AP World History Flashcards Flashcards

Terms Definitions
pharaoh
Egyptian rulers
Abolition
To do away with.
polytheism
the belief in many gods
Christendom
Christians collectively; the Christian world; Christianity
Hebrews
Another civilization that existed near the Persian Empire, significant for their religious belief of Judaism, one of the first monotheistic religions that continues today. At 1000 BCE they established Israel on the Eastern shores of the Mediterranean
Assyrians
Defeated the Hittites, after learning to use iron against the Hittites themselves. Establish a capital at Ninevah. Established a well organized but resented empire.
The Quakers
Protestant reformers. Believed that all people - men and woman were equal . they spoke out agents all war and refused to serve in the army.
Agricultural Village
A relatively small, egalitarian village, where most of the population was involved in agriculture. Starting over 10,000 years ago, people began to cluster in agricultural villages as they stayed in one place to tend their crops.
Hatshepsut
Queen of Egypt (1473-1458 B.C.E.). Dispatched a naval expedition down the Red Sea to Punt (possibly Somalia), the faraway source of myrrh. There is evidence of opposition to a woman as ruler, and after her death her name was frequently expunged. (p.66)
Animism
The belief that natural objects, natural phenomena, and the universe possess souls.
City-States
Different sections of land owned by the same country but ruled by different rulers
Hinduism
A religion widely practiced in the Indian subcontinent; originated with the Aryan beliefs. Famous for the caste system on the social end.
Medina
One of the most important Islamic cities, where Mohammad fled after being persecuted.
cultural diffusion
The exposure of cultures during interaction with other cultures
The Virginia Company
Managed merchant-driven settlement of Virginia. A joint stock company. The primary goal was to make a profit. Religious motivation was much less important than in the founding of Maryland, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts.
Calvinism
the theological system of John Calvin and his followers emphasizing omnipotence of God and salvation by grace alone
freemen
colonial period; term used to describe indentured servants who had finished their terms of indenture and could live freely on their own land.
Hyksos
the people who invaded Egypt thus beginning the second Intermediate period during which the Hyksos ( a word meaning "foreigner) ruled as pharaohs in Lower Egypt and exacted tribute from the royal families in Thebes.
Stupa
memorial mound ettected over the ashes of buddha and important monks
Hittites
A people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze Age. With wealth from the trade in metals and military power based on chariot forces, the hittites vied with New Kingdom Egypt over Syria (p.64)
Circa
Abbreviation "ca" (used with date) at the approximate time of: circa 1182 BC
Tribute system
A system in which defeated peoples were forced to pay a tax in the form of goods and labor. This forced transfer of food, cloth, and other goods subsidized the development of large cities. An important component of the Aztec and Inca economies.
Pericles
The leader of Athens after the Persian War. He rebuilt Athens, and established the Delian League. He died during the Peloponnesian war due to the plague
Visigoths
A group of Germanic people who began to press the Roman Empire due to the strain of the Huns. Sacked Rome in 410 CE
The Puritans
They were a group of religious reformists who wanted to "purify" the Anglican Church. Their ideas started with John Calvin in the 16th century and they first began to leave England in 1608. Later voyages came in 1620 with the Pilgrims and in 1629, which was the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
William Penn
Englishman and Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania (1644-1718)
The Federalist Party
1st Political party in american history. Supports new constitution led by George Washington, John Adams and Alexander Hamilton. Supported giving more power to the government and opposed increasing democracy, anti-French policy
Sumer
an area in the southern region of Babylonia in present-day Iraq
Legalism
strict conformity to the letter of the law rather than its spirit
Casualty
Any person, group, thing, etc. that is harmed or destroyed as a result of some act or event.
Silk Road
One of the major trading routes via land from Rome to China.
social hierarchy
its is a social class pyramid where the more powerful are on the top of the pyramid.
Indo-European Languages Similarities- Ancient Languages, Explanation, Differences
Period: Foundations: c.8000 B.C.E. - c. 600 B.C.E
{Cultural & Intellect. Trends/Technological Innovations}
*(18th & 19th cen.) similarities b/w lang. of Eu.,Persia & India were noticed
*Ancient lang. demonstrating similarities: Sanskrit (sacred lang. of Aryan India), O. Persia, Greek & Latin
*Explanation for similarities; speakers of Indo-Eu. lang. all descendants of ancestors who spoke common tongue & migrated from original land
*Devel. of indiv. comm. & lack of communication b/w them- explains evo. of diff. lang. & dialects
Nathaniel Bacon
Planter who led a rebellion in 1676 against the governor of the Virginia Colony
Brahmin
a member of the highest of the four Hindu varnas
Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro
The two major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization
sacred texts
texts that were said to be written by gods
Nile River Civilization- History, Women, Religion, Achievements
Period: Foundations: c.8000 B.C.E. - c. 600 B.C.E
{Society & People}
*Agri. settlements emerged as early as 5500 B.C.E. but Egypt. hist. begins when King Menes united Upper (Southern) & Lower (Northern) Egypt; Soc. ruled by pharaoh, considered incarnation of sun god who ctrl. access to Nile; many cities built in Mid. & N. Kingdom Periods & eco. network developed
*women responsible for handling household $ & edu. kids, had right to divorce, receive alimony, own property, manage business, become priestess; Hatshepsut - female pharaoh of Egypt
*Elaborate polytheistic rel. based on idea of life after death - subj. of rel. txt. the Egyptian "Book of the Dead", Chief deity, Re, Sun God; Worhipping dead led to mummification & building of tombs/pyramids
*Achievements; written lang. (Hieroglyphics), papermaking, field irrigation, bronze toold & weap., 365 day calendar, monumental archi (pyramid, temples)
Old Kingdom
2700 BC - 2200 BC. Upper and Lower Egypt kept separate kingdoms, but later built unified government. Developed basic features of its civilization. BUILT THE PYRAMIDS: an eternal resting place for their god-kings.
Aryans- Who, Migration, Economy, Use of Horses, Writing, Caste System
Period: Foundations: c.8000 B.C.E. - c. 600 B.C.E
{Society & People}
*Originally pastoral nomads who spoke Indo-Eu. Lang.
*Migrated S. through Hindu Kush mt. range (c.1500 B.C.E) & est. sm. comm. in N. India; replaced Harappan Civilization
*Limited agri, depended on pastoral eco. -prized herds of cattle
*Domesticated horses for transportation & war machine when attached to chariots
*Lit. & Rel. txt. memorized & passed down orally
*Over time developed complex caste sys. in large part influenced by contacts w/ indigenous ppl. & invaders
The Four Noble Truths
1. Life is Suffering (Symptom): man is mentally and emotionally ill, all life is sorrow. 2. The Cause of Suffering is Desire (Diagnosis) 3. Eliminate the desire (Prognosis): become totally attached from our likes and dislikes. 4. Apply 8-fold Path (Prescription)
stratification
social inequality
Golden Horde
conquered modern-day Russia
Mercantilism
Transactions (sales and purchases) having the objective of supplying commodities (goods and services), an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought.
Bureaucracy
Government by many bureaus, administrators, and petty officials.
Daoism(Taoism)
Practiced by some Chinese, it considered itself the way of nature, and that ambition brought only chaos to the world. It advocated passivity and simple lifestyles. It also produced several astronomers, chemists, and botanists due to its emphasis on harmony with nature.
Second triumvirate
After Caesar's death, another triumvirate composed of Octavius, Marc Antony, and Lepidus. About as successful as the first, Octavius seized control
Deism
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
Ziggurat
a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians
Causation
The relation of cause to effect.
Tax-farming
Where burden of tax collection was reassigned by the Roman State to private individuals or groups
Tikal
The most important mayan city, may have been populated by over 100,000 people
patriarchal
A system of family organization that was led by the eldest male. Used extensively in most to all major early civilizations
Navigation Acts
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
Navigation Laws
Promoted English shipping and control colonial trade; made Americans ship all non-British items to England before going to America
Massachusetts Bay Company
joint-stock company chartered by Charles I in 1629. It was controlled by Non-Separatists who took the charter with them to New England and, in effect, converted it into a written constitution for the colony.
Hunas
The group who attacked the Guptas, leading to their fall.
Aryans
nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system
Anyang
the ancient Chinese capital of the Shang Dynasty
Classical
Of or pertaining to, or characteristic of Greek and Roman antiquity.
City-State
A sovereign state consisting of an autonomous city with its dependencies
Schism
A split or division - especially a formal split within a Christian Church
Tenochtitlan
What is now Mexico City, an Aztec city.
patriarchy
a social system where the father is the head of a family, clan or tribe.
Bacon's Rebellion
A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land.
Protestant Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
The Lousiana Purchase
April 30th, 1803.
Livingston and James Monroe negotiated with Napolean on the purchase of the entire Louisiana Territory
It was bought for 80 million francs(or $15 million)
Benefits of the purchase included complete control of the Mississippi river, and new solid trade routes.
Julius Cesear
one of history's greatest generals and a key ruler of the Roman empire.
Barbarian
A person in a savage, primitive state, uncivilized person.
Alexander the Great
Philip of Macedon's son, taught by Aristotle. He widened Macedonian dominance by conquering the Persian Empire, Egypt, and moved to the shores of the Indus River, creating the largest empire of the time.
nun
a women that is under vows and 100% devoted to the church
Neolithic Era - Origins
Period: Foundations: c.8000 B.C.E. - c. 600 B.C.E
{Historical Connections}
*Earliest evidence of sedentary agri. b/w 10k & 8k B.C.E.; Called N. Stone Age (8000-5000B.C.E.) - origins of agri. soc.; domestication of ani. & crops; earliest method of cultivation was slash & burn agri.
*Earliest agri. soc. appeared in SW Asia, spread to Indi., Eu. & Asia; Mesoamerica & E. Asia most likely developed agri. techniques indep.; ppl. settled down & developed complex soc.
What two groups of african Americans does MLk point out
moderets and extremists
Chandra Gupta I
This emperor came to power peacefully in about AD 320 and his empire was called the Gupta Empire.
The Edict of Milan
This edict ended the persecution of Christianity in Rome. He built the city of Constantinople on the Greek city of Byzantium in his own honor
The Coercive Acts
Used to describe a series of laws passed by the British parliament. These laws created much anger and protest within the colonies. Some of the acts said that Massachusetts would be used as an example due to the Boston Tea Party while others dealt with the stamp act.
Indus River Civilization- Origin, Cities & Architecture, Trade, Decline
Period: Foundations: c.8000 B.C.E. - c. 600 B.C.E
{Society & People}
*Origin. Indus R. Valley (c.2500 B.C.E.)
*2 main cities (Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro) provide arch. evidence of soc.'s hist.; cities were well planned, fortified & uniformly constructed; uniform brick size indicates use of standard weights & measures
*Extensive evidence of long-distance trade- Indus Valley pottery found in Egypt; Sumerian products (olive oil) traded in region
*Speculation why civilization declined cont. b/c written lang. remains untranslated
Peloponnesian War
a war in which Athens and its allies were defeated by the league centered on Sparta
Paleolithic Era : Society- Social groups, warfare, religion
Period: Foundations: c.8000 B.C.E. - c. 600 B.C.E
{Society & People}
*Soc. grps: extended families grew into clans; clans mixed w/ neighboring groups to form tribes w/ sophisticated org. (includes chiefs, leaders & rel. figs)
*Org. warfare w/ weap.: rocks, clubs, knives, spears, axes, & bows and arrows
*Worship of deities; rel. rituals included sacrifices; expression through art & music (cave paintings & flutes); division of labor by gender (men hunted; women gathered)
Genghis Khan (Chingiss Khan)
unified Mongol tribes and set them on path of expansion
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