AP World History 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Patriots
Amurika
jihad
islamic holy war
Qin Dynasty
Ruler Shi Huangdi
 
 
 
 
83. Quitrents
 
 
 
 
Nominal taxes collected by the crown in crown colonies, or by the proprietor(s) of proprietary colonies.
Grand Canal
The 1,100-mile (1,700-kilometer) waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire.
Sumerians
People who dominated Southern Mesopotamia through the end of the 3rd Millennium BCE. Responsible for the creation of irrigation technology, cunieform, and religious conceptions.
tenochitilan
capital city of the Aztecs
yin/yang
In Chinese belief, complementary factors that help to maintain the equilibrium of the world. Yin is associated with masculine, light, and active qualities; yang with feminine, dark, and passive qualities. (p. 63)
Separate Spheres
Nineteenth-century idea in Western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have different roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics (711)
Romanticism
Most important - emotion/passion, more self expression, Self-realization of the individual, heroism, love of the natural world
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)
Akenhaten
What pharoah tried unsuccessfully to make Egypt monotheistic?
scalawags
Southerners who cooperated with the Reconstruction
Morality
concern with the distinction between good and evil or right and wrong
Californios
Descendents of Spanish and Mexican conquerors; Spanish speaking inhabitants of California they were culture of Mexico carried to California.
The Americas
Where wasnt the wheel invented?
Babur
founder of Mughal dynasty, half Mongol, half Turkic. motives for conquest were strictly secular, wanted to get back original kingdom Farghana. as a boy, pushed back by Ozbeg tribes to Kabul, then directed raids to get back to Farghana, ultimately settled with northern India. defeated Muslim Lodis at Panipat, also defeated Hindu warrior-kings at Khanua. highly CULTIVATED, author, musician
Gothic Cathedrals
Large churches originating in twelfth-century France; built in an architectural style featuring pointed arches, tall vaults and spires, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows. (p. 405)
Tet Offensive*
(LBJ) , 1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
consuls
Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies
inequality
the condition of being unequal; lack of equality
Charles Sumner
Senator from Massachusetts who was attacked on the floor of the Senate (1856) for antislavery speech; he required three years to recover but returned to the Senate to lead the Radical Republicans and to fight for racial equality. Authored Civil Rights Act of 1875.
"Open Door Policy"
Respected Chinese rights, promoted fair competition among those interested in Chinese resources. Britain, Germany, France, and Japan agreed, assuming that all of the other key countries would commit. Russia declined to commit, which caused dissension among the other countries and made it weak and relatively ineffective. The "Open Door" continued to be the primary approach that the U.S. took toward China.
1000 CE
After _____, Catholic church became powerful.
Pontiac's Rebellion
1763 Conflict between the Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great lakes area
Panic of
A natural post-war depression caused by overproduction and the reduced demand for goods after the war. However, it was generally blamed on the National Bank.
Jericho
early walled urban culture based on sedentary agriculture; located in modern Israel-occupied West Bank near Jordan river
capitalism
The economic system of large financial institutions-banks, stock exchanges, investment companies-that first developed in early modern Europe. Commercial capitalism, the trading system of the early modern economy. (506)
to pay 100 dollars
the punishment for scopes
Handsome Lake
Iroquois prophet; told Iroquois to return to old customs (forsake alcohol, revive family importance); died in 1815
Solidarity
Polish labor movement formed in 1970s under Lech Walesa; challenged USSR-dominated government of Poland.
farewell address
Referred to as Washington's Farewell Address. Its main points included: assuming leadership in the Western Hemisphere, developing its own trade, and not entering into permanent alliances with foreign nations, especially with Europe.
Loose Constructionism
The viewpoint, led by Alexander Hamilton, that the Congress could enact legislature that fell under implied powers; basically, if it was not explicitly prohibited, then Congress could do it. Therefore, in the National Bank controversy of the Washington administration, Hamilton and other loose constructionists argued for the creation of the National Bank, since it fell under the power of the government to regulate trade.
Define "Containment"
A doctrine uniting military, economic, and diplomatic strategies to prevent communism from spreading and to enhance America's security and influence abroad.
nazi
a member of the National Socialist German Workers' party of Germany, which in 1933, under Adolf Hitler, seized political control of the country, suppressing all opposition and establishing a dictatorship over all cultural, economic, and political activiti
Samuel Gompers
focused on skilled workers (harder to replace than unskilled), coordinated craft unions, supported 8 hour workday and injury liability
driver
A privileged male slave whose job was to ensure that a slave gang did its work on a plantation. (p. 503)
Fourteenth Amendment
An amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1868, defining national citizenship and forbidding the states to restrict the basic rights of citizens or other persons.
Huitzilopochti
Sun god and patron deity of the Aztecs
Prehistoric
Of or relating to times before written history
Homeland Security Department
This department combined over 20 federal agencies with 170,000 employees, including Customs, Immigration and Naturalization, the Coast Guard, and the Secret Service. It was one of the largest governmental reorganizations since the introduction of the Department of Defense following World War II.
John Dewey
philosopher, goods and bads of the world are not fixed ideals
Middle Kingdom
What China called itself. Idea of ethnocentrism by the Chinese
Yellow Turban
A 184 C.E. peasant revolt against emperor Ling of Han. Led by Daoists who proclaimed that a new era would be3ing with the fall of the Han. Although this specific revolt was suppressed, it triggered a continuous string of additional outbreaks.
Open Door Policy
American policy towards China proposed in 1899 that pledged its support for Chinese sovereignty and announced that all imperial powers had equal right to trade in China
Hacienda System
similar to the feudal system, Natives got money and had to buy their products from their owners
Pony Express
A Mail carrying service; ran from 1860-1861; was established to carry mail speedily along the 2000 miles from St. Joseph, Missouri, to Sacramento, California; they could make the trek in 10 days.
Kievan Russia
State established at Kiev in Ukraine ca. 879 by Scandinavian adventurers asserting authority over a mostly Slavic farming population. (p. 267)
Smoot-Hawley Tariff
An act, sponsored by United States Senator Reed Smoot and Representative Willis C. Hawley, and signed into law on June 17, 1930, that raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels.
Global Interdependence
Mutual dependence at a global level. One country depends on another country for something and that country may depend on another country, which eventually creates global interdependence. Importing and exporting of goods and services highly contributes to global interdependence. Certain commodities such as oil have created a global interdependence between countries that produce the precious commodity and those that covet it.
Mayflower Compact
A group of puritans called the Separatists (who urged separation from the Anglicans) set sail for Virginia in 1620. They went aboard a single ship, called the Mayflower, and landed in modern Massachusetts. The settlement where they landed was called Plymouth. They had reached an agreement, called the Mayflower Compact, which did the following:    - created a legal authority and assembly.    - asserted government’s power comes from the consent of the governed. This     meant the colonies would not fall under the trap of Absolutism, or the belief that     the government’s power comes directly from God Himself.
Declaration of independence
Drafted by Thomas Jefferson, the document that proclaimed that proclaimed the right of the colonies to speerate from Great Britain. Written in 1776 and based on ideas of philosopher Locke; basically a list of reasons
Alexis de Tocqueville’s book that made astute observations on the American character.
Democracy in America
Rashid al-Din
Adviser to the Il-khan ruler Ghazan, who converted to Islam on Rashid's advice. (p. 334)
missi dominici
or servants of the lord. Their purpose was to act as inspectors general, investigating the behavior of royal officials and reporting back to the court. As direct emissaries of the king, they carried all the prestige of Charlemagne and the implied threat of his power. SPIES OF THE CARLINGIAN EMPIRE. ENHANCED AUTHORITY. Charlemagne's officials that kept things in check
mandate System
System that developed in the wake of World War I when the former colonies became
mandates under European control, a thinly veiled attempt at continuing imperialism.
proclamation of neutrality
- A formal announcement issued by President George Washington on April 22, 1793, declaring the United States a neutral nation in the conflict between Great Britain and France that had begun with the French Revolution. It threatened legal proceedings against any American providing assistance to warring countries.
Political Action Committees
groups formed for the purpose of raising money to elect or defeat political candidates , They usually represent business, unions, or idealogical interests.
Helen Jackson
Author of "A Century of Dishonor" and "Ramona", sympathized with the Indians
Samuel F BMorse, telegraph
Morse developed a working telegraph which improved communications.
Royal African Company
A trading company chartered by the English government in 1672 to conduct its merchants' trade on the Atlantic coast of Africa. (p. 507)
Order of the Star_Spangled Banner
The noisier American "Nativists" rallied for political action. In 1849 they formed this, which soon developed into the formidable American, or "Know-Nothing," party—a name derived from its secretiveness.
Haymarket Incident
Worker rally in Chicago at which a bomb was detonated killing policemen - workers were immigrants so incident led to anti-immigration feelings
Protective Tariff
a tax on imported goods designed to increase their price to the level of similar home produced goods
Market Economy
People trade thier labor for goods or cash, which they then use to buy other's goods or labor. Market economies favor those who specialize. A market economy began to develop in the US during the early 1800's, from the earlier subsistence economies of the Revolutionary and pre-Revolutionary eras. However, market economies are more prone to rapid change.
westward land boom
old westwrad movement ohio fever land cheaper land exghuastion from other places
acute economic distress
 
What is the development of agriculture termed as?
the Neolithic revolution
Common Sense
This was written in 1776 was one of the most potent pamphlets ever written. It called for the colonists to realize their mistreatment and push for independence from England. The author Thomas Paine introduced such ideas as nowhere in the universe sis a smaller heavenly body control a larger. For this reason their is no reason for England to have control over the vast lands of America. The pamphlet with its high-class journalism as well as propaganda sold a total of 120,000 copies within a few months.
33. Slavery begins
1619 - The first African slaves in America arrive in the Virginia colony.
National War Labor Board
headed by WilliamTaft - headed off labor disputes that might hamper war effort
Dar al islam
an Arabic term that means the "house of Islam" and that refers to lands under Islamic rule
charters of liberty
the document that gave the treaty and laws/rules; said people were free not serfs.
Treaty of Waitangi
The treaty signed by the British and Maori in 1840 giving Britain control over New Zealand.
 
 
 
 
26. Dominion of New England
 
 
1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
what is the americans with disabilities act of 1990?
banned discrimination against citizens with disabilities
26. Dominion of New England
1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
King Hugh Capet
in 987, he ruled only a small area around Paris
Ex Post Facto Law
A law that makes an act criminal although the act was legal when it was committed.
What did the intellectual elite sun Yat sen try to do?
to form a republican government
Declaratory Act of 1766
On the day the Stamp act was repealed, passed this one. It reaffirmed England's authority to pass any law it desired to bind the colonies and ppl of America. British government pronounced its complete and unqualified sovereignty over is North American Colonies.
139. Declatory Act, 1766
Passed at the same time that the Stamp Act was repealed, the Act declared that Parliament had the power to tax the colonies both internally and externally, and had absolute power over the colonial legislatures.
Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain agreed to finance Christopher Columbus's voyage westward primarily
to spread the Spanish presence over that of Portugal throughout the non-Christian world
1140. F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby
Most critics regard this as his finest work. Written in 1925, it tells of an idealist who is gradually destroyed by the influence of the wealthy, pleasure-seeking people around him.
1767
Townshend Acts
Renoir
see impressionalism above
Pizzaro
conquered Incas of Peru
Daimyo
prominent Japanese families who provided allegiance to the local shogun in exchange for protection
Huguenots
French Protestants; thousands murdered on St. Bartholomew's Day in 1572; granted limited toleration in 1598 Edict of Nantes; denied refuge in New France
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)
IWW
..., revolutionary industrial union organized in Chicago in 1905 by delegates from the Western Federation of Mine; unionized the non-unionized
papacy
The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head. (pp. 258, 445)
Hagia Sofia
new church constructed in Constantinople during reign of Justinian
The Dial
a trancendentalist journal that challanged the men's world
zoroastrianism
An ancient Persian religion that emphasized a struggle between good and evil and rewards in the afterlife for those who chose to follow a good life
Bushido
Feudalism code of conduct in Japan
nirvana
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the beatitude that transcends the cycle of reincarnation
Akhentaten
Egyptian pharaoh (r. 1353-1335 B.C.E.) He built a new capital at Armana, fostered a new style of naturalistic art, and created a religious revolution by imposing worship over the sun-disk. The Armana letters, largely from his reign, preserve official correspondence with subjects and neighbors. (p. 66)
Lord Baltimore
(Calvert)Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
Songhay
successor state to Mali; dominated Middle reaches of Niger Valley; capital at Gao; reached imperial status under Sunni Ali
Reformation
The serious challenges the Catholic Church began in 1517 with Martin Luther. Lutheranism, Calvinism, and other Christian doctrins spread through Europe and would later arrive in America. In England, a disagreement between Henry VIII and the Catholic pope led to the founding of the Church of England.
Truman Doctrine
support people oppressed by communism and non-democratic government; worked with democratic governments in Greece, Turkey and Israel
Balfour Declaration
Statement issued by Britain's Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine. (p. 761)
Socialism
a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
Mauryan Empire
Indian dynasty (321-185 BCE) founded by Chandragupta Maurya and reaching its peak under Ashoka.
Cavaza de vaca
Investigated floria, got shipwrecked, and captured. His final location was Mexico
European-style family
later marriage age, less children, more focus on nuclear family
Julius Caesar
Roman general responsible for conquest of Gaul; brought army back to Rome and overthrew republic; assassinated in 44 B.C.E. by conservative senators
Noble Experiment
Also known as the prohibition movement, spearheaded by prohibitionists who ostensibly believed that alcohol was a dangerous drug that destroyed lives and disrupted families and communities. Consequently believed it was the governments' duty to enforce its prohibition and prohibit its sale.
Achaemenid Empire
The Government of Achaemenid Empire was a delicate balance of central and local administration. The challenge was to find an orderly way to govern seventy types of different people across many scattered regions and in a way that many different languages would understand. Governors were appointed for various regions, the realm was divided into twenty-three districts whose administration and taxation was managed by satraps
Joesph Stalin
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition (780)
Saltwater slaves
Slaves transported from Africa; almost invariably black.
Bantu
African people who originally lived in the area of present-day Nigeria; 2000 BCE then began their migration (which was centuries long) to the sub-Saharan region; were very influential people
Joseph Brant
Mohawk leader who supported the British during the American Revolution. (p. 581)
Congregations
Groups of people coming together for church.
Kruschev
Nikita Kruschev led the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Supported Stalin
Six
How many justices did the Supreme Court have when it was first established?
FDIC
A federal agency which insures bank deposits, created by the Glass-Strengall Banking Reform Act of 1933.
Alexander
King of Macedonia in northern Greece. Between 334 and 323 B.C.E. he conquered the Persian Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greek-style cities, and spread Greek culture across the Middle East. Later known as Alexander the Great. (p. 136)
Dirty War
War waged by the Argentine military (1976-1982) against leftist groups. Characterized by the use of illegal imprisonment, torture, and executions by the military. (p. 857)
Bacon's Rebellion
1676- Nathaniel Bacon leads revolt bc hes mad about disenfranchisement
Battle of Cowpens
An overwhelming victory by American Revolutionary forces under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan, in the Southern campaign of the American Revolutionary War. was a decisive victory by American Revolutionary forces under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan, in the Southern campaign of the American Revolutionary War. It was a turning point in the reconquest of South Carolina from the British.
cultural imperialism
Domination of one culture over another by a deliberate policy or by economic or technological superiority. (p. 894)
Emperor Menelik
. Emperor of Ethiopia (r. 1889-1911). He enlarged Ethiopia to its present dimensions and defeated an Italian invasion at Adowa (1896). (p. 737)
Assassination Attempt
someone tried to kill Reagan, his heroic behavior gained support for Reaganomics
Niagara Movement
-Du Bois, Trotter, and other leading African American thinkers.
-1905
-Niagara Falls.
-The group that denounced the idea of gradual process. They all believed Washington was too willing to compromise for basic rights.
-Sadly, the Niagara Movement never grew to more than a few hundred strong. They needed a more powerful voice.
Who was Nathaniel Bacon?
-rebel in Virginia against Berkley(began rebellion)
-focused on offensive aspects
-murdered friendly/unfriendly indians
Battle of Gettysburg
July 1, Confederates pushed federals out of the town of Gettysburg onto high ground to the south. Lee sent attack after attack but in vein, one last assault was made by pickett but the federalist held which was a great win for the Union
Brigham Young
United States religious leader of the Mormon Church after the assassination of Joseph Smith
VA Plan
Large state plan, 3 branch govt, legislature is the main branch, bicameral legislature -> consisted of lower (based on population) and upper (picked by the lower branch); every 30,000 people=1 member to lower house
"the great migration"
The migration of thousands of African-Americans from the South to the North. African Americans were looking to escape the problems of racism in the South and felt they could seek out better jobs and an overall better life in the North.
Abbassid Dynasty
ruling family of the Islamic Empire during its "Golden Age"; Sunni
Peter Cartwright
best known of the Methodist "circuit riders" (traveling frontier preachers); ill-educated, strong servant of the Lord who spent 50 years traveling from Tennessee to Illinois converting thousands with his bellowing voice and flailing arms; physically knocked out those who tried to break up his meetings
 
 
 
 
165. Lexington and Concord, April 19, 1774
 
 
General Gage, stationed in Boston, was ordered by King George III to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock. The British marched on Lexington, where they believed the colonials had a cache of weapons. The colonial militias, warned beforehand by Paul Revere and William Dawes, attempeted to block the progress of the troops and were fired on by the British at Lexington. The British continued to Concord, where they believed Adams and Hancock were hiding, and they were again attacked by the colonial militia. As the British retreated to Boston, the colonials continued to shoot at them from behind cover on the sides of the road. This was the start of the Revolutionary War.
French Indian War
Fought over Ohio valley.
The conflict began in the Colonies but soon spread to Europe in what was better known as the Seven Year's War
Benjamin Franklin's proposal of an Intercolonial Government was rejected.
Washington first appeared on the scene during this conflict.
British after suffering early defeats, came back and defeated the French under Brad Pittman (an energetic and capable prime minister).
Treaty of Paris 1763 ended hostilities. France lost all of their holdings in North American.
tet offensive
an offensive by Vietcong and North Vietnamese forces against South Vietnamese and U.S. positions in South Vietnam, beginning on Jan. 31, 1968, the start of Tet.
Wilmot Proviso
Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico
classical age
term referring to the period of Greek history that begins with the defeat of the Persian invaders in 480 - 479 BC and ends with Alexander the Great's accession in 336 BC or with his death in 323 BC.
660. State suicide theory
The Southern states had relinquished their rights when they seceded. This, in effect, was suicide. This theory was used to justify the North taking military control of the South.
Manifest Destiny
the belief that the U.S. should extend all the way to the pacific ocean
pullman strike
pullman cuts pay but dosnt lower rent $. fed. troops sent to stop strike
Berlin blockade
The blockade was a Soviet attempt to starve out the allies in Berlin in order to gain supremacy. The blockade was a high point in the Cold War, and it led to the Berlin Airlift.
French and Indian War
War fought over territorial expansion into Ohio Valley and Plains territories and ability to trade in these regions; French and Indians fought against British and American colonists; lasted from 1754 to 1763.
The Townshend Acts
Taxed goods, such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea. It also allowed customs officials to search without real reason in order to prevent smuggling. Colonists believed that this tax was an example of taxation without representation.
idigo
a plant used to make a valuable blue dye. along with sugar it was one of the most profitable crop from the west indies.
Mahmud of Ghazni
Third ruler of dynasty; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India; gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression. (p. 321)
Proclamation of 1763
issued by King George III, colonists can't settle beyond the Appalachians
862. Carrie Chapman Catt
(1859-1947) A suffragette who was president of the National Women's Suffrage Association, and founder of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. Instrumental in obtaining passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Big businnesses tried to regulate flow of ships in New York, Marshall said only the national gov't could do that
Hidden Imam
Last in a series of twelve descendants of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali, whom Shi'ites consider divinely appointed leaders of the Muslim community. In occlusion since ca. 873, he is expected to return as a messiah at the end of time. (p. 532)
Peter the Great
ruled Russia from 1682 to 1725, wanted closer ties to western europe, modernize and strengthen Russia
Role of Nomads in Trade
In early civilizations the nomadic people were a strong part of trade, as they traveled from place to place as part of their lifestyle.
Chola kingdom
was a Tamil dynasty which was one of the longest-ruling in some parts of southern India. The earliest datable references to this Hindu dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BC left by Asoka, a northern ruler; the dynasty continued to reign over varying territory until the 13th century AD.
Shah Abbas I
Shah of Iran (r. 1587-1629). The most illustrious ruler of the Safavid Empire, he moved the imperial capital to Isfahan in 1598, where he erected many palaces, mosques, and public buildings. (p. 533)
Berlin Wall
Built in 1961 to halt the flow of immigration from East Berlin to West Berlin; immigration was in response to lack of consumer goods and close Soviet control of economy and politics. Wall was torn down at end of Cold War in 1991.
Spoils System
What was it?
What president?
Spread of democracy?
 
What was it?- Is like patronage today.  It's where you can get a government position simply because you know the president.
What president?- Andrew Jackson introduced it.
Spread of democracy?- Although many people were unqualified it did help to cement party loyalty .
pg. 921-922
PES
 
Barry Goldwater
He ran for candidacy as a republican against LBJ in 1964. He held views against the Great Society, the social security system, federal income tax, tenesse valley authority, and the nuclear test ban treaty.
He posed as the antithesis of liberal LBJ, his conservatism turned many away for it was too easy to portray him as trigger happy
Espionage Act of 1917
Law that made it illegal to promote the success of the enemies of the U.S. armed forces, and to convey false reports with intent to interfere with the success of the U.S. military
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
military alliance of 10 of democratic countries, 1949 (mostly W. Europe and Canda/USA)
A democratic society or not?
The Founding Fathers were not sure that democracy was the right form of government for America. They feared anarchy and the rise of factions whose policies would not represent the true will of the people. Hence, the government which they designed contains many aspects of a republic; that is, an indirect democracy in which the people do not vote directly on the laws, but instead elect representatives who vote for them.
1093. Espionage Act, 1917; Sedition Act, 1918
Brought forth under the Wilson administration, they stated that any treacherous act or draft dodging was forbidden, outlawed disgracing the government, the Constitution, or military uniforms, and forbade aiding the enemy.
Elastic Clause ("necessary and proper")
gives Congress the power to pass laws it deems necessary to enforce the Constitution
Henry Tudor (Henry VIII)
When he couldn't get a divorce in the Catholic Church he established himself as the head of the Church of England and made the rules, crossing the line between church and state
What was the "effective occupation" requirement in the Berlin Treaty of 1885?
Doctrine was created in the Berlin Treaty of 1885 that allowed Europeans countries to claim territory in Africa as long as they settled their citizens there to directly Administer the new colonies.
1549. Henry S. Kissinger, "Shuttle Diplomacy"
Policy of this Secretary of State to travel around the world to various nations to discuss and encourage the policy of detente.
What was the biggest contribution the French gave the Americans?
A strong navy to combat the British with.
Chaplin
movie star
AAA
Agricultural Adjustment Administration: attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies; ruled unconstitutional in 1936; disbanded after World War II
hadiths
traditions of the prophet
caravel
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic. (p. 427)
Capitulations
Highly unfavorable trading agreements that the Ottoman Turks signed with the Europeans in the 19th century that symbolized the decline of the Ottomans.
Lord North
George's corrupt prime minister
Massachusetts
colony founded by the Puritans
bacons rebellion
colonial rebellion against the governor of Virginia
tenement
A multidwelling building, often poor or overcrowded.
Who started flood control and irrigation projects?
Kangxi
Ferdinand of Aragon
king who supported Columbus
Ems Dispatch/Telegram
Report that instigated the Franco-Prussian War. Part of plan to unify Germany, Bismark waving red flag in front of France.
Afrikaners
South Africans descended from Dutch and French settlers of the seventeenth century. Their Great Trek founded new settler colonies in the nineteenth century. Though a minority among South Africans, they held political power after 1910. (735)
Mongols
tolerated muslim & christian religons and often sparred churches
which of the following societies developed a flexible and sophisticated system of writing?
Maya
Liberty Party
abolitionists believed politics should end slavery so backed this party 1840
of noble or upper-class descent
blue blood
Nicholas Biddle
The brilliant but arrogant president of the Bank of the United States. Many people believed he held an unconstitutional amount of power over the nation's financial affairs. The power struggle between Biddle and Jackson led to Jackson depositing a large amount of investments into his pet banks.
Gujarat
Region of western India famous for trade and manufacturing; the inhabitants are called Gujarati. (p. 380)
Confucius
founded philosophy based on need for restoration of order through advice of superior men to be found among the shi
Chronological order: Neanderthal, ostrolopithicus, chromagnin, homo erectus
ostrolopithicus, homo erectus, Neanderthal, chromagnin
18th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that banned the manufacturing of alcohol
William Bradford
United States printer (born in England) whose press produced the first American prayer book and the New York City's first newspaper (1663-1752)
dry farming
Shallow cultivation adapted to the arid western environment
Diffusion
The spread of ideas, objects,or traits from 1 culture to another.
cuneiform
A system of writing in which wedge-shaped symbols represented words or syllables. It originated in Mesopotamia and was used initially for Sumerian and Akkadian but later was adapted to represent other languages of western Asia.
Emilio Aguinaldo
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901. (p. 743)
Torah
(Judaism) the scroll of parchment on which the first five books of the Hebrew Scripture is written
Punic Wars
battled Carthage in North Africa. There were three wars: the first fought for control of sicily - Roman victory. Second - Hannibal ambushed the romans from the north. But hannibal had to retreat back to carthage relatively quickly. Third - Rome invaded Carthage and burned it to the ground.
Tallmadge Amendment
Tallmadge Amendment, a bill proposed on 13 February 1819 by Rep. James Tallmadge of New York to amend Missouri enabling legislation by forbidding the further introduction of slavery into Missouri and declaring that all children born of slave parents after the admission of the state should be free upon reaching the age of twenty-five.
George Washington
Military commander of the American Revolution. He was the first elected president of the United States (1789-1799).
kabuki
A popular type of Japanese drama combined with music and dance, it is the type of theatre in Japan(Played buy all male actors)
Bessemer Process
a process for making high-quality steel
Pennsylvania
Founded by William Penn, the colony was established on a tract of land granted to William Penn that stretched westward from the Delaware River. The first settlement was Philadelphia. The government included freemen (tax payers and property owners), and the governor had no veto power. The colony became a refuge for Quakers and other religious dissenters.
Byzantine Empire
Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from 'Byzantion,' an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453. (250)
Political Party of (GW)
Federalists and Democratic Republicans (from bank)
minoans
a culture that lived in greece between 3000 B.C. and 1400 B.C.
Nicolas Biddle
"Czar Nicholas I"- head of BUS- "emperor Nick of the bribery bank"- "hydra of corruption"- lent funds to make influential friends, in 1831, 59 members of Congress borrowed from BUS- AJ hated him
Panic of 1819
Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of European demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.
manumission
A grant of legal freedom to an individual slave. (p. 505)
James M. Cox
Democratic Candidate 1920 election - Governor of Ohio - supported League (FDR was his running mate)
Menes
king of upper egypt united the two kingdoms of upper and lower egypt
F. Dostoevsky
Russian author, some say founder of existentialism, deals with emotional and destructive elements of father-son relationship in novel The Borthers Karamazov
new kingdom
The period during which Egypt reached the height of its power and glory.
bourgeoisie
In early modern Europe, the class of well-off town dwellers whose wealth came from manufacturing, finance, commerce, and allied professions. (p. 459)
empress theodora
The most powerful woman in Byzantine history, she passed laws and advisd her husband, Justinian
NSC-68
One of the first statements of the containment doctrine, it outlined a plan to contain communism and socialism and support capitalism and pro-US nations. It set guidelines as to what were areas of vital importance to the U.S and what were not.
John Smith
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
20th Amendment
also called The Lame Duck Amendment, or the "Norris" Amendment, establishes some details of presidential succession and of the beginning and ending of the terms of elected federal officials 7: 1934-1941
Maori
A member of a Polynesian group that settled New Zealand about 800 C.E.
War Labor Board
the federal government board to convince labor unions not to strike (successful with the AFL but not the IWW)
Georgia
The last of British colonies to be established in North America: it was unique in that it was set up as a philanthropic experiment and a military buffer against Spanish Florida. General James Oglethorpe was the soldier who designed the defenses. He also supported the establishment of Georgia as colonial refuge for the poor and for those suffering religious persecution.
celibacy
Celibacy refers to a state of being unmarried, or a state of abstention from sexual intercourse or the abstention by vow from marriage
contract of indenture
A voluntary agreement binding a person to work for a specified period of years in return for free passage to an overseas destination. Before 1800 most indentured servants were Europeans; after 1800 most indentured laborers were Asians. (p. 670)
manhattan project
code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II; head scientist was Robert Oppenheimer.
1088. Creel Committee
Headed by George Creel, this committee was in charge of propaganda for WWI (1917-1919). He depicted the U.S. as a champion of justice and liberty.
Jacob Riis
author of "How the Other Half Lives", reporter and photographer who wrote about the terrible conditions in the tenement houses
Big Four
The Big Four were the four most important leaders, and the most important ones at the Paris Peace Conference. They were Woodrow Wilson- USA, David Lloyd George- UK, George Clemenceau- France, and Vittorio Orlando- Italy.
black codes were
laws limiting the rights of free blacks
Natural Law
Rules of human conduct based in reson and an inborn sense of morality
Congregational Church, Cambridge Platform
The Congregational Church was founded by separatists who felt that the Church of England retained too many Roman Catholic beliefs and practices. The Pilgrims were members of the Congregational Church. The Cambridge Platform stressed morality over church dogma.
Joseph McCarthy
An American politician who served as a Republican U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957. Beginning in 1950, McCarthy became the most visible public face of a period in which Cold War tensions fueled fears of widespread Communist subversion. He was noted for making claims that there were large numbers of Communists and Soviet spies and sympathizers inside the United States federal government and elsewhere. Ultimately, McCarthy's tactics and his inability to substantiate his claims led him to be censured by the United States Senate.
Mercantilism: features, rationale, impact on Great Britain, impact on the colonies
Mercantilism was the economic policy of Europe in the 1500s through 1700s. The government exercised control over industry and trade with the idea that national strength and economic security comes from exporting more than is imported. Possession of colonies provided countries both with sources of raw materials and markets for their manufactured goods. Great Britain exported goods and forced the colonies to buy them.
141. Townshend Acts, reaction
Another series of revenue measures, passed by Townshend as Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1767, they taxed quasi-luxury items imported into the colonies, including paper, lead, tea, and paint. The colonial reaction was outrage and they instutited another movement to stop importing British goods.
Captain John Parker
Said, "Stand you ground, don't fire unless fired upon, but if they mean to have a war let it began here."
Florida Purchase Treaty
In 1819 Spain ceded Florida and other claims to Oregon in exchange for Texas. This gave land to Mexico but later caused Americans to fight against Mexicans for their old land.
The Ohio River
An important N-S boundary and a main reason why Lincoln needs KT in the Union
Conditions of Treaty of Paris
Louisiana Territory to Spain; Canada to Britain; Spain lost Florida to Britain
new strains of rice
change in food led to population growth in Asia
erie canal
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
"City on a Hill"
Everyone would be watching their move and God will know so they must act according to God's will.
1083. Unrestricted submarine warfare
This was the German practice of attacking any and all shipping to countries it was at war with. It annoyed neutral countries.
Proxy Wars
During the Cold War, the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. did not want to confront each other directly. Instead, both govenrmetns chose to support other countries in their battles with neighbors or agaisnt rebel groups. These battles were known as proxy wars.
Spainish American War
War lasting from 1898 to 1899 in which the United States took Cuba, Puerto
Rico, Guam, and the Philippines from Spanish control.
Nobel Peace Prize for Carter
2002, Habitat for Humanity, helped low income families
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
1529. Spiro T. Agnew, his resignation
October, 1973 - Nixon's vice-president resigned and pleaded "no contest" to charges of tax evasion on payments made to him when he was governor of Maryland. He was replaced by Gerald R. Ford.
According to the divine-right theory of government
the king derives his authority from God alone and is not accountable to his subjects.
Corrupt Bargain Election of 1824
Clay makes a supposed deal with Adams. Adams would be president if Clay would drop out; Clay garners support in the House of Representatives for Adams, when Adams wins he gives Clay the position of Secretary of State. (Ruins Jackson's chance at Presidency)
what went on in haiti in the 1990s?
democratic elected president Astride (of haiti) was overthrown by a military coup. clinton finally sent 20,000 troops to restore the haiti president to power in '94 after many hatians found refuge in america
1244. Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes
Began to vote with the more liberal members in the liberal-dominated Supreme Court. In June a conservative justice retired and Roosevelt had an opportunity to make an appointment, shifting the Court's stance to support of New Deal legislation.
the key issue that led to the civil war
whether or not slavery would be allowed to expand into the western territories, because these territories would be carved into states
Haitian revolt
1793-1804
Sanskrit
1st literary language
Pope Leo X
excommunicates Luther
Stamp Act
tax on paper goods
Thomas Jefferson
1801-1809, Republican, split Federalist Party (Jay Treaty and Impressment hurt), against Aaron Burr, issue = Alien and Sedition Act and relation with France and England
Luanda
Portuguese factory established in 1520s south of Kongo; became basis for Portuguese colony of Angola.
Eugene V. Debs
Socialist party, 1894
Tarters
Mongols; captured Russian cities and largely destroyed Kieva state in 1236; left Russian Orthodoxy and aristocracy intact
Immunity
Freedom or exemption from some imposition.
Prohibition movement
18th ammendment banned alcohol; reduced national consumption of alcohol but was poorly enforced and easily evaded in cities. repealed by the 21st amendment
American system
-new national bank
-tariff of imported manufactured goods
-federal financing of imporved roads and canals
Algeciras Conference
International conference called to deal with the Moroccan question. French get Morocco, Germany gets nothing, isolated. Result is U.S, Britain, France, Russia see Germany as a threat.
seasoning
An often difficult period of adjustment to new climates, disease environments, and work routines, such as that experienced by slaves newly arrived in the Americas. (p. 504)
Divination
a prediction uttered under divine inspiration
Anne Hutchinson
challenged New England Calvinist ministers' authority, as they taught the good works for salvation of Catholicism
Frontier Thesis
The Progressive historian Jackson Turner argued the importance of the frontier for the following reasons:
A: shaping the american character
B: defining american spirit
C: fostering democracy
D: providing a safety valve for economic distress in urban America
What crop was Maryland based on?
Tobacco!
Thomas Pinckney
- responsible for Pinckney's Treaty 1795
antinomianism
the theological doctrine that by faith and God's grace a Christian is freed from all laws (including the moral standards of the culture); founded by Anne Hutchinson
Sui
dynasty after the Han; united northern China and conquered southern China
What is the Mesopotamian style of writing called?
Cuneiform
Homestead Act
1862 legislation that provided 160 acres of land to any farmer who would farm on it for 5 years
Oligarchy
Government by a small group of elites.
Lochner v. New York
-Supreme Court Case.
-1905
-New York
-After the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire, outraged Progressives intensified their calls for reform. Many states also adopted workers' compensation laws, which set up funds to pay workers who were hurt on the job.
-Progressives also persuaded some states to pass 10 hour workdays but their efforts suffered a blow when the Supreme Court ruled that such laws were unconstitutional.
Gary Hart
supposed to be Democratic nomination for 1988 presidential elections
Zheng He
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.
Deng Xiaoping
Communist Party leader who forced Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong. (p. 862)
Depression of 1921
Causes included the rapid demobilization of the U.S. army the quick return of business to private hands and strikes. The outpouring of wartime savings on cars and homes, and the loss of the European markets and war contracts helped create business failure. This left 5 million people unemployed and left an agricultural depression that would last throughout the decade
mulatto
The term used in Spanish and Portuguese colonies to describe someone of mixed African and European descent.
Haymarket Riot
Bomb thrown at Chicago Haymarket Square; killed eight and wounded 67. Hurt the Knights of Labor
atrocities
cruel and inhumane acts that people commit against each other
Alexander Hamilton
High Political leader-1786- 32 year old New Yorker who saved the convention from complete failure by engineering the adoption of his report. It called upon Congress to summon a convention to meet in Philadelphia the next year, not to deal with commerce alone but to bolster the entire fabric of the Articles of Confederation
"railroad time"
gave the nation its first standardization method of time-telling; railroad schedules were determined
Wrote Treatise on Domestic Economy telling women that technological advances made it their duty to make every house a “glorious temple” by using space more efficiently.
Catherine Beecher
Israel
In antiquity, the land between the eastern shore of the Mediterranean and the Jordan River, occupied by the Israelites from the early second millennium B.C.E. The modern state of Israel was founded in 1948. (p. 98)
The Mexican War
(JP) 1846-1848 , Mexico broke relations with USA after annexation of Texas. Also, dispute over boundary of Texas (Rio Grande or Nueces River?) Americans interested in New Mexico and California, as well. Polk sent Slidell to try and buy off the Mexicans... they wouldn't budge.Polk ordered Taylor to move army across Nueces River to the Rio Grande- stayed stationed for a while,finally Mexicans crossed river and attacked "MEXICANS" started the war (NOT). America got New Mexico and California, ended with Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Helsinki Accords
a 1975 political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland, by Western European countries and the Soviet Union
liberalism
the quality or state of being liberal, as in behavior or attitude
Charles Beard
He wrote An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution in 1913. He believed that the delegates of the Constitutional Convention had selfish economic interest in the outcome. He argued that the delegates represented an economic elite of speculators in western lands, holders of depreciated government securities, and creditors whose wealth was mostly in "paper." He provided useful arguments of the unquestioning hero worship of our founding fathers. He has been proven wrong because the founding fathers had no compelling stake in paper wealth, only in land holding.
Point Four Program
Aid to underdeveloped countries in 1950
empire
A group of countries under a single authority.
philosopher kings
In "The Republic", Plato proposed that the true rulers of society should be
Sepoy Mutiny
The last serious uprising from the Indians against their British oppressors. After Britain crushed the Sepoy Mutiny, Britain had full control over the Indians.
shang dynasty
Dynasty in china that established the mandate of heaven.
first french colonies in north america
founded by calvinists
ayllus
In Incan society, a clan or community that worked together on projects required by the ruler, Households in Andean societies that recognized some form of kinship; traced descent from some common, sometimes mythical ancestor.
Khadijah
A woman for whom Muhammad worked when he lived in Mecca ( and whom he eventually married)
Apartheid
a policy or system of segregation or discrimination on grounds of race
Interstate Commerce Commission
government agency organized to oversee railroad commerce
Timbuktu
Capital of the West African kingdom of Mali, a place located in the Niger River Valley.Madeira, the Canaries, São Tomé, Pricipe-
Rhine River
Waterway of western Europe, which is culturally and historically one of the great rivers of the continent and among the most important arteries of industrial transport in the world.
dhow
Ship of small to moderate size used in the western Indian Ocean, traditionally with a triangular sail and a sewn timber hull. (p. 382)
The Compromise of 1850
The terms of Clay's proposal included:
- California would be admitted as a free state into the Union.
- The remainder of the Mexican territory would be divided into two new territories: Utah and New Mexico. The determination of whether they were a slave or free state would be based on popular sovereignty.
- Texas would surrender their claims of the New Mexico territory in exchange for ten million dollars from the government to cover their war debts.
- Slave trade would continue to exist, but ti would be abandoned in the District of Columbia.
- Congress would strengthen the Fugitive Slave Acts for the purpose of requiring citizens, of either free or slave states, to assist in returning runaway slaves (FSA of 1850).
926. Marcus Hanna
Leader of the Republican Party who fought to get William McKinley the Republican nomination for president.
tenant farming
system in which a farmer rents land from the landowner to farm
Jim Crow Laws
(AJohn) , Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
Espionage Act 1917
This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection.
Steel and Gunpowder
2 items that were developed and invented in china, they both helped majorly in warfare
Marshall Plan
Plan concieved in 1947 by Gen. George Marshall, U.S. Secrtary of State, that provided economic aid to European nation after World War II
Robert de la Salle
explorer who found Louisiana- later killed by men when he couldn't find it again
Rush Bagot Agreement
An agreement that limited navel power on the Great Lakes for both the United States and British Canada.
Liberty Tree
The symbol of the gallows on which enemies of the people deserved to be hanged. The best known was in Boston.
Leisler's Rebellion
A local rebellion in New York by Jacob Leisler, a German immigrant who kept New York under his control for two years (supported by militia). In 1691, a new governor was appointed; Leisler was slow to turn over authority. He and his son-in-law were charged with treason and hanged; Parliament later exonerated them. The factions would affect New York politics for years afterwards.
King Cotton
A term used by the south to describe their importance to the country and rest of the world because of its dependence on their cotton (about 75% came from the southern U.S. It was also somewhat a threat as it exclaimed that if a civil war were to erupt the rest of the world would loose out on their enormous supply of cotton. "King Cotton" in essence gave the south a feeling of superiority; an burst in their ego, that caused the oligarchy elites to feel powerful in the eyes of the nation. Naturally they did not feel they needed adjust to the demands of the abolitionists from the North thus this inflexibility was one of the keys to the start of the civil war.
Portugal, Castile, and Aragon
A regional kingdom of the Iberian peninsula; pressed reconquest of peninsula from Muslims; developed a vigorous military and religious agenda.
Open Door Notes
mesage sent by John Hay to other countries to protect U.S. trading rights in China
triple wall of privilege
Banks, Tariffs, and Trusts were the things Wilson tried to stop
Kellogg-Briand Pact
a pact signed by 62 nations who agreed to use war only for defensive purposes
Fair Labor Standards Act
a federal statute of the United States. The FLSA established a national minimum wage, guaranteed 'time-and-a-half' for overtime in certain jobs, and prohibited most employment of minors in "oppressive child labor," a term that is defined in the statute. It applies to employees engaged in interstate commerce or employed by an enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, unless the employer can claim an exemption from coverage.
1578. Election of 1980: candidates, issues
Ronald Wilson Reagan, Republican defeated Jimmy Carter, Democrat and John B. Anderson, Independent. The issues were government spending and traditional values.
Sir Walter Raleigh
first man to introduce the potato and tobacco in England
William Penn and the Quakers
settled in PA, believed the "inner light" could speak through any person and religious services without ministers
James A. Garfield's Party
VP - Arthur, SS - James G. Blaine
Pure Food and Drug Act
Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
411. Caucus System, Nation Nominating Conventions
In the National Nominating Convention, delegates voted on the results of a primary. In the Caucus System, candidates were elected by small, secretive party groups and the public had little say in the process.
227. Maryland, cession of western land claims
After the Revolutionary War, many states claimed all of the western land between their northernmost and southernmost borders, which meant that many strips of land were claimed by more than one state. The Continental Congress was trying to get the states to ratify the Articles of Confederation, but Maryland refused to ratify it until all the states gave their western land claims. Maryland held out, and the western land claims were abandoned.
5 pillars of Islam
1) There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet.
2) pray towards the holy city of Mecca
3) Fast during the month of Ramadan
4) Zakat (alms for the poor)
5) Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)
What was the gang-labor system?
Slave owners in in the upland regions of South Carolina and Georgia and Alabama and Mississippi had the plan to deep an overseer, who would keep the workers working at a steady pace with a lash
Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO)
giving poor a hand up not hand out, need to change their lifestyle, breaking the cycle of poverty
1459. Civil Rights Act of 1964, Public Accommodations Section of the Act
This portion of the Act stated that public accommodations could not be segregated and that nobody could be denied access to public accommodation on the basis of race.
prudent
p
facade
an illuson
Interstate Commerce Act
...
Buddhism
founded by Siddhartha Guatama
Alexander the Great
323 BCE
Utopias
ideal place, state, or society
Little Big horn
Native Americans win!
Quran
holy book of the muslims
Andrew Carnegie
United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919)
Uighurs
A group of Turkic-speakers who controlled their own centralized empire from 744 to 840 in Mongolia and Central Asia
Thomas Hobbes
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
consulado
Merchant guild of Seville; enjoyed virtual monopoly rights over goods shipped to America and handled much of the silver received in return.
Southern Officials
-Congressmen present the Southern Manifesto
-80% South Whites opposed the Brown decision
-'Massive Resistance'
Xenophobia
a fear of hatred of foreigners
Cecil Rhodes
British entrepreneur and politician involved in the expansion of the British Empire from South Africa into Central Africa. The colonies of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) were named after him. (p. 736)
Anti-Federalists
those who favored strong state governments and a weak national government; opposed the ratification of the U.S. Constitution
Major Trading cities
Hangzhou, Alexandria, Khanbaliq, Kilwa, Constantinople, Quanzhou, Cairo, Melaka, Venice, Cambay, Timbuktu and Caffa were *what* during the Eastern Hemisphere study?
frederick taylor wanted to liberate men and omen from
waste
Seventeenth Amendment
(WW) , direct election of senators
ball games
Ritual elements of many American cultures; played on formal courts; religious significance required that losing teams pay penalty of forfeiture of goods or their lives. (p. 209)
Jurchens
Founders of the Qin Kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of Yellow River basin forced Song to flee to south
Johannes Gutenberg
Introduced movable type to western Europe in the 15th century; greatly expanded the availability of printed materials.
Yorktown
The last major conflict of the American Revolution.
Strict Constitution
Jefferson and his states' right disciples believed the Constitution should be interpreted "literally" or "strictly". The reason why was to protect individual rights. Jefferson did not want the Bank of the United States,Hamilton thought it would not only be proper, but also necessary. Jefferson thought it was up to the states and Hamilton thought it was up to Congress. The Bank was created by Congress in 1791. Having a strong central government made people fear that theeir rights would be taken away from them.
deforestation
The removal of trees faster than forests can replace themselves
Underwood Tariff
Wilson tackles tariff in substantial reduction of tariff rates
Guptas
dynasty the succeeded the Kushans in the 3rd century CE; built empire that extended to all but the southern regions of Indian subcontinent; less centralized than Mauryan Empire
Hoplite
a citizen-soldier of the Ancient Greek City-states. They were primarily armed as spear-men.
Massasoit
He was the Wampanoag chieftain who signed a treaty with the Plymouth Pilgrims. His tribe celebrated the first Thanksgiving with the settlers. However, the arrival of more English settlers disrupted this peaceful relationship. His son, Metacom (King Philip) coordinated attacks on the English villages throughout New England.
Donatello
Italian sculptor renowned as a pioneer of the Renaissance style with his natural, lifelike figures, such as the bronze statue David.
Alfonso d'Alboquerque
Portuguese admiral who seized Hormuz, Goa, and Melaka
Woodrow Wilson*
1913-1921, Democrat, emerged of the Progressive Republicans (Leader was Robert M. La Follette)
ottoman empire
a Turkish sultanate of southwestern Asia and northeastern Africa and southeastern Europe
Council of People's Commissars
Government council composed of representatives from soviets across Russia and headed by Lenin; initially established after November 1917.
Great Zimbabwe
featured royal courts made of stone; created centralized state; king took title "Mwene Mutapa"
"Boss" Tweed
Leader of the Democratic Tammany Hall, New York political machine
varna system
when Queen Victoria gained control of India, and India fell under British Empire control, what traditional social system did she weaken?
Los Alamos
New Mexico where A-bomb detonated for first time July 1945; , Location of Manhattan project (to create atom bomb) in New Mexico; collection of best scientists available to the US in scientific community dedicated to atomic weaponry research for use in WWII
Insular Case
Supreme Court cases of 1901 that determined that the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights did not apply in the colonial territories under the American flag.
New Frontier
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.
Committees of Correspondence
Local and intercolonial group that spread anti-British propaganda
pax romana
The period of stability and prosperity that Roman rule brought to the lands of the Roman Empire in the first two centuries C.E. The movement of people and trade goods along Roman roads and safe seas allowed for the spread of cuture/ideas.
vassal
received land or benefit from lord in return for fighting for lord
Booker T. Washington
Influential black educator and leader. Said black could be social separated with whites, but together on other issues.
Bill of Attainder
declared people guilty without right of trial (court ordered)
Ex: british would always do this and we had a problem with it
laissez-faire capitalism
1. a process when governments remove themselves entirely from regulation.
2. this system creates a free market without rules and constraints to keep things in check.
Funding at par
(GW)This meant that the federal government would pay off its debs at face value, plus accumulated interest which at the time had a total of $54 million. This included the federal government taking on the debts by the states and paying for it as a country. Hamilton's establishment of this act gave the country much needed unity because it brought the states together under the centralized government. This made paper money essentially useless do to inflation.
Age of Revolution
Period of politcal upheaval beginning roughly with the American Revolution in 1775 and continuing through the French Revolution of 1789 and other movements for change up to 1848
Gempei Wars
Waged for five years from 1180, on Honshu between Taira and Minamoto families; resulted in destruction of Taira.
The Lane Debates
18 days of discussion among the school's students and faculty of colonization and immediatism; immediatism won
Decembrist Revolt
place in Russia on December 14 1825, Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Nicholas I's assumption of the throne
Antislavery
was a wide spread idea (with most of its supporters being in the New England areas) in the 1800's. the North readily opposed the idea of slavery, because it was abusive and their economy didn't rely on it. But even in the South, in the 1820's, there were numerous antislavery societies. These societies were actually more numerous south of Mason and Dixon's line.
cash and carry
countries such as Britain and France would have to pay for American goods in cash and provide transportation for them. This would keep US ships out of the war zone and eliminate the need for war loans
Great Puritan Migration
The emigration of English Puritans to New England and West Indies
Mycenaeans
a group of people who settled on the Greek mainland around 2000 B.C.; leading city called Mycenae which could withstand any attack; nobles lived in splendor; these people invaded many surrounding kingdoms
spoils
what you get is a result of your winning
pop art
based on modern culture and the mass media
King George III
King of England during the American Revolution.
uled using mercantilist policies and imposed a lot of taxes
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
It was a legislation introduced by Stephen Douglas to organize the area west of Missouri and Iowa. One goal was to facilitate the building of a transcontinental railroad that ran west from Chicago. It called for two terrotories to be created and the issue of slavery to be decided by popular sovereignty. while Nebraska became a free terrotory, Kansas' status was impacted by fight between pro- and anti- slavery groups who moved to the area. This conflict was termed "Bleeding Kansas."
Social Issues under Reagan
New Right's push for organized prayer public schools and ban on abortion ((RR) against) first female in SC, (RR) also opposed Equal Rights Movement
Han dynasty
This is a term used to designate (1) the ethnic Chinese people who originated in the Yellow River Valley and spread throughout regions of China suitable for agriculture and (2) the dynasty of emperors who ruled from 202 BCE to 220 CE.
121. Writs of Assistance
Search warrants issued by the British government. They allowed officials to search houses and ships for smuggled goods, and to enlist colonials to help them search. The writs could be used anywhere, anytime, as often as desired. The officials did not need to prove that there was reasonable cause to believe that the person subject to the search had committed a crime or might have possession of contraband before getting a writ or searching a house. The writs were protested by the colonie
Warring States Period
the period from 475 BC until the unification of China under the Qin dynasty, characterized by lack of centralized government in China. It followed the Zhou dynasty.
United Central Asia (Tibet, northern China, Persia and central Asia)
Name Ghengis Khan's conquered lands
Depression of 1893
A 4 year period caused by over building and speculation, labor disorders, and ongoing agricultural depression. Free silver agitation damaged American credit abroad. 8,000 businesses collapsed in 6 months.
JFK's Party
VP - Lyndon B Johnson, SS - Dean Rusk, AG - Robert Kennedy, SD - Robert McNamara
France entered war again w/ Britain
-Battle of Trafalgar let Britain regain the seas
-Battle of Austerlitz let France control the lands
issues in the 1844 election
Democrats - MArtain Van Buren ex. president who opposed annexation/slavery
John C. Calhoun - proslavery/Annexation
James K. Polk - 54 40 or fight, for annexation
Polk won 170 to 105 electoral votes
Boundary disputes, annexation, slavery
General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
President of Mexico, Commanded the Mexican army at Gonzales, in 1853 sold territory to the United States including that area known as the Gadsden Purchase.
The Us presidential election of 1796
• first contested election and first where pres and vp were elected from different tickets
• John Adams and Thomas pickney vs. Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr
o (federalist v. democratic-republican)
a major result of the developement of judaism was..
the spawning of other monotheistic faiths
/ 398
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