AP World History First Semester Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
polis
city-state
bezant
byzantine currency
Baghdad
Abbasid claiphate capital
lamaist buddhism
tibetan buddhism
Muromachi
japans medieval period
decentralized
provincial lords wielded effective power and authority in local regions where they controlled land and economic affairs
valued military talent
disciplined in place of etiquette and courtesy
samurai
professional warriors
played distinctive role in japanese political and military affairs
served the provincial lords
relied on to enforce lord's authority in their own territories and extend claims to other lands
lords support samurai with agric cultural surplus and labor services of peasants
Monotheistic
believeing in one god
Sunnis
followers of Muhammad's example
chavin
peru/bolivia region
cotton textiles and fishing nets
discovered gold, silver, and copper metallurgy
geographically diverse (coastal, mountain, rainforest)
city-states
waldensians and cathars
popular heresies
hulegu
ilkhan of persia
khubilai's brother
captured in baghdad
leif ericsson
traveled to vinland
melaka
present-day malaysia
powerful islamic state during 15th
magyars
defeated by otto I
vinland
scandinavian seafarers conquered iceland and greenland -> modern newfoundland = vinland
Charles Martel
grandfather of charlemagne
ramanuja
brahmin philosopher
took upanishads point of departure for subtle reasoning and sophisticated metaphysics
devotee of Vishnu
challenged Shankara's insistence on logic
said intellectual understanding of ultimate reality < personal union with deity
bliss came from salvation and identification of individuals w/ gods
sufis
most effective missionaries
devotional approach to islam
permitted followers to observe old rituals and venerate old spirits
emphasized piety and devotion
chimu
lowland and coastal peru
agriculture
highly structured society
city blocks organized around clans w/ clan leader responsible for his members
Daoism
a spirtual alternative to Confucianism.
not reason for crusade
black death
enlightment
intellectual movement came after scientific revolution in the 18th century
jurchen
nomadic peoples from manchuria (northeast china)
kilwa
ex. of busy city-state
exported gold
charlemagne
founder of carolingian empire
control extended to spain bavaria and n. italy
used missi dominici to oversee local authorities
served as a check on counts
solomonic dynasty
ethopian christians
claimed descendant from israelite kings
Harsha
king
temporarily restored unified rule in most of n. india
sought to revive imperial authority
Buddhist but was very tolerant
built hospitals
provided free medical care
liberally distributed wealth to subjects
kapu
taboo system—>strict social rules that regulated every aspect of social interaction based on position in the hierarchy (Hawai'i)—>infractions punishable by death
turks
nomadic herders
organized into clans w/ related language
vietnam
viet people adopted chinese agriculture, schools, and thought
tributary relationship with china
vietnamese retained their religious traditions
women played a more prominent role
chinese brought bureaucracy and buddhism
fall of tang vietnam gained independence
monasticism
devout christians practiced asceticism in deserts of egypt
monastic lifestyle = popular when christianity became legal
rome = edict of milan
minamoto
after heian decline
2 clans overshadowed others (Taira and Minamoto)
2 engaged in war in mid 12th
minamoto won
set stage for japanese fuedal system
What world religion is the oldest?
Hinduism
feudalism
land for military service and loyalty
mercantilsm
gvmnt should promote internal economy to improve tax revenues and limit imports from foreign countries
faith in authority
socratic method inforced this
place in africa that remained Christian
ethiopia
Magna Carta
established notion of:
limited government,
trial by a jury of one's peers,
no trials without a body of evidence,
king is not absolute (legitimacy is derived from god and the people "the people are free men" )
legislative body = parliament
no taxation w/o rep
regulating fines to be in accordance w/ gravity of crime
separation of church and state
GAVE MORE POWER TO THE INDIVIDUAL
Tughril beg
seljuk turk
chieftain of islamic empire 1055
Saladin
Muslim leader recaptured Jerusalem in 1187
Cosmas Indicopleustes
Christian monk form egypt
account shows that india and ceylon played prominent roles in larger economy of indian ocean basin
bushido
informal but widely observed code
"way of the warrior"
umayyad dynasty
founde by abu abkr
predominantly sunni
ruled as conquerors
focused on expansion of the empire
became indulgent in luxurious lifestyles
Han Wudi
established cities to sparsely populated regions
scattered population = hard to rebel
cities in west became major conduits for domestic and foreign trade
linked China with India (silk road)
venus figurines
symbolized fertility
symbol of early humans' fascination with fertility
Olmec technology
NO: domesticated animal, wheeled vehicles
YES: huge pyramids, traded jade and obsidian, stone heads, sewage systems
chuchito
dominate Andes 12th
agriculture and herding
tarde w/ coastal regions
khan
ruler of khanate
organized vast confederation of individuals for tribe expansion
ibn rushad
from al-andalus (muslim spain)
master of many things (aristotelian philosophy, islamic philosophy and theology, maliki law, psychology, politics, arabic music theory, and a number of sciences)
madrasa
mosque schools that taught theology and liberal arts
St. Cyril
famous missionary to the Slavs
Describe the political and social structure of the Roman Republic.
patriarchal society
johannes gutenberg
invention of movable type in west
cultural diffusion
spread of buddha in china is
investiture
battle over who had jurisdiction, pope or king, to appoint church officials
ibn battuta
moroccan berber islamic scholar and qadi
traveled extensively
wrote accounts of his travels
qutzalcoatl
mexico god of arts, craft, and agriculture
serfs
free peasants turned land and services to lord for protection
obligations: labor service, rent, could not move w/o permission
once worked off obligation -> give land to heirs
cathedral schools
bishops and archbishops in france/n. italy formed these
formal curricula concentrated on liberal arts
some had law, medicine, and theology
khanbaliq
capital of the yuan dynasty under kublai khan
heavy plow
6th century
could turn hard n. soil
common and led to increased production
cultivation of new lands, water mills, rotating crops
sunni
believed caliph should be picked based on merit
seljuk turks
defeated byzantines at battle of manzikert in 1071
abbasid
founded by abu al-abbas
sided with the shia and non arabs(in retaliation vs umayyad)
not conquering dynasty
focused on tight admin
murasaki shikibu
author of The Tale of Genji
du fu
one of greatest chinese poets
often wrote about war and death
huang chao
leader of large scale peasant rebellion
lasted from 875-884
seriously weakened tang
Ahura Mazda
supreme God
supreme deity with 6 lesser dieties
punic wars
roman conflict with Carthage (in tunis, africa -> phoenicians) in approx. fourth century BCE
delian league
military and financial alliance among greek polis against persian threat
hellenistic world
spread of Greek culture to Mediterranean and etc.
st. benedict
provided set of regulations for monks
virtues of benedictine monks: poverty, chastity, obedience
sultanate of Delhi
mahmud's successors conquered n. india
established islamic state (sultanate of delhi)
sultan's authority = not extended far beyond delhi
islam began to spread in india
tale of genji
classic japanese literature
written by noblewoman Murasaki Shikibu in early 11th century
peak of heian
difference btwn andean and mesoamerica civilizations
climate and geography
pope gregory I
organized defense of rome against lombards
reasserted papal primacy over bishops
strongly emphasized penance
mali empire
w.african empire founded by the lion prince/sundiata
estrucans (romulus and remus)
dominated italy 8th-5th centuries BCE
buzurg of shahriyar
10th century shipmaster
author of The Book of the Wonders of India
Bhagavata Purana
"Purana of the lord"
w/ rise of devotional hinduism
postclassical era religious leaders produced body of literature known as puranas
texts told stories/ gave instructions for worship
Lawbook of Manu
prepared by anonymous sage
made woman subserviant to mean
strictly enforced the caste system
frederick barbarossa
sought o absorb Lombardy into n. italy
papal coalition forced him to relinquish rights
sultan mehmed II
ottoman turk
sacked constantinople in 1453
renamed it istanbul
Mahmud of Ghazi
aka "Mahmud the image breaker"
turk leader in Afghanistan
expeditions to India
destroyed temples and artifacts
purpose: to loot and plunder
chola kingdom
s. india
conquered ceylon and parts of southeast asia
financed by profits of trade
navy dominated waters from s. china sea top arabian
not tightly centralized
allowed considerable autonomy for local and village institutions as long as they maintained order and delivered tax revenues on time
eleanor of aquitaine
most celebrated woman of her day
supported troubadours
promoted good manners, refinement, and romantic love
code of chivalry and romantic poetry softened manners of rough warriors
corpus iurus civilus
justinian's codification fo roman law
"body of civil law"
three estates
"those who prey" -clergy "those who fight" -feudal nobles "those who work" -peasants and serfs
The Five Pillars of Islam
Pilgrimage, fasting, prayer, alms giving, believe in only their god, no other god
out of africa thesis
says modern humans emerged in africa
italian humanism
focused on human kind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor
Mid 18th century Western society was
agricultural changes, commercialism, manufacturing had combined to produce a rapidly growing population in west
what diseases were spread on the silk road?
bubonic plague
smallpox
measles
Dhows and Junks
large ships involved in maritime trade in Indian ocean
where was the mauryan empire located?
from bactria to ganges
eric the red
led a party that discovered greenland and a established a small colony there
During Ashoka's reign what were the characteristics?
organized bureaucracy
central treasury
expanded economy
stable gov
expansion of agriculture through irrigation systems
converted to Buddhism
Ashoka was chief promoter of Buddhism
What three periods make up the Stone Age?
Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic
Not one of Rome's Legacies
adopted islamic religion as official faith of empire
Greek ideas of government differed from romans in that
greeks opposed large political units
mandate of heaven
states that ruler is the "Son of Heaven"
if things ever went bad for society, blame ruler and say he lost the mandate
What were social classes in mesopotamia like?
cities = more opportunity
classes: kings and nobles, priests, free commoners, slaves
Compare and contrast athens and sparta
Spartans: simple lives, frugality, military state that could crush any threat
Athens: sophisticated, women < power and influence than in sparta, democracy but only for free males,
Describe the political structures and organization of Classical Greece.
city states; the delian league; monarchy, aristocracy, oligarchy, democracy.
What are the four river valleys?
Nile River, Indus River, Huanghe River, Tigris-Euphrates River
Who were the citizens in ancient Athens?
free-born male adult land owners
Kuther got widespread support form german elite b\c
German princes who turned protestant could increase independence from emperor, get church lands, control church in their lands
not reason for expansion of islam beyond arabia
the desire to convert ppl
population size and life expectancy
what did develpment of agriculture not cause
Compare and contrast Egypt and Nubia
both "gifts of the nile"
agriculture easy in the nile due to flooding
agriculture was more difficult in nubia
Egypt: social class- peasants and slaves, pharaoh, and professional administrators
Nubia: complex hierarchical system
What were the steps to reach the point of civilization?
animal domestication, agriculture, permanent settlements
purpose of early English voyages to U.S
to discover northwest passage to India
mauryan differed the gupta in that
they were imposed by conquerors from greece
During the period of the warring states, princes became more independent. What did this lead to?
lead to Confucianism because Confucius emerged during this era and he criticized it and tried to find a solution, his solution was confucianism
what influence did mesopotamia have on the persians?
Medes and persians migrated from central asia, Indo-european speakersm challenged Assyrian and Babylonian empires
How did Christianity affect the Roman Republic?
became the official religion; used the cross symbol in battle
why development of strong big political units occurred later and slower in sub-shahara africa than other regions in world?
b/c had a lot of languages and dialects
what are the causes of the fall of the roman empire?
epidemic diseases
internal dcay
series fo generals seizing the throne (barracks)
germanic invasion
loss of western part of roman empire (most of europe)
rise of organized christianity
disease
population dropped by 1/4 in 900 years
what is the purpose and the role in society of buddhism?
purpose: to follow eightfold path
recognize 4 noble truths in order to end one's suffering (caused by desire)
attain personal salvation or nirvana
When did the period of warring states occur?
after the fall of the Zhou Dynasty
result of 100 yrs war in 14th and 15th centuries
kings ditched feudal army for paid army
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