
megalith
memorial consisting of a very large stone forming part of a prehistoric structure (especially in western Europe)
Catholic Reformation
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline. (p. 447)
Wilmot Proviso
Dispute over whether any Mexican territory that America won during the Mexican War should be free or a slave territory. A representative named David Wilmot introduced an amendment stating that any territory acquired from Mexico would be free. This amendment passed the House twice, but failed to ever pass in Senate. It became a symbol of how intense dispute over slavery was in the U.S.
Puritan migration
Many Puritans emigrated from England to America in the 1630s and 1640s. During this time, the population of the Massachusetts Bay colony grew to ten times its earlier population.
Benito Mussolini
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy.
Marcus Garvey
Black leader who advocated "black nationalism," and financial independence for Blacks, he started the "Back to Africa" movement and founded the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). He believed Blacks would not get justice in mostly white nations. He also sponsored black businesses to keep black dollars in black hands.
Aleandria
City on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt founded by Alexander. It became the capital of the Hellenistic kingdom of the Ptolemies. It contained the famous Library and the Museum-a center for leading scientific and literary figures. (138)
Decemberist Uprising
revolt by military officers who wanted Nicholas' brother to rule, put down Nicholas I
Timbuktu
City in Mali, Africa, that was notable for its Islamic university and 180 religious
schools.
(George F.) Baer
He was a multimillionaire spokesman for the mine owners involved in the major coal miners' strike in Pennsylvania. He was closed-minded and believed the same as his employers, that it was God's will that those in power should keep it and that workers could do nothing about it.
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon I. (p. 594)
Black Power Movement
African American movement that focused on gaining control of economic and political power to achieve equal rights by force in necessary. (Malcolm X)
Granger Laws
Laws pushed to regulate railway rates, storage fees charged by railroads and warehouse operators
Ming Dynasty
the imperial dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. Founded by Taizu. Chinese dynasty that provided an interval of native rule between eras of Mongol and Manchu dominance.
Augustus Caesar
Name given to Octavian following his defeat of Mark Anthony and Cleopatra; first emperor of Rome.
Haile Selassie
Emperor of Ethiopia (r. 1930-1974) and symbol of African independence. He fought the Italian invasion of his country in 1935 and regained his throne during World War II, when British forces expelled the Italians. He ruled Ethiopia as an autocrat. (809)
Shi'a
a Muslim group that accepts only the descendants of Muhammed's son-in-law Ali as the true rulers of Islam
Appomatox Courthouse
The home where Lee surrendered to Grant when he realized further fighting would be futile. He surrendered on April 9, 1865
abolition
the act of abolishing a system or practice or institution (especially abolishing slavery)
Confucianism
lived in China during the Zhou dynasty while there was mass confusion and degrading moral standards; natural social order; 5 relationships
 
 
 
 
23. Harvard founded
 
 
 
 
1636 - Founded by a grant form the Massachusetts general court. Followed Puritan beliefs.
Constantine (285-337 CE)
Roman emperor who, after reuniting Rome, moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion.
3. Commodore of the Pacific fleet of American ships in the Spanish-American War. He attacked the Philippines when war was declared by the US.
George Dewey
Berlin Airlift
Soviets cut Berlin off from the rest of Germany by blockade; US organized airlift to drop supplies into Britain; blockade lifted in may 1949
Treaty of Tortesailes
Line dividing land for portugal and spain; spain got more land; pope drew this line
429. Force Bill
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
Pickney Treaty
Treaty with Spain in which US gains access to the Miss. and the right of deposit in New Orleans and land in Miss and Alabama
Chilean Coup
watershed event of the Cold War and the history of Chile. On Tuesday 11 September 1973, the democratically elected President Salvador Allende was overthrown in a coup d'état organised by the Chilean military and endorsed by the United States. A military junta took control of the government, composed of the heads of the Air Force, Navy, Carabineros (police force) and the Army led by General Augusto Pinochet. Pinochet later assumed power and ended Allende's democratically elected Popular Unity government.
stateless society
an ethnic group not represented by its own unique, coterminous state
"spot resolutions"
Lincoln asked Polk to say the precise spot in which American Blood shed, because american blood was not shed in America but in disputed territory.
Benedict Arnold
He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.
Marshall Court (all cases)
Marbury v. Madison (judicial review), McChulloch v. Maryland (loose Constitutional interpretation, constitutionality of National Bank, states cannot control government agencies), Gibbons v. Ogden (interstate commerce controlled by Congress), Fletcher v. Peck (valid contract cannot be broken, state law voided), Dartmouth College v. Woodward (charter cannot be altered without both parties' consent)
latin americe was shaped
with enlightment beliefs and concepts of the west
1388. Sen. Joseph McCarthy (1908-1957), McCarthyism
Wisconsin Senator who began sensational campaign in February, 1950 by asserting that the U.S. State Department had been infiltrated by Communists. In 1953 became Chair of the Senate Sub- Committee on Investigations and accused the Army of covering up foreign espionage. The Army-McCarthy Hearings made McCarthy look so foolish that further investigations were halted.
Lone Star
State Lone Star State - Texas was first ruled by Spain for over 300 years as a part of Mexico. When Mexico became an independent country in 1821, Texas became a Mexican State and new settlers from the United States were welcomed . The large influx of Americans led to skirmishes with Mexican troops. After a successful war of independence against Mexico, Texans raised the Lone Star flag over their own republic in 1836. Their government was recognized by the United States and several other European countries. In 1845 Texas accepted annexation by the United States and was admitted as the 28th state.
mandate
a command or authorization to act in a particular way on a public issue given by the electorate to its representative:
League of Armed Neutrality
The empress of Russia, Catherine II, made a declaration in 1780, restricting the category of contrabands to munitions and essential instruments of war. She also secured the freedom of the navigation of neutral nations, even to ports of belligerents. The U.S. could not join because it was fighting in the Revolutionary war.
what forms of govt existed in the different greek city states
democracies, aristocracies, oligarchies, democracies
James G. Blaine
led the Half Breeds, part of the competition for control of the Republican party. the Half Breeds were interested in reform over professional traditonal politics
Hudson River School of Painters
School where people learn to paint
Harrapa
the site of one of the great cities of the Indus valley civilization located on the NW frontier of the zone of cultivation (modern Pakistan), and may have been a center for the acquisition of raw materials, such as metals and precious stones, from Afghanistan and Iran
Battle of Cowpens
was fought on January 17, 1781, during the American Revolutionary War and was an overwhelming victory by American revolutionary forces under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan. It was an important turning point in the reconquest of South Carolina from the British, and went down in history as the great American tactical masterpiece of the war.
battle of horsehoe bend
inspired by techmeseh who had already died
they went to war because britain planed to create a neutral insian state that would be a buffer to the americas
First Powhatan War
1614- war between Lord De La Ware and the Indians- ended with marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe
The American System
Henry Clay came up w/ plan that drew on nationalistic feelings. 3 parts: strong baking system for lots of credit, protective tariff, and internal improvements (roads, canals) 1&2 yes.
Islam after Mohammad
Aby Bakr became caliph - sort of an emperor and religiou leader in one. Government called a caliphate - theocratic government. No clear line of succession afterwards until the fomation of the Umayyad Dynasty. The capital of Islam was moved to Damascus in Syria with Mecca as the spiritual center. Th islamic Empire spread during the Umayyad period, until they dominated the south (christians dominated the north). But Charles Martel stopped muslim expansion. The Dome of the Rock was built (a famous temple thing) After the Shiita/ Sunni split the Abbasid Dynasty reigned.
1152. Leopold and Loeb case
Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb were convicted of killing a young boy, Bobby Franks, in Chicago just to see if they could get away with it. Defended by Clarence Darrow, they got life imprisonment. Both geniuses, they had decided to commit the perfect murder. The first use of the insanity defense in court.
20 provinces each under a satrap
What was the Persian approach to ruling diverse peoples?
The Covenant (Judaism)
the promise by God to the Jews told of in the Torah that if the Jews followed God as their only God then he would give them the promised land
define: the idea of Spontaneous Order
order that arises through human action instead of human design.
Treaty of San Lorenzo / Pinckney's Treaty
In his second term, Washington sent Thomas Pinckney to Spain to negiogate use of the Missippi river, tax-free access to world markets, and the removal of all Spanish forts from American soil. Pinckney got the Spanish to promise to prevent Indian attacks on US lands. Ratified by the US Senate in 1796, and is considered the high point of the Washington administration. The next year, Congress demanded to see all documents concerning the treaty for consideration, a request which Washington promptly denied, establishing the principle of executive privelege.
What are 2 limits on the President?
1. War Powers Resolution 1973 - notify congress w/in 48 hrs.; prevents Vietnam 2
2. Budget & Impoundment Control Act 1973 (BICA) - pres. can't take money from one area and use it in another.
Sufism
Islamic mysticism
Gershwin
composer of jazz
Harriet Tubman
"The Black Moses"
Vedas
Early Indian sacred 'knowledge'-the literal meaning of the term-long preserved and communicated orally by Brahmin priests and eventually written down. (175)
The Confederacy's most effective commerce-raider was the...
a. Monitor
b. Merrimack
c. Trent
d. Virginia
e. Alabama
e
Olmec
The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between ca. 1200 and 400 B.C.E., the Olmec people of central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction. (86)
1924
Year all Indians became citizens
JFK
1961-1963, Democrat, both parties had the platform of civil rights planks and a national health program, used president to be elected and first Roman Catholic
Cervera
This Spanish admiral commanded the Spanish fleet of warships sent to Cuba after the outbreak of war. The 'fleet' was a sorry, dilapidated assortment that ended up comprising only four armored cruisers and three torpedo boats. He found refuge in Santiago Harbor, where he was blockaded by a more-powerful American fleet. On July 3, his fleet was entirely destroyed.
e
Which of the following statements about the coal strike of 1902 is NOT true?
A) The strike was in the anthracite coal fields of eastern Pennsylvania.
B) J.P. Morgan played a part in bringing about a settlement.
C) President Theodore Roosevelt intervened on the part of the public.
D) Refusal of the mine operators to recognize the union as a bargaining agent was a major issue in the strike.
E) The intervention by the president in the strike was strongly resented by the union but accepted willigly by the mine operators.
George McGovern
unsuccessful Democratic candidate for president in 1972; he called for immediate withdrawl from Vietnam and a guaranteed income for the poor. When his vice presidential choice got in trouble, he waffled in his defense, which cost him further with the electorate
Philosophes
Thinkers of the Enlightenment; Wanted to educate the socially elite, but not the masses; were not allowed to openly criticize church or state, so used satire and double-meaning in their writings to avoid being banned; Salons held by wealthy women also kept philosophes safe; They considered themselves part of an intellectual community, and wrote back and forth to each other to share ideas.
Teotihuacan
A powerful city-state in central Mexico (100-75 C.E.). Its population was about 150,000 at its peak in 600. (p. 300)
Estates General
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
The conquerer Menes founded ______ around 3100 BCE, a city that would serve as the capital for early Egypt...
Memphis
Freeport Doctrine
Douglas's response to Lincoln's question about popular soverignty vs. Dred Scott case
 
south saw Douglas not truly supportive
Journalist/author; wrote "Progress and Poverty" said that the pressure of growing population on a fixed supply of land unjustifiably pushed up property values, showering unearned profits on owners of land
Henry George
Slave Codes
results of important court cases designed to control the slave pop
Malacca
Port city in the modern Southeast Asian country of Malaysia, founded about 1400 as a trading center on the Strait of Malacca. Also spelled Melaka. (p. 387)
Tokugawa Shogunate
shogunate started by Tokugawa Leyasu; 4 class system, warriors, farmers, artisans, merchants; Japan's ports were closed off; wanted to create their own culture; illegal to fight; merchants became rich because domestic trade flourished (because fighting was illegal); had new forms of art - kabuki and geishas
only tribe to remain loyal to Britain
Mohawks
River Valley
These early civilzations were usually made nearby a water source (ancient Egypt: the Nile River, Mesopotamia, 'Land Between Two Rivers': Tigris and Euphrates Rivers)
What was the pidgin african language based on black english?
Gullah
Aristotle
Pupil of Plato who tutored Alexander the Great; argued for small units of government like the city-state
Song Empire
Empire in southern China (1127-1279; the 'Southern Song') while the Jin people controlled the north. Distinguished for its advances in technology, medicine, astronomy, and mathematics. (p. 285)
the byzantine empire
greek language, distinctive domes, followed Orthodox Christianity, ruled by an absolute authority. Thrived under JUSTINIAN: the justinian code was a law code that kept roman legal principles alive. and the arts and sciences fluourished (HAGIA SOPHIA = famous cathedral). Secular leaders headed the church
Great Awakening
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
Vasco-de-Gama
The Portuguese mariner who sailed to Ceuiea in 1498
Emilio Aguinaldo
-Filipino who fought alongside US during Spanish-American War-upset that US was taking over the country and led guerilla fighters. Many died on both sides
Clipper ships
Sleek ships that sacrificed cargo space for speed.
Chiang Kai-Shek
General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong. (p. 788)
Boston Tea Party
Boston patriots organized the Boston Tea Party to protest the 1773 Tea Act. In December 1773, Samuel Adams warned Boston residents of the consequences of the Tea Act. Boston was boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. Finally, on the night of December 16, 1773, colonials disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard. They did so because they were afraid that Governor Hutchinson would secretly unload the tea because he owned a share in the cargo.
Simon Bolivar
The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. (p. 623)
Gerald Ford
the first president to be solely elected by a vote from Congress. He entered the office in August of 1974 when Nixon resigned. He pardoned Nixon of all crimes that he may have committed. The Vietnam War ended in 1975, in which Ford evacuated nerely 500,000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Vietnam. He closed the war.
pinckney treaty
agreement between Spain and the United States, fixing the southern boundary of the United States at 31° N latitude and establishing commercial arrangements favorable to the United States. U.S. citizens were accorded free navigation of the Mississippi River through Spanish territory as well as privilege of a tax-free deposit. This treaty showed that the U.S. was slowly becoming a world player, as they made a treaty with Britain the previous year.
Timur
Member of a prominent family of the Mongols' Jagadai Khanate, Timur through conquest gained control over much of Central Asia and Iran. He consolidated the status of Sunni Islam as orthodox, and his descendants, the Timurids, maintained his empire. (336)
The South's victory at Bull Run in 1861...
a. Reduced enlistments in the South's army
b. Reduced the number of confederate deserters
c. Demonstrated how difficult confederate independence would be
d. Convinced the south of the need to prepare for a protra
a
Hebrews
first to believe in one God 2000 BCE
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes
Mesopotamia/ Fertile Crescent
first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the rivers;" Sumerian culture
Council of the Indes
The institution responsible for supervising Spain's colonies in the Americas from 1524 to the early eighteenth century, when it lost all but judicial responsibilities. (p. 476)
sundiata
the one son of Mandinka that survived, founded Mali
Lecompton Constitution
A document which would have ensured the protection of slavery in Kansas
John Smith
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
New Freedom
The New Freedom policy of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters. This policy stood in opposition to former President Theodore Roosevelt's ideas of New Nationalism, particularly on the issue of antitrust modification. 7: 1934-1941
Benjamin Disraeli
A British politician who extended the vote to the rich middle class in order to broaden the political base of the conservative party.
dollar diplomacy
Taft's foreign policy, to further its foreign policy aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries. Protects big business.
George Rogers Clark
Man who captured Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes
tracts
an expanse or area of land, water, etc.; region; stretch.
compromise of 1877
Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes (Rep) and Samuel Tilden (Dem.) Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South.
1456. White Backlash
Resistance to Black demands led by "law and order" advocates whose real purpose was to oppose integration.
Abbas the Great
Safavid ruler from 1587 to 1629; extended Safavid domain to greatest extent; created slave regiments based on captured Russians, who monopolized firearms within Safavid armies; incorporated Western military technology.
Grandfather Clause
(AJohn) , Law that excused a voter from a literacy test if his father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867
Paleolithic Age
ending in 12,000 BCE; use of crude stone tools and hunting and gathering for subsistence
after the adoption of tobacco, the english didnt need the indians and became a
frontier of exclusion
Sinclair Lewis
He wrote Main Street a book that criticizes the hypocrisy of the people on small midwest farms.
"middle ages"
the period between the fall of the Roman Empire in the west (470) and the beginning of the European Renaissance in the 1400s. This period is also known as "Medieval."
Red Cloud
Leader of the Oglala who resisted the development of a trail through Wyoming and Montana by the United States government (1822-1909)
Little Rock 9
Were the first 9 black students admitted into Little Rock Central High School. They were followed by mobs protests humiliation, bullying. Only 1 of the original 9 ended up graduating.
450. Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864), The Scarlet Letter
Originally a transcendentalist; later rejected them and became a leading anti-trascendentalist. He was a descendant of Puritan settlers. The Scarlet Letter shows the hypocrisy and insensitivity of New England puritans by showing their cruelty to a woman who has committed adultery and is forced to wear a scarlet "A".
Muhammad ibn Qasim
Arab general; conquered sind in India; declared the region and the Indus valley to be part of the Umayyad Empire
John Quincy Adams
He was the son of formal president John Adams and became president himself in the corrupt election of 1824. He was the first minority president and due to this was not liked by many and subjected him to many hostilities leaving it near impossible for him to accomplish much as president. Quincy's election was said to have been accomplished by an agreement with Clay to make him ST. This form of corruption plagued the country in its early days, but an effort was made to end it when Jackson was elected in a landslide during the 1828 election
Charles River Bridge case
Charles co. vs. Warren Co. bridges, Charles sues Warren for building near its bridge Fed. Gov. (Jackson) encourages competition (hates monopoly); fed. Contracts do not disallow competition
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Elizabeth Cady Stanton was a member of the women's right's movement in 1840. She was a mother of seven, and she shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton read a "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal."
John D. Rockefeller
Owned Standard Oil Company. He had a monopoly over the oil industry. He was also a philanthropist.
Manchu (Qing Dynasty) China
the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries
Battle of Siffin
Fought in 657 between forces of Ali and Umayyads; settled by negotiation that led to fragmentation of Ali's party. (p. 290)
573. Sojourner Truth
Name used by Isabelle Baumfree, one of the best-known abolitionists of her day. She was the first black woman orator to speak out against slavery.
Operation overlord, known as ____, was the largest amphibious military campaign in history, and was the allied campaign to reinvade and take _____from nazi control. By may 1945, the allies had defeated the germans, and celebrated____day.
d day, france, VE
John Dickinson (Letters from a Farmer...")
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.
Forest Reserve Act of 1891
(BH) Authorized the President to set aside public forests as national parks and other reserves
Qin Shi Huangdi & Qin Dynasty
(221-202 BCE); "first emperor"; brutal ruler; made nobles give up land & he took control; selected non-aristocratic people to help rule; built Great Wall; national census; standardized coinage, weights, and measurements, length of axles (road planning); single language; burned books;
579. Prigg v. Pennsylvania
1842 - A slave had escaped from Maryland to Pennsylvania, where a federal agent captured him and returned him to his owner. Pennsylvania indicted the agent for kidnapping under the fugitive slave laws. The Supreme Court ruled it was unconstitutional for bounty hunters or anyone but the owner of an escaped slave to apprehend that slave, thus weakening the fugitive slave laws.
The State Duma of Russia
The State Duma was first introduced in 1906 and was Russia's first elected parliament.
Battle of Bunker Hill (Breed's Hill)
At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, the British troops were based in Boston. The British army had begun to fortify the Dorchester Heights near Boston, and so the Continental Army fortified Breed's Hill, north of Boston, to counter the British plan. British general Gage led two unsuccessful attempts to take this hill, before he finally seized it with the third assault. The British suffered heavy losses and lost any hope for a quick victory against the colonies. Although the battle centered around Breed's Hill, it was mistakenly named for nearby Bunker Hill
Dutch Henry Hudson in 1609
When and by whom was New Amsterdam founded?
1520. Governor George Wallace of Alabama
1968 - Ran as the American Independent Party candidate in the presidential election. A right- wing racist, he appealed to the people's fear of big government and made a good showing.
Why did Shakers believe in equality for all sexes?
They believed God was "a dual person, male and female" so that neither was discriminated against
O'Keefee
famous painter
Dissentors
disagree with everything
zoroastrianism
official religion of emperor
18th Amendment
Prohibition - prohibited Alcohol.
Minutemen
name of the colonial militia
Peter Stuyvesant
governor of the Dutch
plessy vs. ferguson
seperate but equal facilities
Selim II
tried to reform administration, military (janissaries), and beauacracy; failed and killed
Greatest attraction of the americas
precious metals
conquistadores
spanish explorers who conquered Native tribes in search of gold and new lands
Postimpressionalism
or expressionalists, desire to know and depict worlds other than the visible world of fact. Wanted to portray unseen, inner owrld of emotioins and imagination, like Romantics.Fascination with form instead of light.
Semitic
Family of related languages long spoken across parts of western Asia and northern Africa. In antiquity these languages included Hebrew, Aramaic, and Phoenician. The most widespread modern member of the Semitic family is Arabic. (p. 32)
Mongols
introduced calvary and gunpowder to the west
The first society of mesoamerica, which founded traditions followed by all later societies were the
Olmecs
Lincoln's 10% plan
reconstruction plan
 
state reentered when 10% voters pledged allegiance and emancipation
 
would have been easy reconstruction
Huey Long
"Kingfish" from Louisiana; an immensely popular senator, proposed "Share our Wealth" program, promosing a minimum income of $5000 for every American family, to be paid by taxing the wealthy, was killed by an assassin
Henry Clay
Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state
Funan
An early complex society in Southeast Asia between the first and sixth centuries C.E. It was centered in the rich rice-growing region of southern Vietnam, and it controlled the passage of trade across the Malaysian isthmus. (p. 191)
reincarnation
the successive attachment of the soul to some animate form according to merits earned in previous lives
What cult produced deities with the features of humans and wild animals in Americas?
Chavin
Hull House
founded by Jane Addams, provided social and educational opportunities to the working class, one of the first settlement houses
Virginia-Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
A&M Colleges
Term for colleges that trained students in agricultural and mining technology and technique
Pyramids
A huge, triangular shaped monument of ancient Egypt built around a tomb
Zhou dynasty
the longest lasting Chinese dynasty, during which the use of iron was introduced.
Emilano Zapata
Revolutionary and leader of peasants in the Mexican Revolution. He mobilized landless peasants in south-central Mexico in an attempt to seize and divide the lands of the wealthy landowners. Though successful for a time, he was ultimately assassinated. 819
Anyang
the ancient Chinese capital of the Shang Dynasty
thrid crusade
barbossa, richard the lion hearted, and phillip augustus launched it to gain jerusalem back from the muslims. only richard ended up attacking the muslims though. the muslims were able to keep control of jerusalem.
Compromise Tariff
Promised to gradually reduce the Tariff of 1832 by 10% over a period of eight years. Suggested by Henry Clay after southerners objected
Progressive Presidents
William H. Taft, Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson
Osman
Turkish leader who founded the Ottoman Empire in the early 1300s
Red Scare
anti-communist hysteria. Fueled by growing fears of socialism (from the communist takeover of Russia) and labor unrest at home.
fur trade
The first trading relationship between Europeans and Native Americans was in furs. The French worked much harder at maintaining a good relationship with the Native Americans than did the British. This was a reflection of the motivations for settlement: the French saw North America as a resource, the British saw it as an opportunity for expansion and settlement.
Umayyad Caliphate
First hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs (661 to 750). From their capital at Damascus, the Umayyads ruled an empire that extended from Spain to India. Overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate. (p. 232)
Andrew Carnegie
Built a steel mill empire; US STEEL
systems failure
when a civilization begins to decline and different systems (economic, social) start to decline and its normally aided by disaster.
Calhoun
On two ballots in 1832 election. Wrote the south Carolina exposition- denounced tariff of abominations, proposed states should nullify it. Great political theorist. South Carolinian- a sectionalist and disunionist , advocated 2 presidents at once (from north and south)/Siamese twin thing (to stop civil war, didn't happen) Vice president under JQA and Jackson.
Alexander the Great 1
Hellenism, Antigonid, Ptolemaic and Selucid empires
Holocaust
Nazis' program during World War II to kill people they considered undesirable. Some 6 million Jews perished during the Holocaust, along with millions of Poles, Gypsies, Communists, Socialists, and others. (p. 800)
doughboys
US Army infantry man, often sent to fight with very little training
Tribunes
An officer of ancient Rome elected by the plebeians to protect their rights from arbitrary acts of the patrician magistrates.
Western Front
the western part of the schleiffen plan, this is where France, Britain and later America battled Germany. Took place through the neutral Belgium. The front left
peloponnesian war
a war between Athens and Sparta, 431-404 b.c., that resulted in the transfer of hegemony in Greece from Athens to Sparta.
Mikhail Romanov
Russian tsar (r. 1613-1645) A member of the Russian aristocracy, he became tsar after the old line of Muscovite rulers was deposed. (p. 551)
great zimbabwe
featured royal courts made of stone; created centralized state; king took title "Mwene Mutapa"
Non-Intercourse Act
The depression brought about by the Embargo forced the then new president James Madison to pass the Non-Intercourse Act which opened up trade to all nations except France and England.
Protestant Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Roosevelt Corollary
This document asserted the right of the United States to intervene to stabilize the economic affairs of small nations in the Caribbean and Central America if they were unable to pay their international debts 7: 1934-1941
Bourgeoisie
In France, the class of merchants and artisans who were members of the Third Estate and the initiators of the French Revolution; in Marxist theory, a term referring to factory owners.
Emergency Quota Act
1921, newcomers from Europe were restricted at any year to a quota (highly favored eastern Europeans)
Dominion of New England
After revocation of Massachusetts' charter, a plan to create a Dominion of New England for all colonies from New England south through New Jersey was put forth. The Dominion's governor was named by royal authority and had no assembly. It lasted until the Glorious Revolution suspended James II's authority.
soviet union
a former federal union of 15 constituent republics, in E Europe and W and N Asia, comprising the larger part of the former Russian Empire: dissolved in December 1991. 8,650,069 sq. mi. (22,402,200 sq. km).
coureurs de bois
(runners of the woods) French fur traders, many of mixed Amerindian heritage, who lived among and often married with Amerindian peoples of North America. (p. 489)
36. Bacon's Rebellion
1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.
New Immigrants
immigrants who had come to the US after the 1880s from southern and eastern europe
Supreme Court during Ford
(GF) school pupils coannot be suspended without telling their side of the story, President has no right to freeze funds, US has title to oil
Big Bertha
Name given by Allies to German 420-mm artillery gun that could shoot a one-ton shell 9 mi.
manifestations of mercantilist theory
the triangular trade, navigation acts, admiralty courts, and the plantation economy
Charles Lindbergh
He was an aviator who crossed the Atlantic in the Spirit of Saint Louis and Became a hero to the American Public
Anne Hutchinson, Antinomianism
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
Annexation of Texas
Texas decides to secede from Mexico and attempts to declare its independence which eventually leads to our adoption of the land as a state although it was feared that it would cause conflict with mexico leading to war. Southern states in support of this as Texas brought slaves with it meaning it would increase agricultural profits
Phillis Wheatly (1754-1784)
An African domestic in the colonies, and a well-known colonial poet. Her poetry was ornate and elaborate.
36. Bacon’s Rebellion
1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.
Battle of Saratoga
The turning point of the Revolutionary War
Panic of 1819
Due to the over speculation of western land, the panic brought deflation, depression, bankruptcies, bank failures, and unemployment. The panic created a severely strapped lower class, who in turn sowed the seeds for Jacksonian democracy.
Our American Cousin
The name of the play Lincoln was seeing
90. Habeas Corpus Act, 1679
British law had traditionally provided a procedure that allowed a person who had been arrested to challenge the legality of his arrest or confinement, called the Writ of Habeus Corpus, or the Great Writ. The Act imposed strict penalties on judges who refused to issue a writ of habeus corpus when there was good cause, and on officers who refused to comply with the writ.
Omar Khayyam
He was famous during his lifetime as a mathematician and astronomer who calculated how to correct the Persian calendar. he objected to the notion that every particular event and phenomenon was the result of divine intervention; nor did he believe in any Judgement Day or rewards and punishments after life. Instead he supported the view that laws of nature explained all phenomena of observed life
treaty of versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
Charles W. Sheldon
He was an American minister in the Congregational churches and leader of the Social Gospel movement. His novel, In His Steps, introduced the principle of "What Would Jesus Do?" which articulated an approach to Christian theology that became popular at the turn of the 20th Century.
342. Hamilton-Burr duel
After Burr lost to Jefferson as a Republican, he switched to the Federalist party and ran for governor of New York. When he lost, he blamed Hamilton (a successful Federalist politician) of making defamatory remarks that cost him the election. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel, in which Hamilton was killed on July 11, 1804.
Tiananmen Square Riot in 1989
In 1979, the Chinese Communist government began arresting Chinese students who expressed their desire for a representative government. In 1989, after a beloved leader, hu Yaobang, died, many showed their respect by placing wreaths for him in tiananmen Square. The Chinese leader, Deng Xiaoping, ordered troops to clear the square, leading to many deaths.
(Alfred Thayer) Mahan
Argued that control of the sea was the key to world dominance. Wrote 'The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783,' which was read internationally and helped stimulate the naval race among the great powers around the turn of the century.
Treaty of Paris 1898
(WMc) , The treaty that concluded the Spanish American War, Commissioners from the U.S. were sent to Paris on October 1, 1898 to produce a treaty that would bring an end to the war with Spain after six months of hostilitiy. From the treaty America got Guam, Puerto Rico and they paid 20 million dollars for the Philipines. Cuba was freed from Spain.
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
bridge that connected Boston to Charlestown - could collect tolls on bridge / , bridge constructed in 1780's by Harvard was valuable for stockholders, new bridge was needed that's construction would decrease value of original (Warren Bridge), conflict between vested rights and new entrepreneurs/rights of the community, Chief Justice Taney propagated Jacksonian view of business without privilege, "rights of property must be secretly guarded, but the rights of the more community are more vital to uphold."
45. Liberal land laws in Pennsylvania
William Penn allowed anyone to emigrate to Pennsylvania, in order to provide a haven for persecuted religions.
Alien and Sedition Acts
a series of four laws enacted in 1798 to reduce the political power of recent immigrants to the US
How could a few hundred Spanish soldiers conquer tens of millions of people in the New World?
Incans thought they were gods; disease!!; gun powder (muskets); horses = Euro.; armor; native armies centralized (orders top to bottom); --> kill leaders --> army lost w/o directions/commands yellow fever, smallpox, not affecting Euro. (immune); intro-marriage; England not yet involved
What was the Solidarity movement in Poland and what happened to it?
working people organized into a massive union. reagan imposed economic sanctions on poland
1176. Depression as an international event
Europe owed money. Germany had to pay, but did not have the money.
why did the tang empeors support a rivial of the scholar-gentry elite?
to act as a counter-balance to the landed aristocracy
Renaissance
m
Bland-Allison Act
...
Constantinople
capital of Byzantium
Antoine Cadillac
Founder of Detroit
Twice
the Indus floods....a year
Tahmasp l
succeeds isma'il; creates Janissary-like military bureaucracy from slave boys captured in Russia
Dixiecrats
southern Democrats who opposed Truman's position on civil rights. They caused a split in the Democratic party.
tariff
A tax on foreign goods
Triple Alliance
Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I
foragers
People who support themselves by hunting wild animals and gathering wild edible plants and insects
African American Abolitionists
Frederick Douglass
Henry Bibb
Harriet Tubman
Sojourner Truth
Natal
British colony in south Africa; developed after boer trek north from cape colony; major commercial outpost of Durban
Huguenots
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
Enlightenment
A popular philosophical movement of the 1700s that focused on human reasoning, natural science, political and ethical philosophy.
british mercantilism
fostered restrictions on colonial manufacturing, trade, and paper currency
nubia
East African trading empire that developed south of Egypt on the Nile River
conflicts between farmers and carttle ranchers were mainly about
land
Immigration Act
(LBJ) 1965, law discontinued quota based on national origin
Hammurabi
most important ruler of the Babylonian empire; responsible for codification of law.
Carthage
became a major port and commercial power in the western Mediterranean; fought the Punic Wars with Rome for dominance of the western Mediterranean
New France
French colonies in Canada and elsewhere; extended along the St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes and down into the Mississippi River valley system. (including Quebec)
Non-intervention
Nonintervention was one of the two features located in the Monroe Doctrine. Monroe declared a new policy on foreign intervention. The policy decalred that the United States would not become involved in European affairs. Europe would stay out of the Western Hemisphere 1823 as well.
Pinkertons
Members of the Chicago police force headed by Alan Pinkerton, they were often used as strike breakers.
Malcom X
Wanted Black separatism and preached Black power
Algeria
Colonized by France in the 19th century but gained autonomy in the early 1960s
Mayans
a member of a major pre-Columbian civilization of the Yucatán Peninsula that reached its peak in the 9th century a.d. and produced magnificent ceremonial cities with pyramids, a sophisticated mathematical and calendar system, hieroglyphic writing, and fine sculpture, painting, and ceramics.
inalienable
not to be taken away; nontransferable; Ex. inalienable rights
James I
succeeded Elizabeth I, persecuted the Puritans, led to many moving to america. As time passed, he grew increasingly hostile to Virginia. He detested tobacco, and he distrusted the representative House of Burgesses, which he branded a "seminary of sedition". In 1624, he revoked the chrter of the bankrupt and beleaguered Virginia Company, thus making Virginia a royal colony directly under his control.
trade
Southeast Asia, Africa and India are well connected by ?
Congregationalists
The more extreme Puritans who believed every congregation ought to be autonomous, a law unto itself controlled by neither bishops nor Presbyterian assemblies.
Eugenics
Nazi policies intended to improve the quality of the German race, including the sterilization or euthanasia of physically and mentally handicapped
Indies piece
Term utilized within the complex exchange system established by the Spanish for African trade; referred to the value of an adult male slave.
Biddle
President of the Bank of the US; dubbed Czar Nicolas I
Rene Descartes
est. importance of skeptical review of all received wisdom; argued that human reason could then develope laws that would explain fundamental workings of nature
referendum
primary in which members of a party nominate its candidates by direct vote
Bonn
The capital of the Federal Republic of Germany
Eisenhower Doctrine
(DDE) 1957; The doctrine stated that the United States would use armed forces upon request in response to imminent or actual aggression to the United States. Furthermore, countries that took stances opposed to Communism would be given aid in various forms.
Vergil
a great roman epic poet during the Golden Age of Latin literature; author of the Aeneid.
tropical dependencies
The greater portion of the European empires consisting of Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific were small numbers of Europeans ruled large populations of non-Western peoples.
J.P. Morgan
Placed employees in boards of rivals- ensure harmony; financed RRs, buys Carnegie
Caucus
a pricate meeting of leaders of a political party to determine policy
encomienda
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the native Americans.
As part of the triangular slave trade the Europeans usually picked up slaves in Africa in return for
firearms
Truman Doctrine
US policy instituted in 1947 by President Harry Truman in which the United States would follow an interventionist foreign policy to contain communism
Cuzxo
What was the capital of Incan Empire. It was aso center of administrative, religious and ceremonial duties
Embargo Act
Jeffersons act that forbade trade with all of europe thinking it would hurt european economy.
isolationism
1. a preference to focus on internal affairs.
2. the USdid this when declaring neutrality during world war I for a while.
Gettysburg
(AL) 1863 (meade and lee), July 1-3, 1863, turning point in war, Union victory, most deadly battle
Federal Farm Board
Agency created by the Agricultural Marketing ct; it lent out money to farm organizations seeking to buy, sell, and store agricultural surpluses
neglect
to fail to give the proper or required care and attention to somebody or something (B.243)
Joseph Smith
Joseph Smith was a recent convent in Palmyra, New York as it was being swept for the Finney revivalism. He claimed that he was to be visited by the angel Moroni. This angel led him to the gold tablets buried near his home. He finds that these were inscribed The Book of Mormon, describing the one true church and a "a lost tribe of Israel" missing for centuries. It also predicted the appearance of an American prophet who would establish a new and pure kingdom of Christ in America. Smith published his book in 1830 and soon founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (the Mormons). His leadership attracted many people and by mid-1840s, Nauvoo, Illinois had nearly 15,000 Mormons living in the area. Smith will petition Congress for separate territorial status and run for the presidency in 1844 but will get thrown in jail by local citizens for breaking local laws.
Bureaucracy of merit
Tang dynasty relied heavily on this; recruited government officials from the ranks of candidates who had progressed through the Confucian educational system and had mastered a sophisticated curriculum concentrating on the classic works of Chinese literature and philosophy; won their post because of intellectual ability
Admiral Sims
came up with convoy system idea to protect shipping across Atlantic
Indian removal act
This act granted the president funds and authority to remove Native Americans (1830)
Lend-Lease Act
Ends Cash and Carry policy by allowing debt
Little Ice Age
A century-long period of cool climate that began in the 1590s. Its ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable.
Edict of Milan
issued by Constantine in 313, ended the "great persecution" and legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Jefferson and Madison's response to Alien and Sedition Acts. Promoted states' right to nullify federal laws considered unconstitutional (1799)
Slave Trade Compromise
Slave trade can't be stopped until 1807.
in 1807 it will be brought up for debate once again
Domestic and Foreign Debts
(GW), Hamilton, funding at a par
Eighteenth Amendment!
(WW) , banned the sale of alcohol in 1919, in comes in the Volstead Act
theater state
the Mughal Empire is an example of a ___________ _______ using lavish parades and celebrations to entice other countries and to show off their grandeur
The name for the 184 CE peasant uprising in China...
Yellow Turban Rebellion
In 1279, Khubilai Khan proclaimed the
yuan dynasty and himself emperor
Oracle Bones
An animal bone or turtle shell used by the Shang kings of China to communicate with and influence the gods by telling the future
Connecticut Compromise (1787)
Combining the New Jersey Plan and the Virginia Plan, it called for a bicameral legislative system in which the House would be based on population and the Senate would have equal representation in Congress. It also included the three-fifth Compromise.
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
gave Spaniards right to govern their American colonies; divided the newly discovered territores between the Catholic countries of Spain and Portugal by drawing an imaginary line around the globe
Huanghe or Yellow river basin
site of the development of sedentary agriculture in China.
Golden Horde
What is the name of a group of Mongols which overran Russia during 1237-1241 and also explored Poland, Hungary, and eastern Germany?
Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction
known as teh 10 precent plan - very leniant, proclimation of amnesty/reconstruction. full pardons would be given when: the oath of allegiance was taken to the us and the constitution, accept emancipation of slavery/slaves. State govs were reconstructed when 10% of voters took an oath of allegiance - TN was teh first to be reconstructed.
In response, congress' plan (1864) Wade-Davis Bill
75. early Medieval Europe "Dark Ages"
a period in history between the last emperor of Rome, 475 A.D., and the Renaissance, about 1450 (15th century). Art production during this period was dominated by the Catholic Church.
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