Russian Revolution Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Duma
(Saving)
Cadet
(Saving)
Red, White
(Saving)
Treaty of Rapallo
(Saving)
Proletariat
Wage Earners-Low Class
Revolution/ revolutionaries
Social Revolutionaries
Kulaks
fiercly independent, hard-working, productive farmers who prosper under NEP; resent forced collectivization; resort to scorched earth policy; many killed or sent to labor camps an%; few consumer goods produced; vast program set goals for production into action/propaganda to convince people of Russia; social cost is millions killed or uprootedd cattle slaughtered; food supply ruined
as supply decreases,the price..
increases
Trotsky
Orchestrated the Bolshevik Revolutions; turned Red Army into a successful fighting force
the ruling family of Russia
Romanav
collectives
keep homes, give up tools
abdicated
czar Nicholas _____ his throne
Lenin, Vladimir
(1870-1924) Russian revolutionary leader and political theorist. He was the first leader of the new communist government of Soviet Russia. Later, he was also the first leader of the Soviet Union, which was composed of most of the republics of the former Russian Empire.
Rasputin
Siberian/Russian monk who was religious advisor in the court of Nicholas II
(Ex. was assassinated by Russian noblemen who feared that his debauchery would weaken the monarchy) (1872-1916)
Great Purge
Stalin's reign of terror
GOSPLAN
the commitie incharge of economic planing
started the five year plans
communism
where everyone is equal, government controls everything
censorship
check everything and anything, tell what you can and can't do
200 million
Russia's population during Stalin's reign
Primogeniture
Law stating land holdings pass exclusively to the eldest male heir
25%
Percent of farmable land in Russia.
V.I. Lenin
leader of the Bolshevik Revolution
1918-20
Following an unfavourable result in the voting for the Constituent Assembly Lenin closed down any more talks this led to the Russian Civil War a + for the Bolsheviks as they could dub themselves defenders of the revolution and regain some lost support
he believed that the state would wither away
Marx
BOLSHEVIKS
the most radical socialist group that believed a small group could overthrow government through force
White Armies
The anti-Bolshevik armies led by representatives of the Allied Powers that feared Bolshevism.
Father Gabon
organize peaceful protest march to winter palace which was met by guards, guns, and death "Bloody Sunday"
Kremlin
Royal palace in Moscow- now parliment building
totalitarianism
central control of public & private life
Nicolas I
Harsh, repressive ; the Decemberist uprising Crimean War-fiasco .
"He was made emperor, and right there displayed his flair and drive. Sent 120 men and strung up five" - Pushkin
Amnesty
granted to all political prisoners in March of 1917
lenin
__ opposed to russian involvement in war, started socialist revolution
Tsars
Emperors who had ruled with absolute power
2
How many revolutions were in 1917 in Russia?
Czar Nicholas II
Russian Czar during WWI; unpopular with Russian people; overthrown in March 1917; executed by Bolsheviks after November Revolution. The father of Princess Anastasia.
REDS VS WHITES
supporters of czar and Bolsheviks fought, Bolsheviks won
Peace, bread, land
lenin's idea- peace=no more war bread=for peasants land=equally
New Economic Policy
a plan that permitted some capitalism
Prince Yussupov
aristocrat who invited Rasputin to a party to kill him
EMPEROR HIROHITO I.D.
Emperor who forced the Japanese government to surrender, which ended World War II and was viewed as god.
Provisional Government
A temporary government created by the Duma after the abdication of the czar; it made the decision to remain in World War One, costing it the support of the soviets and the people.
collectivization
when stalin collected all the land and gave it to the people
What happened to Romanov family?
killed by Red Guard
Right wing
those who support political or social or economic conservatism noun
Ex. those who believe that things are better left unchanged
may fourth movement
was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student demonstrations in Beijing
Krondstadt Rising
Uprising of Naval forces at Krondstadt base following news of their families bread and land being seized by the Govt.
caused the Russian monarchy to collapse
Fuel shortages, Battlefield disasters
kadets vs octoberist
octoberist like the reforms but the kadets wanted even more rights
"Peace, Land, Bread"
What Lenin promised to the Russian people when he arrived at Finland Station.
socialist realism
style of art that shows soviet life ina positive way
Reign of Terror
Red army and cheka terrorized and killed enemies to Lenin or suspected revolutionaries.
Red Army
Forces in the Civil War fighting on the side of the Bolsheviks, to establish a Communist state.
Differences between Trotsky and Stalin
Trotsky believes the proletariat revolution should be worldwide
Stalin wants to built up the new USSR into an empire "socialism in one country"
five year plan
for the development of the soviet unions economy. had high goals to increase the output of steel, coal, oil, and electricity, caused food, housing, and clothing shortages. steel production was increased by 25 percent
he was the author of and quiet flows the don
Mikhail Sholokhov
Cadets and Social Revolutionaries
two revolutionary groups that formed a temporary government in March Revolution
Bread Basket of Europe
Old phrase describing Ukraine, due to its output of grains.
this is the best way to describe czar Nicholas 2 as a ruler
incompetent and ineffective
Revolution of 1905 (effects)
As a result of Bloody Sunday, strikes, uprisings and mutinies were occuring throughout Russia. To end the revolution, Nicholas II agreed to create a Duma and to make reforms for the people.
the reason it was a bad idea for the Czar to take charge of the military during WW1
not competent militarily
First session of Congress of Soviets
Bolsheviks manage to take control of Petrograd
What was the New Economic Policy and was is successful?
the government kept control of major industries. unsuccessful
how did he go about accomplising the 3 parts of his slpgan
gave peasants land to keep them happy and takes russia out of the war
Comintern
Was an international communist organization founded in March of 1919 by Lenin, this thing wanted to overthrow the international Bourgeoisie and create a socialist state.
Dekulakization
While starting the process of collectivizing the country in 1929, Stalin needed force, terror, and propoganda to help carry out collectivization. However he turned to pyschological warfare and made the kulaks a 'class enemy'. He did this to frighten the middle and poorer peasants and to make them turn in their once friends and enemies. During dekulakization it was very chaotic and the outcome was terrible. Whole families and vollages were rounded up and either killed or sent to the gulag.
commissars
Communist party officials assigned to the army to teach party principles and ensure party loyalty - policies included much violence
Sergei Witte
1892-1903 A highly influential policy maker who presided over extensive industrialization within the Russian Empire. He was the author of the October Manifesto and was the Prime Minister of the Russian Empire. He was heavily involved in economics of Russia and pursued an ambitious program of railway construction. He rose coal, iron and oil production and large cities grew. However, there were poor living and working conditions and Russia was still behind the other Great Powers economically by 1914.
Capitalism
an economic system in which businesses are owned by private citizens (not by the government) and in which the resulting products and services are sold with relatively little government control
Marxism
According to this belief, history was evolving towards a perfect state in which each stage/progression is characterized by the struggle between different classes. Between the haves and the have nots. Economic change would bring the winning class to the forefront and allow it to overthrow the ruling class.
The Provisional Government
Consisted Of Middle-Class Duma Representatives
Cheka
secret police force organized by the Communists who executed ordinary citizens and killed the czar's whole family
Gregory Rasputen
illiterate peasant and self - proclaimed "holy man" who the czarina trusted and he ran the weak government; was killed by Russian nobles in December 1916
Russo-Polish War, 1920-21
a)Polish forces took Kiev, Ukraine. Soviet forces drove them out and then ordered the invasion of Poland. b)The Poles saw them as a foreign aggressor, and at the Treaty of Riga, 1921, Poland was given a big part of Belorussia.
Peter Stolypin
Peter Stolypin was the cheif minister of the tsarist regime. After 1905, he introduced land reforms which encouraged well off peasants peasants called kulaks to buy land from poorer peasants because he wanted to get rid of strip farming. since it was pathetic and not producing enough grain to help the people. Stolypin also wanted to redistribute the land so that it could produce. This made poorer peasants very angry and were ready to protest and start a revolution.
March Revolution
A Series Of Strikes Led By Working-Class Women
The Civil War, 1918-1921
Between the Reds(Bolsheviks) and the Whites (everyone else - those who wanted a return to tsarism, a return to the pg, nationalists or foreign forces) The last white army was defeated in 1920. They were defeated because they were spread out widely across Russia, and each group/army had different aims.
Sovkhoz
Farms are run and owned by the state. Peasants who work on the farm are paid with a regular wage very much like factory workers.
Effect of WWI on Russia
factories couldn't produce enough supplies, transportation broke down, Russian armies had hardly any weapons and were poorly led-Russian casualties=2 million
Marxists and Revolutionaries
people who tried to overthrow the czarist regime and ignite revolution in the proletariat
Problems facing Lenin
a) ending the war. He signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Russia paid highly through territory and financially. b) The constituent assembly. At the first meeting in Jan 1918, the Red Guards dispersed it. It marked the beginning of the communist dictatorship.
Consequences of the Kornilov affair
1. Kerensky's reputation denounced and damaged forever.
2. Menshevik and Socialist Revolutionary leaders were discredited because of their association with Kerensky.
3. The masses distrust the Kadets.
4. Soldiers furious by what they thought was an officers plot against them murdered hundreds of officers.
5. Bolsheviks rode the wave of popular support that eminated from saving Petrograd from Kornilov.
Nadezhda Krupskaya
daughter of a poor noble family who was arrested with Lenin and got married in exile in Siberia
1905 Revolution - Government Reaction
a) 30 October 1905 - October Manifesto b)an elected parliament (Duma) to be created c)freedom of speech, religion and civil rights.
Ukraine, the Caucasus, and Central Asia
countries the fought with the Whites unsuccessfully
The First World War - The Home Front
-Prices rose over 200% between August 1914 and December 1916.
- There were food shortages in towns and cities.
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