russian revolution quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Trotsky
(Saving)
Proletariat
Workers
Mensheviks
Duma, minority
Peasant
a poor person
Alexandra
czaristza; Nicholas' wife
Year WW1 starts
1914
Pravda
"Truth" - Communist newspaper
Karl Marx
Father of Communism
Peace, Land, Bread
Lenin's slogan
SOCIALISTS
believed workers should overthrow government so people can share equally in the nation's wealth
nicholas ii
last czar of russia
weak government before hitler
Weimar Republic
Russia
doesn't like Japan's imperialistic reasons
only had 1 road
Socialist Realism
artist creativity restricted- "hahahaha you can only paint about socialism.
Had to paint communism in a good light- Not only am i restricting your creativity i am also making you lie. God i love being Stalin no I like being God"
Duma
part of the provisional government that was made up of middle class and lower class reps. voted by the people >> didnt have much say and only met once or twice every 2 years
NEP
New Economic Policy; limited revival of capitalism especially w/ agriculture/industry; introduced by Lenin to repair damage from Civil War and Communism
demand
the amount of goods/services consumers will buy/use at a certain price
pogroms
government approved attacks on a certain race
Soviets
local councils of workers, peasants, soldiers who had more influence than the provisional government
Pogram
an organized massacre of helples people
Lenin organized the ___________ to extend his reign of terror.
Comintern
Menshevik
Was part of the social democratic party, believed in being broadly based
Stalin's 5 year plan succesfuly produced this
hydroelectric stations
War Communism
economic policy adopted by Bolsheviks during Russian Civil War to seize banks, heavy industry, railroads, and grain; leads to domestic opposition and Russians refuse to make sacrifices demanded by central party leaders
Collectivisation
Hundereds of familys worked on farms for the goverment to boost food production
Gulag
System of prison camps where suspected revolutionaries were sent where 10-20 million people died of starvation or injuries from violent treatment.
Collectivization
the organization of a nation or economy on the basis of collectivism
rumors of bread
Cause of the Coronation Stampede.
February Revolution
the revolution against the Czarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917
When does the Tsar abdicate
in march 1917
Lenin
major leader of Bolsheviks, real name Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
St. Petersburg
City where the vast majority of workers were located in Russia
five year plans
Stalin's attempt to modernize the Soviet Union; these set almost impossible quotas for industrial workers and agricultural farmers to meet; As a result of these, the USSR did modernize.
Command Economy
an economy in which resources and business activity are controlled by the government
Politburo
after Lenin and the Bolsheviks win the Russian Civil War, political power was held by this entity compromised of the small group of elite individuals
communists
an economic system in which all means of production are owned by the people, private property does not exist, and all goods and services are shared equally
leadership
3rd reason the party wanted to revolt; czar Nicholas had bad _____
RASPUTIN I.D.
Rasputin was holy man who cured people. He heavily influenced the absoloute rulers, Nicholas II and his wife, as an advisor. Their love for Rasputin started after he cured their hemopylyic son.
Romanov Dynasty
Mikhail Romanov - Founded the Dynasty; ruled Russia 1613-1917. Czar (from the word Cesar) Ruler of Russia.
The Last Straw
military defeats, poor leadership, and massive casualties
Which year did there officially begin to be no food in the cities?
in 1917
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty that Lenin signed to pull Russia out of WWI
Anastasia Nikolaevna Romanov
the coolest grand duchess ever. who might have died in the russian revolution
russian orthodox church
the church that is based on christianity, but they worship the tsar
Alexander Kerensky
A Russian politician. He served as the second Prime Minister of the Russian Provisional Government until Vladimir Lenin was elected by the All-Russian Congress of Soviets following the October Revolution.
BLOODY SUNDAY I.D.
on January 1905, troops opened fire and protesting, unarmed workers at the Winter Palace. The workers were protesting low wages and the bad economy. All of this happened while their ruler Nicholas II was not in Russia.
Joseph Stalin
A member of the first politburo, he took control after Lenin's death with a small organized group of loyal communists. He emphasized loyalty to Lenin but ended NEP and wasn't interested in spreading communism. Wanted to increase industrialization and created 5 year plans to collectivize farming and encourage industrialization. Destroyed all opposition and new ideas to create a totalitarian government.
October Menifesto
was issued on 17 October 1905 (30 October in the Gregorian calendar) by Tsar Nicholas II of Russia under the influence of Count Sergei Witte as a response to the Russian Revolution of 1905.
Peace Land Bread
peace- pulled Russia out of war
land- redistributed nobility's land
bread- state distributed bread to families
Bloody Sunday
On 22 January 1905 workers and their families marched to the Czar's castle in St. Petersburg in petition for better working conditions, more personal freedom, and an elected national legislature. Nicholas was not home, but his police chiefs order guards to shoot at the crowd. Between 500 and 1000 unarmed people were killed
revolution of 1905
a historical term describing a wave of political terrorism, strikes, peasant unrests, mutinies, both anti-government and undirected, that swept through vast areas of the Russian Empire, leading to the establishment of the State Duma of the Russian Empire, multi-party system and the Russian Constitution of 1906.
LEON TROTSKY I.D.
lived 1879-1940. He was a rebel and wanted start a revolutionin russia, but only to be exiled multiple times. He met Vladimir Lenin and supported him in his communist way, though after lenin died, he did not succeed him as ruler. Joseph Stalin did. Trotsky was a Bolshevik.
Stalin in Education, Religious, Social
women receive equal education, careers in engineering, science and medicine, replaced religious teachings with communism, executed religious leaders, replaced churches with museums of atheism, censorship over everything, united people towards one goal
Treaty of Brest Litovsk
Russia has peace w/ Germany making it a one front war; costly treaty b/c Russia gives up land
Why does Lenin return?
Germans send Lenin back into Russia to weaken Russian WWI effort
What was the prupose of the Great Purge?
killing oldstyle communists (lenin's followers)
these are 2 of the benefits which the communist government gave to the soviet union
Free education and health care
Why does the Tsar become especially unpopular in 1917?
Because he is running the war (which is failing) instead of governing/ruling. While he is away, the Tsarina and Rasputing are running the country. Becasue the Tsarina believes what Rasputin says about seeing visions from God, and believes that if he can miraculously 'heal' Alexei's haemophilia, then he must be able to see the right thing to do with the government. Many ministers in the parliament were sacked just because Rasputin told the Tsarina that they were bad people.
Zecs
political prisoners
Soviet
Russian worker's council
Nadezhda Krupskaya
Lenin's Wife
Tsar Alexander III
-harsh rule
-russification
-pogroms
Marx
founder of modern communism
"Tsar Liberator"
Alexander II's nickname
snow
Concern leading to onion domes.
bolsheviks
Radical Marxist political party founded by Lenin in . The Bolsheviks seized power in November 1917 during the Russian Revolution. thought there should be an elite core to "guide everyone"
Russo
Japanese war-meaningless was with Japan
3 parties
cadets-pro russia, populas
socialist revolutionaries-vague and violent, not most socialist
Socialist democratic labor party-1.menshoviks
2. Bolsheviks educated
USSR
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Red Guards
The Bolshevik armed forces.
Duma
•russian legislative assembly, or lower house of parliament•elected by universal manhood suffrage, but gentry votes were given greater weight than worker or peasant votes
nobles
Powerful landowners appointed by the czar who controlled most land and resources, paid little taxes, and led the military.
BUKHARIN
Within the communist party, Bukharin led the moderate group referred to as the "rightists." They were concerned about the effects of collectivization on the people and urged a more gradual approach with greater latitude for small, private business(as in NEP). Bukharin was also editor of the official party paper, PRAVDA. Of the old Bolsheviks, Bukharin was perhaps the most popular and charismatic. Stalin became jealous and suspicious of him and had him denounced as a "rightist" who wanted to restore bourgeois capitalism. He was put through a purge trial sham and executed in 1938.
Communism
The class struggle's final inevitable step that leads to creation of a classless society where all wealth and prosperity are owned by the community as a whple
Provisions
Germany took responsibility for the war. They also had to pay separations for losing
Commissars
Communist party officials assigned to the army to teach party principles and ensure party loyalty
Permanent Revolution
an atmosphere of constant revolutionary fervor favored by Mao Zedong to enable China to overcome the past and achieve the final stage of communism
Leon Trotsky
brilliant speaker, Jewish parents, intelligent and classy, vied for power after Lenin's death but was seen as a threat to Stalin so he ended up in Mexico w a hatchet in his head
Cheka
Stood for the Extraordinary All Russian Commission of Struggle Against Counterrevolution, Speculation and Sabotage. Was the first institution set up by the new regime, Dec of 1917. Changed over years and known at different times as OGPU, NKVD, MVD, and most recently as the KGB. Carried out the RED TERROR in civil war. "Justice" or retribution carried out without tribunal. Series of summer executions. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION PALED BY COMPARISON!
CHEKA
•Lenin's secret police•a sign that Lenin cared little for democratic priniples•justified under the concept of Marx's dictatorship of the proletariat
October Revolution
aka the Bolsheviks Revolution; when the Russians rebelled against Tsar who gave up his crown and temporary government postition
borsch
A Russian soup usually containing beet juice as a foundation.
Formed in 1905. Supported a constitutional monarchy to limit power of the Tsar. Against Rasputin. Solve problems by introducing reforms. Powerful voice in Duma 1# and central in forming Provisional Gov. Paul Miliukov ( Foreign Min. in P.G. ), Prince Lvov
Liberals: Kadets
THIRD INTERNATIONAL/COMINTERN
Lenin's dream was to discredit moderate socialismand realise the dictatorship of the proletariat. The first Congress of the Third International was haphazard - 1919. Second Congress in 1920 included the extreme left parties of the 37 countries represented. Parties adhering to Comintern had to drop the word "socialist." Showed the big competition between socialism and communism. Both, after all, were competing for the same support - namely, the working class. The top communists in Russia had powers in the Comintern. Zinoviev led the group. Comintern was abolished in WW II as a gesture of goodwill toward the allies.
Kerensky
Russian revolutionary who was head of the Provisional Government after Nicholas II abdicated but was overthrown by the Bolsheviks in 1917
Germany
Lenin, on the way back from Switzerland, accepted German help to travel through Germany
1 Got the people upset because they didn't like Germany (they were at war with Germany), thought he was pro-German
2 Germany let Lenin pass through so he could end involvement in WWI
kasoks
russian police, could do whatever they wanted
Manifesto
a public declaration of intentions (as issued by a political party or government)
Tsar
The title of Russia's emperor before 1917.
The Schlifen plan
Germany's plan to defeat france
Russian Orthodox
Russian form of Christianity imported from Byzantine Empire and combined with local religion; king characteristically controlled major appointments
Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Crimean War
1853-1865 Russia vs. Ottoman Empire, which was supported by Brittan and France. Russia looses. Exposes areas that need reform.
Gregory Rasputin
the right-hand-man to Alexandra. Was an illiterate peasant
Social Democrats
Those who believed in achieving socialism through democratic means. Lenin thought that this could not succeed do to its inherent contradictions. The Bolsheviks were included in this group.
show trials
series of trails of poltical oppositions of Joseph Stalin. It had determined the guilt of defendent. The defendants not able to justify themselves have to sign statements under torture. Way to eliminate political oppositions. Stalin was paranoid and feared opposition. served as warning to people
Stakhanovite
1935, in order to encourage increase of daily productivity, govt published the output of a coalminer named Stakhanov and made a national hero out of him. Made wages geared to output (piece-rate). Led to competition in different areas. Labor heroes such as Stakhanov were inspiration to others. It was thought that a new and higher stage of socialist competition was being reached. Even factory managers competed. There was a huge pressure to meet the plan's quotas.
who set up the provisional government?
the duma
Peter the Great
expanded borders; obsessed with the Baltic Sea
RED ARMY
January of 1918, formed under Leon Trotsky who was War Commissar and creator of army. This military was "forged in crucible of civil war." Discipline was very strict and scattered throughout the army were POLITICAL COMMISSARS to educate the soldiers on the principles of the Bolshevik revolution and keep everyone in line (politically). Also acted as spies and reported any counterrevolutionary comments or activities. Army was very well organized, boosted morale of men and practised good officer selection. Big contrast to tsarist army. With the help of Red Army, the Bolsheviks had established themselves back up to the borders of the Tsarist Empire in all directions except towards Europe.
Who were the Whites?
Tsarist Army officers, Cossacks, Bourgeoisie, and the Outlawed political groups
Bikshevik Revolution (Nov. 1917)
St. Petersburg (Petrograd) Bolsheviks seized control of Winter Palace and overthrew temporary govt. they controlled govt and capital city.
exile
the state of being barred from one's native country, typically for political or punitive reasons
Bolshevik
radical faction of russia who won over the Mensheviks for control led by Lenin
What name was Lenin born with?
Vladimir llyich Ulyanov.
Kronstadt Mutiny
Rose in 1921 against party domination of the Soviets (a la Herbertists in the French Revolution) but branded as a petty bourgeois uprising and the participants were shot by the thousands.
Provisional governemt/Kerensky
after the workers strike in Pertrograd this was established with Kerensky as the leader
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
•peace treaty between USSR & Germany•ended Russian participation in WW1•under treaty, Lenin gave up considerable amount of land to the east, but that didn't matter as he needed peace to regain stability and ensure Bolshevik hold on power
the revolution of 1905
Beginning with the Bloody Sunday massacre, many political parties came about, there were strikes and uprisings... they wanted to change the government and have political modernization. the revolution ended with the October Manifesto, after it was issued the govenment had help from the middle class to stop the attacks and survive as a constitutional monarchy.
1917 Revolutoins: February Revolution
-(March) and bread riots
-forced king to abdicate (ends Romonav and imerial rule in Russia)
October Manifesto
Nicholas II's plan to give people more rights and create the Duma; result of Bloody Sunday
Russian Civil War
1918-1920: conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Red vs. White Army.
Alexander III
(1881) son of Alex II, increased use of secret police, censorship, exiles to Siberia, Russian unification to suppress non-Russians, pogroms
communist Party
new name of the russian bolsheviks who dissolve the constitutional assembly in 1918
Czarina Alexandra
Ran Russia when Czar was at the front
April Theses
Lenin's idea for what he's going to do.
October Manifesto
•issued oct 1905 by Nicholas II in response to the unrest & violence of the previous months, with the intention of dividing the opposition•pledged to create a legislative assembly elected by universal manhood suffrage, though unequally distributed, & promised to offer new political and civil liberties along with the right to organize unions and political parties
most ppl were arrested and never given a trial. they were often ______ or sent to ___________ ______
killed, labor camps
Russian Revolution
Russia did not want to enter WWI but had little to no choice
Two revolutions of 1917-basic timeline:
March Revolution
-Duma wanted to make a change since th emonarchy was collapsing
-marchers went on strike which led to the czar's abdication
-Duma set up temporary government and made constiution
November Revolution
-Lenin came into the town under a disguise
-Trotsky gave speeches to the Provisional Government
-During his speeches, Red Guardsmarched into town and took over
-Lenin arrested leaders of government
-Bolsheviks claimed themselves as the leaders
Winter Palace
The former home of the Tsar and the place where the Bolsheviks seized control, center of St. Petersburg
Dictatorship of the proletariat
•what Marx thought was necessary in the immediate transition from capitalism to communism•the workers had to be in charge without any external opposition and difficulties so it could effectively destroy capitalist sentiment and other enemies
Getting Ready for Civil War
-Bolsheviks' Lenin = war communism = got rid of money
-Red Terror = checka by Lenin
-March 1918 = Treaty of Brest Litovsk
Councils of Workmen's Soldiers Deputies
-soviet party that took over Russia
-overthrown Russian tsarist gov't was reorganized around this council
-1917 Communism became official ideology of Russia
-collectivized land, industry and property
-result = least likely place for this take over, contradicts original Marxist ideology, interesting repercussions, massive industrialization, mass deaths, cold war, etc.
-would have major effects on world for remainder of century
what happened when Hitler came?
Stalin purged his military so there was no one to fight back
what did the october manifesto say
freedom of speech and assembly
fairer trial system
creates representative group called the duma to approve laws created by tsar
Lenin's Ideas about Communism: elite group of revolutionaries
Lenin didn't believe that the people could create a revolution on their own; he wanted the public to rule but believed that they needed an organized takeover and that a trained group of people should do it
How did the allies intervene in the war?
14 countries (Japan, USA, Britain, France, Italy, Greece, Czechoslovakia and Canada) went to the USSR to help the Whites with equipment and protection
How did Lenin stabilize the country and government?
By creating "Red Terror" in which people were killed if they did not believe in the revolution.
What occurred as a result of Bloody Sunday?
Hundreds of peasants were killed. Word spread quickly after Bloody Sunday and 400,000 workers were killed throughout Russia.
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