AP World History Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
islamic law
Treaty of Paris
Thomas Malthus
Eighteenth-century English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because, in his view, population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production. (p. 867)
Socialists advocated government protection of workers from exploitation by property owners and government ownership of industries. This ideology led to the founding of socialist or labor parties in the late 1800s. (709)
Ottoman infantry divisions that dominated Ottoman armies; forcibly conscripted as boys in conquered areas of Balkans, legally slaves; translated military service into political influence, particularly after 15th century.
Carolingian Dynasty
founded by Charles Martel
Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war")is an anglicized word describing all-mechanized force concentration of tanks, infantry, artillery and air power, concentrating overwhelming force at high speed to break through enemy lines, and, once the latter is broken, proceeding without regard to its flank. Through constant motion, the blitzkrieg attempts to keep its enemy off-balance, making it difficult to respond effectively at any given point before the front has already moved on.
mesopotamian, built empire across the river valley; extremely strong army
Define the Nuremburg Laws.
Anti-Jewish laws, restrictions
third highest social class of Egypt
Article X
controversial, alarmed congress bec. it morally bound US to aid any member victimized by external agression
Storytellers of sub-Saharan Africa who carried on oral traditions and historians
a business transaction that occurs over an electronic network such as Internet
hellenistic period
trade flourished and important scientific centers were developed
the social and economic arrangement under which people are paid for protection and farming privleges by giving goods and services to an overlord.
Benjamin Franklin
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.
lowly, humble, lacking importance or dignity;a person who does the humble and unpleasant tasks
Taft Commission
Taft become governor of Philippines; commission provided edu. and job training to Filipinos, gave independence in 1946
The class of religious experts who conducted rituals and preserved sacred lore among some ancient Celtic peoples. They provided education, mediated disputes between kinship groups, and were suppressed by the Romans as potential resistance. (92)
where manco capac and mama ocllo decided to be the meca for the incas by dropping a wedge of gold there
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)
promoter of idea or cause
Ex: The apostles of Jesus extended the influence of Christianity
living quarters reserved for wives and concubines and female relatives in a Muslim household
Alfred Smith
first catholic ever nominated for president; he lost in 1928 becuase of the nations prosperity but his religion, urban background, and views on prohibition cost him votes as well
elizabeth stanton
A prominent advocate of women's rights, Stanton organized the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention with Lucretia Mott
the ethnic group claiming descent from Abraham and Isaac (especially from Isaac's son Jacob)
In Hindu belief, a person's essential self
From Latin caesar, this Russian title for a monarch was first used in reference to a Russian ruler by Ivan III (r. 1462-1505). (pp. 340, 551)
stations used by Incan military as inns and storehouses located along roads, held supplies and relay points for messengers
Woodrow Wilson
President of the United States (1913-1921) and the leading figure at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. He was unable to persuade the U.S. Congress to ratify the Treaty of Versailles or join the League of Nations. (p. 762)
Third caliph and member of Umayyad clan; murdered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt; death set off civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan. (p. 290)
founded by James Oglethorpe to be buffer colony and refuge for debtors, did not allow slavery

midnight judges
the judicial appointments made by President John Adams just before he was succeeded by President Thomas Jefferson.
To move to and fro, become unsteady
a small, exclusive group of people; coterie; set.
Member of a prominent family of the Mongols' Jagadai Khanate, Timur through conquest gained control over much of Central Asia and Iran. He consolidated the status of Sunni Islam as orthodox, and his descendants, the Timurids, maintained his empire. (336)
Article 231
The "war-guilt clause" in the Treaty of Versailles that placed total responsibility for World War I on Germany.
Wilhelm II
German kaiser who wanted to challenge the naval supremacy of the British. He unwittingly made the settlement of the British-American dispute over British Guiana and Venezuela more likely when he praised Boers who had captured a British raiding party in South Africa. The British turned their aggression towards Germany, and consented to arbitration over the American dispute.
Victoria Woodhull
Publicly proclaimed her belief in free love in 1871; divorcee, stockbroker, and a tireless feminist propagandist.
Teller Amendment
Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war
Roger Williams
He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.
French Revolution
at the beginning it was surprising peaceful and imposed constitutional shackles on Louis XVI, Americans considered it an extension of their revolution; 1792, France declared war on Austria and proclaimed itself a republic, Americans cheered and sang French songs; French king beheaded in 1793, the church was attacked, and the head-rolling Reign of Terror began (Americans disappointed); Britain began to get involved and then America was up to bat
Upton Sinclair
upped the interest in safer canned food products by writing the sensational novel The Jungle (1906); intended to focus on the plight of the workers, but readers were more concerned with food sanitation; caused Roosevelt to appoint a special investigating commission and then to pass the Meat Inspection Act
One of the first urbanized centers in western Africa. A walled community home to approximately 50,000 people at its height. Evidence suggests domestication of agriculture and trade with nearby regions.
A term used to designate (1) the ethnic Chinese people who originated in the Yellow River Valley and spread throughout regions of China suitable for agriculture and (2) the dynasty of emperors who ruled from 206 B.C.E. to 220 C.E. (p. 164)
Tehran Conference
Meeting among leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union in 1943; agreed to the opening of a new front in France.
Three-sister Farming
the growing of three different plants, maize beans and squash [beans grow on top of corns tendrils and squash covering planting mounds to retain moisture]
roman catholic
The Christian religion of Europe that formed from Christianity's schism between the remains of the western and eastern Roman Empire . The Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy
A party or group (as within a government) that is often contentious or self- seeking (clique); party spirit especially when marked by dissension
no-strike pledge
one of the concessions the labor unions made with the federal government, agreeing to not stop production in wartime. Despite this agreement at least 15,000 work stoppages or wildcat strikes took place during the war.
95. The Enlightenment
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.
Patrick Henry
Patrick Henry was a fiery lawyer during revolutionary War times. Supporting a break from Great Britain, he is famous for the words, "give me libertry, or give me death!" which concluded a speech given to the Virginia Assembly in 1775. This quote is a symbol of American patriotism still today. After the American Revolution, Henry served two terms as governor of Virginia and was also instrumental in the development of the Bill of Rights.
Revolution of 1800
Thomas Jefferson was elected president and he changed the government, making it less strict by eliminating rank seating at State dinners
Bay of Pigs
CIA failed attempt to institute Cuban support to overthrow Castro; cover-up uncovered, became representation of Cuban resistance to American aggression
Paris Conference
January 18, 1919; series of talks at the Palace of Versailles outside Paris; attending were delegates representing 32 countries
452. Washington Irving (1783-1859)
Author, diplomat. Wrote The Sketch Book, which included "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow." He was the first American to be recognized in England (and elsewhere) as a writer.
Testimony of regeneration
Line of descent towards the person's mother.
indentured servitude
person who agreed to work for a colonial employer for a specified time in exchange for passage to america.
Delhi (1911)
Became capital of India in place of Calcutta. Disturbed Indians of all classes.
Term for a wide variety of beliefs and ritual practices that have developed in the Indian subcontinent since antiquity. It has roots in ancient Vedic, Buddhist, and south Indian religious concepts and practices.
Treaty of Nanking
Treaty that concluded the Opium War. It awarded Britain a large indemnity from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing government tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to Britons, and ceded Hong Kong to Britain. (685)
George III
Became King of England in 1760, and reigned during the American Revolution.
Sub-Saharan Economy
Exported gold to Europe and the Middle East
763. Rebates
Developed in the 1880s, a practice by which railroads would give money back to its favored customers, rather than charging them lower prices, so that it could appear to be charging a flat rate for everyone.
Religious Qualifications
Claimed if you didn't belong to a certain church, you couldn't vote or hold office
a state or nation in which the supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in a monarch.
The Republican Party
In 1854, during the time of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, this political party was formed as the Whig Party disappeared.
Mikhail Gorbachev
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe. (p. 863)
soviets gave support
explain one reason forn ot having a military takeover in third world nations
free market system
the term for a system of pure capitalism, in which all economic decisions are made without government intervention
Agricultural Adjustment Administration
New Deal program that paid farmers not to produce crops; it provided farmers with income while reducing crop surpluses and helped stabilize farm production. the Supreme Court declared major parts of this law unconstitutional in 1936, helping lead FDR to his court-packing plan
In the aftermath of Columbus and voyages of encounter, Europeans believed the first humans in the Americas might have been
Phoenician seafarers from Carthage
grandfather clause, poll taxes, literacy tests
ways to keep African-Americans from voting
Taft Hartley Act
(HT) 1947, , The Act was passed over the veto of Harry S. Truman on the 23rd June, 1947. When it was passed by Congress, Truman denounced it as a "slave-labor bill". The act declared the closed shop illegal and permitted the union shop only after a vote of a majority of the employees. It also forbade jurisdictional strikes and secondary boycotts. Other aspects of the legislation included the right of employers to be exempted from bargaining with unions unless they wished to. The act forbade unions from contributing to political campaigns and required union leaders to affirm they were not supporters of the Communist Party. This aspect of the act was upheld by the Supreme Court on 8th May, 1950.
Presidential Election of 1864
..., This election was a fight between the two new parties resulting from the Republican Party. The Union party nominated Lincoln, who wanted to keep war, and the Democrats nominated George McClellan who said he would stop war immediately. Obviously Lincoln won, but he won barely
Writ of Mandamus
A court order forcing the govt to do something.m
876. Booker T. Washington (1857-1915), Tuskegee Institute
(1856-1915) An educator who urged blacks to better themselves through education and economic advancement, rather than by trying to attain equal rights. In 1881 he founded the first formal school for blacks, the Tuskegee Institute.
Dow Jones Index
this fell from its all time high of 381 to 198. Three years later, stock prices would finally hit bottom at 41, less then one-ninth of their peak value
Naval engagements in the War of
The U.S. navy won some important battles on the Great Lakes but failed to break the British blockade of the U.S.
85. Poor Richard’s Almanack, first published 1732
Written by Benjamin Franklin, it was filled with witty, insightful, and funny bits of observation and common sense advice (the saying, "Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise," first appeared in this almanac). It was the most popular almanac in the colonies.
What did the Homo erectus people accomplish?
Standing up (which freed hands for other tasks) and the creation of fire; about 1.5 million B.C.E.
400. John Quincy Adams as Sec. of State: Florida, Monroe Doctrine
He served under president Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the U.S. Florida in exchange for the U.S. dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams’ work.
Gorbachev Elected
The study of population
Dominant medieval philosophical approach; so-called because of its base in the schools or universities; based on use of logic to resolve theological problems. (p. 386)
first colony, founded in 1607
military leaders of the bakufu
James Madison
Father of the Constitution.
articles of merchandise or manufacture; goods:
islamic month of religious observance requiring fasting from dawn til sunset
"shirtless ones," Argentine poor who supported Juan and Eva Peron
Thomas Hart Benton
Democratic-Republican Senator from Missouri and a strong advocate for Westward expansion. Joined forces with Jackson at one point, and argued against the Bank of the United States.
Two major divisions of Spanish colonies in New World; one based in Lima; the other in Mexico City; direct representatives of the King.
Date: Spanish-American War - US acquires Philippines,Cuba, Guam, and Puerto Rico
Jawaharial Nehru
Indian statesman. He succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. He negotiated the end of British colonial rule in India and became India's first prime minister (1947-1964). (p. 815)
the Muslim messiah, an expected spiritual and temporal ruler destined to establish a reign of righteousness throughout the world. al-Mahdi was a caliph
Dawes Act
national legislation that converted communally owned Native American reservation lands into individually owned parcels. Excess acreage was sold to white settlers. Enactment contributed to the further decline of tribal populations, traditions, and well-being 5: 1865-1900
full blooded europeans born in america
Chinese School of Thought: Daoists believe that the world is always changing and is devoid of absolute morality or meaning. They accept the world as they find it, avoid futile struggles, and deviate as little as possible from the Dao, or 'path'
Northwest Ordinance
The 1787 Northwest Ordinance defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory. He ordinance forbade slavery in the territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established. The Northwest Ordinance was the most lasting measure of the national government under the Articles of Confederation
Janissaries were
captured christian boys from the balkans who became soldiers
Student of Plato, tutor of Alexander the Great
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
System of knotted colored cords used by preliterate Andean peoples to transmit information. (p. 312)
(WJC) , North American Free Trade Agreement
Venus figurines
What object reflects early human's deep interest in fertility?
Flexible Response
the buildup of conventional troopsto allow a nation to fight a limited war without using nuclear weapons
middle passage
horrendous slave voyages from africa to america
Region of northeastern India. It was the first part of India to be conquered by the British in the eighteenth century and remained the political and economic center of British India throughout the nineteenth century.(812)
carolingian renaissance
Charlemagne's efforts led to the revival of learning and culture, rebirth
the doctrine that all natural objects and the universe itself have souls
"people of the book"- or conquered people who worshipped other major religions such as judaism and christianity (book reffering to bible) and these people's religions were tolerated
Gentlemen's Agreement
In 1907 Theodore Roosevelt arranged with Japan that Japan would voluntarily restrict the emmigration of its nationals to the U.S.
major L'enfant, benjamin banneker
architects of washington dc
Year that Raleigh founded Roanoke, or "The Lost Colony"
to regard as resulting from a specified cause; consider as caused by something indicated (usually fol. by to):
Ostend Manifesto
Pierce and other countries planned to take over Cuba, to extend slavery
New family who took over empire that was based in France, Belgium, and Western Germany
What legislative body was in power when Napoleon seized power?
The Directory
938. "Yellow journalism"
Term used to describe the sensationalist newspaper writings of the time. They were written on cheap yellow paper. The most famous yellow journalist was William Randolf Hearst. Yellow journalism was considered tainted journalism - omissions and half-truths.
King of the Franks who conquered much of Western Europe, great patron of leterature and learning
Five-Power Naval Treaty
1922 treaty established at the Washington Disarmament Conference; it embodied Hughes's 5-5-3 ratio for navies. Britain and America conceded that they would not fortify their Far-East possessions, but the Japanese weren't subject to this.
Rebirth; a belief of both Buddhism and Hinduism
John Jay
United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829)
Election of : Issues
Manifest Destiny Issues: The annexation of Texas and the reoccupation of Oregon. Tariff reform.
Amritsar Massacre
a massacre of protesters against the Rowlatt Act in Amritsar by British troops who fired on the crowd killing several hundred
Slave Codes
laws that controled slaves and made them property for life
Catal Hüyük
in southern Turkey; founded in 7,000 BCE & coverd 32 acres; houses were made of mud bricks on timber wood; crowded together w/ few windows; people spent lots of time on the roof tops & suffered from many broken bones; religious images both of powerful male hunters & mother goddesses devoted to agricultural fertility; large villages ruled over smaller communities leaving families to specialize in politics; by 3,000 BCE became part of a civilization
reconquest of Iberia
Beginning in the eleventh century, military campaigns by various Iberian Christian states to recapture territory taken by Muslims. In 1492 the last Muslim ruler was defeated, and Spain and Portugal emerged as united kingdoms. (p. 414)
Jackson's Presidency
focused on the "Common Man;" removal of Indians, removal of federal deposits in BUS, annexation of territory, liberal use of veto
non-importation agreements
form of protest againt br policies/ colonial merchants refused to import BR goods
John Smith
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
The cities of Uxmal and Chichen Itza flourished under the
Freeport Doctrine
During L-D debate, Lincoln asked if the people of a territory voted against slavery despite Supreme Court, who would prevail. Douglas said the people.
A state based on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, between the seventh and eleventh centuries C.E. It amassed wealth and power by a combination of selective adaptation of Indian technologies and concepts, and control of trade routes. (192)
Susan B. Anthony
leader of woman suffrage movement, who helped to define the movement's goals and beliefs and to lead its actions
National Defense Education Act
Instituted primarily to stimulate the advancement of education in science, mathematics, and modern foreign languages as a response to the Soviet launch of Sputnik.
solid south
A general support the South had for the Democrats from the end of the Reconstruction period (about 1877) to the Civil Rights Era (early 1960s).
1815 Commercial Convention
After War of 1812; liberalized trade between Britain and America
Saturday Night Massacre
october 1973- name given to an incident in which nixon ordered attorney general Elliot Richardson to fire Archibald Cox, the special prosecutor who was relentlessly investigating Watergate; Richardson refused and resigned along with his deputy, who was also refused to carry out Nixon's order. A subordinate then fired cox. the incident created protest
Committees of Correspondence
These started as groups of private citizens in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New York who, in 1763, began circulating information about opposition to British trade measures. The first government-organized committee appeared in Massachusetts in 1764. Other colonies created their own committtees in order to exchange information and organize protests to British trade regulations. The Committees became particularly active following the Gaspee Incident.
kushan kingdom
many wars happened and there were many rulers; the people benefitted from the trade that passed through their land, mostly from Romans and Chinese on the Silk Road
Valeriano Weyler
He was a Spanish General referred to as the "Butcher." He undertook to crush the Cuban rebellion by herding many civilians into barbed-wire reconcentration camps, where they could not give assistance to the armed insurrectionists. The civilians died in deadly pestholes. "Butcher" was removed in 1897.
Jane Addams
This woman was a reformer and pacifist best known for her 1889 founding of Hull House, an early settlement house that provided various educational and cultural activities for poor immigrants. She later became a leading anti-imperialist, an opponent of the first red scare anti-radical paranoia, and in 1931 the first American woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for her efforts to support the 1928 Kellog-Briand Pact.
3/5 Compromise
Blacks are 3/5 of a person when counting towards population representation in House
Slavery begins
1619 - The first African slaves in America arrive in the Virginia colony.
Which of the following was the underlying cause of the other four?
The French Revolution
Ulysses S. Grant
Second president of Gilded Age. Fared much better as a general, because his presidency was marked by corruption.
Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty
(JP) 1848, US paid $15 million to Mexico, got New Mexico and California
1238. Dr. Francis Townsend
Advanced the Old Age Revolving Pension Plan, which proposed that every retired person over 60 receive a pension of $200 a month (about twice the average week's salary). It required that the money be spent within the month.
Anti-Catholic Sentiments in Early Nineteenth-Century
Anti-Catholic riots were common and this was most prevalent in the 1830's when native-born whites where motivated by economic competition and anxiety. Irish-Catholics were blamed for nearly every social problem. Convents were burned, churches vandalized, and priests and nuns were attacked.
Clay's American System
Proposed after the War of 1812, it included using federal money for internal improvements (roads, bridges, industrial improvements, etc.), enacting a protective tariff to foster the growth of American industries, and strengthening the national bank.
Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
Where did the first women's rights convention in the US take place?
Seneca Falls, New York
568. The Grimke sisters
Angelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement.
Cohens v. Virginia
Supreme Court has right to review the decisions of all state supreme courts.
351. Embargo of 1807, opposition
This act issued by Jefferson forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S. It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. It was difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade. It also hurt the national economy, so it was replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act.
John Rolfe, tobacco
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
Alexander the Great + Hellenism
Hellenism: A combination of Greek and Roman Culture
Alex the Great created Hellenism and started expanding it throughout all of the areas that he was in control of.
Dawes Severlty Act
gave tracts of land to those who left the reservations; its goal was to accelerate the assimilation of Native Americans into Western society by integrating them more closely with whites; Native Americans naturally resisted.
769. Interstate Commerce Act, Interstate Commerce Commission
A five member board that monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states.
320. Supreme Court: Chisholm v. Georgia
The heirs of Alexander Chisholm (a citizen of South Carolina) sued the state of Georgia. The Supreme Court upheld the right of citizens of one state to sue another state, and decided against Georgia.
Overall the battle of marathon in 490 B.C.E proved to be what?
End of Persian-Athenian war; Persians lose, Athenians win
What was the Jones Act of 1917?
It conferred the US citizenship of Puerto Ricans
When and why does Sun yat sen's attempt to form a republican government fail?
fails by 1914 as a reult of the warlords and failure to gain a centralized government
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