AP world history ID's Flashcards

Terms Definitions
patrilineal
father's line
abbasid
dynasty after umayyads
malinchista
a traitor (Spanish context)
Vedas
Early Indian sacred 'knowledge'-the literal meaning of the term-long preserved and communicated orally by Brahmin priests and eventually written down. (175)
demography
the study of population dynamics
Troy
Site in northwest Anatolia, overlooking the Hellespont strait, where archaeologists have excavated a series of Bronze Age cities. One of these may have been destroyed by Greeks ca. 1200 B.C.E., as reported in Homer's epic poems. (p. 76)
scalawags
southern whites who supported republican policy throughout reconstruction
Hatshepsut
Queen of Egypt (1473-1458 B.C.E.). Dispatched a naval expedition down the Red Sea to Punt (possibly Somalia), the faraway source of myrrh. There is evidence of opposition to a woman as ruler, and after her death her name was frequently expunged. (p.66)
Devi
mother goddess in Hinduism; encouraged emotionalism in religious ritual
Mark Twain
Midwestern writer and lecturer
Created a new style of American literature based on social realism and humor
Hinduism
religion with basis in Harappan society
Frankish
Unification of this western Europeans made possible Muslim defeat at Tours in circa 732
Ziggurat
a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians
Armenia
One of the earliest Christian kingdoms, situated in eastern Anatolia and the western Caucasus and occupied by speakers of the Armenian language. (p. 221)
Mycenaean society
definition: Greek civilization created by Indo- Europeans that lasted from 1600- 1100 BCE, during which large palaces were made, wars fought, trade established; earthquakes and invaders caused it to finally collapse
significance: beginnings of Greece, its fall led to the poleis
Babbitry
Smugness, middle class self satisfied narrow mindedness
Assumption
Hamilton's idea that the federal government would assume all state debts.
Know-Nothing Party
opposed to all immigration, strongly anti-Catholic, also called American Party
Zheng He
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa. (pp. 355, 422)
Bloody Sunday
1905, peaceful protest to Czar Nicholas II's palace, led by Father Gapon- fired on by palace guards, hundreds died- possibly start of revolution
Balfour Declaration
Statement issued by Britain's foreign secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
Republican Party
political party established in the United States in 1854 with the goal of keeping slavery out of the western territories
Euclid
A mathematician who produced what was long the world's most widely used compendium of geometry.
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
gurus
brahmans who were teachers for the princes of the imperial court of the guptas
Great Zimbabwe
A stone-walled enclosure found in Southeast Africa. Have been associated with trade, farming, and mining.
Koryo
Korean kingdom founded in 918 and destroyed by a Mongol invasion in 1259. (p. 292)
Saltwater Slaves
Slaves transported from Africa; almost invariably black.
yoga
a system of exercises practiced as part of the Hindu discipline to promote control of the body and mind
nawab
A Muslim prince allied to British India; technically, a semi-autonomous deputy of the Mughal emperor. (p. 657)
Roosevelt Coalition
refers to three constituencies whose votes enabled the Democratic Party to dominate national politics from the N ew D eal until the 1970s: the S olid S outh , organized labor, and blacks. The New Deal specifically tailored programs for southern economic development, securing labor's right to organize, and promoting equal employment opportunities for blacks. Southern whites and labor had long been Democratic supporters, but blacks only became a Democratic voting bloc in the 1930s. The coalition began crumbling in the 1960s with the Solid South's defection, and was defunct by 1994 because southern whites and blacks could not coexist politically.
Confucius
lived around 600 BCE; wrote "The Analects"; 5 relationships; aka Kong Fu Zi
Portugal
First country to encourage trading and exploration
Cordell Hull
Chief architect of the Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act of 1934. He also succeeded in negotiating pacts with 21 countries by the end of 1939. These pacts were essentially trade agreements that stated if the United States lowered its tariff, then the other country would do the same.
khipu
System of knotted colored cords used by preliterate Andean peoples to transmit information. (p. 312)
Memphis
The capital of Old Kingdom Egypt, near the head of the Nile Delta. Early rulers were interred in the nearby pyramids. (p. 43)
Ottoman conservatives resisted
Technological innovations such as the printing press and the telescope
Pericles
took last steps in the evolution of Athenian democracy.
Roman Catholic
The Christian religion of Europe that formed from Christianity's schism between the remains of the western and eastern Roman Empire; based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy
Korean War
Conflict that began with North Korea's invasion of South Korea and came to involve the United Nations (primarily the United States) allying with South Korea and the People's Republic of China allying with North Korea. (p. 836)
Hearts and Minds
winning over people (civilians) by convincing them you have their best interests at heart
22nd amendment
passed to limit the number of presidential terms in office to only two terms.
south north
Gold, slaves, ivory from *where* were exchanged for cloth, horses, salt and manufactures wares from *where*
Radical Republicans
Party during the Civil War. Wanted immediate emancipation. Introduced the confiscation acts (gave government the right to seize any slaves used for insurrectionary purposes, to liberate any save owned by someone who supported the South).
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
LA Purchase
Jeffeson called it "an empire for liberty" and questioned its constitutionality 1) yeomanry: farming, crops 2) husbandry: raises animals
Hierarchy
A social group arranged in ranks or classes
Dorothea Dix
Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums
Neil Dow
believed liquor should be removed by legislature; mayor of Portland and an employer of labor; "Father of Prohibition"; sponsored Maine Law of 1851
Baby Boom
The new generation had not lived through the Great Depression, and were experiencing a period of vast economic growth. The majority of the country was young. The gap between the ideals of old and young was larger than ever before.
 
 
 
 
52. Crops in the Middle Colonies
 
 
 
 
The middle colonies produced staple crops, primarily grain and corn.
William Berkley
Berkeley was the governor of Virginia for over thirty years. He and his policies were the targets of Bacon's Rebellion in 1676.
john c fremont
U.S. general and explorer: first Republican presidential candidate, 1856.
Protestant Work Ethic
committed to working hard & developing community in material & spiritual ways
alexander the great
successor of Philip of Macedon; 1st global empire, but no lasting bureaucracy; spread of Hellenism is greatest achievement
1003. Richard Ely (1854-1943)
He asserted that economic theory should reflect social conditions, and believed that the government should act to regulate the economy to prevent social injustice.
d
Which was a deterrent to the growth of nationalism in the United States?
A) The mobility of the population
B) The influx of immigrants in the 19th century
C) The Nineteenth Amendment
D) The compact theory of government
E) American literature
Boomtowns
A town that grew in mining areas where there were rushes. These usually didn't last because the gold usually ran out, or there was no gold at all.
Magna Carta
Great Charter issued by King John of England in 1215; confirmed feudal rights against monarchial claims; represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy
Church of England (Anglican Church)
church founded by Henry VIIi
House of Representatives
money bill begins here, choses the president if electoral college does not decide.
George III
Became King of England in 1760, and reigned during the American Revolution.
William and Mary
ended the Dominion of New England, gave power back to colonies
English Civil War
Charles I is beheaded, Oliver Cromwell takes over but Charles II (son of Charles I) is brought back and charters the Restoration Colonies
183. Edmund Burke (1729-1797)
A conservative British politician who was generally sympathetic to the colonists' greivances, and who felt that Britain's colonial policies were misguided. He also opposed the early feminist movements. He once said, "A woman is but an animal, and not an animal of the highest order."
"Corrupt Bargain"
The charge made by Jacksonians in 1825 that Clay had supported John Quincy Adams in the House presidential vote in return for the office of Secretary of State. Allegedly Clay knew he could not win and traded his votes for an office.
Darius I
Third ruler of the Persian Empire (r. 521-486 B.C.E.). He crushed the widespread initial resistance to his rule and gave all major government posts to Persians rather than to Medes.
Vasco de Gama
x, A Portugese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean and to have led the first voyage around the world
"40 Acres and a Mule"
Idea proposed by Northern General William Tecumseh Sherman which involved giving over land to blacks following his army in Georgia. More generally, refers to the desire for redistribution on land to the newly freed blacks.
Marbury vs. Madison
An 1803 court case in which the Supreme Court ruled that it had the power to decide whether a law passed by Congress was constitutional and reject laws it considered unconstitutional
Paul
A Jew from the Greek city of Tarsus in Anatolia, he initially persecuted the followers of Jesus but, after receiving a revelation on the road to Syrian Damascus, became a Christian. (156)
fugitive slave law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
The 12th ammendment
what?
why?
 
What?  If there is no majority of electoral vote the House of Representatives much choose between the top 3 candidates.  President and Vice President must run on the same ballot.
Why?  Andrew Jackson won popular vote, House of Representatives voted for John Quincy Adams “corrupt bargain”.  Adams won, Clay- Secretary of State. Although Adams won he did not have a good presidency.
pg. 887
P
Mcarthur
He was a general from WW2 and believed in outright battle which meant that when he was assigned to the task of the Cold war he would carry out these wrongful beliefs. Here he decided to not obey orders which was to simply carry troops of 3/8ths parrelel into northern korea if there was no USSR intervention. He violated these orders by tresspassing into manchuria and relentlessly advocating war against China once they responded with threats. He was fired for this reason
Maryland Act of Toleration
1649 - Ordered by Lord Baltimore after a Protestant was made governor of Maryland at the demand of the colony's large Protestant population. The act guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians.
Undeclared Naval War of 1798-1800
Followed XYZ affair. Formal war with France was avoided. Forced France to open negotiations.
Mason and Dixon Line
The Mason and Dixon line was perceived as a divider between free and slave states before the Civil War
819. Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), The Gospel of Wealth
Carnegie was an American millionaire and philanthropist who donated large sums of money for public works. His book argued that the wealthy have an obligation to give something back to society.
Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
In the spirit of the declaration of Independence declared that all men and women are created equal. One resolution demanded the ballot for women. This meeting launched the modern women's rights movement.
the Umayyads were threatened by all of the following developments EXCEPT
Muhammad's destruction of the Ka'ba
From March to June of 1940, Germany attacks what two places and begins to attack what two? Who surrendeds by june of 1940?
denmark, norway; netherlands, and belgium; france
156. Tea Act, East India Company
The Tea Act gave the East India Company a monopoly on the trade in tea, made it illegal for the colonies to buy non-British tea, and forced the colonies to pay the tea tax of 3 cents/pound.
How did radio and television change the effect of the media on political structures in the 1930s?
The use of radio broadcasts during the 1930s helped political parties and governments reach a bigger audience. Mass media made it possible to galvanize public opinion much more quickly on issues important to political candidates or government leaders.
1737
Walking Purchase
Dante
humanist, "Divine Comedy"
Columbus
Thought world was Round
W.E.B. DuBois
Black civil rights activist
Nathanael Greene
Quaker-reared tactician who distinguished self as American general by tactic of delay; stood then retreated continuously, exhausting his foe Cornwallis; succeeded in clearing most of Georgia and South Carolina of British troops; a.k.a. the "Fighting Quaker"
WCTU
womans christian temperance union: primary group who worked to get the 18th amendment passed
United Nations
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations. (p. 833)
ayan
the wealthy elite during Abbasid rule
James G. Birney
kentucky anti-slavery leader; presidential candidate of liberty party in 1840, free soil platform
messiah
(Heb. 'anointed') Savior or redeemer. Specifically, the Messiah was the descendant of King David expected by the Jews of ancient times to become their king, free them from foreign bondage, and rule over them in a golden age of glory, peace, and righteousness.
Feudal System
Independent of European System, instituted in Japan under the Tokugawa Shogunate
Judah
an ancient kingdom of southern Palestine with Jerusalem as its center
chiefdom
Form of political organization with rule by a hereditary leader who held power over a collection of villages and towns. Less powerful than kingdoms and empires, chiefdoms were based on gift giving and commercial links. (p. 311)
Lord Baltimore
(Calvert)Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
Ka'ba
("cube") a pre-islamic cubed building in mecca believed by muslims to have been built by Abraham. It is the center of the Muslim Pilgrimage
George Whitefield
Whitefield was the 27-year-old minister who worked to restore religious fervor to American congregations through his dramatic sermonizing. He arrived in 1739 in Philadelphia and soon had everyone talking of his eloquence.
Panic of 1819
bank tightened loan policies, depression rose throughout the country, hurt western farmers greatly
capitalism
The economic system of large financial institutions-banks, stock exchanges, investment companies-that first developed in early modern Europe. Commercially, the trading system of the early modern economy. (506)
Russo-Japanese War
(1904-1905) War between Russia and Japan over imperial possessions. Japan emerges victorious by a long run.
Tenochtitlan
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins.
Slave trade
European trade agreement with Africa dealing with slaves brought from Africa. Integral part of Triangle Trade between the Americas, Africa, and Europe.
Horace Mann
Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he was a prominent proponent of public school reform, and set the standard for public schools throughout the nation.
Suez Crisis
egypt took over British/French owned Suez Canal, possibly preventing oil trade, after UN / world pressure, Egypt withdrew
Propaganda
Information that is spread for the purpose of promoting some cause - greatly used in WWI
Minoans
One of the early proto-Greek peoples from 2600 BCE to 1500 BCE. Inhabitants of the island of Crete. Their site of Knossos is pictured above.
Blaise Diagne
Senegalese political leader. He was the first African elected to the French National Assembly. During World War I, in exchange for promises to give French citizenship to Senegalese, he helped recruit Africans to serve in the French army. (809)
Suriname
Formerly a Dutch plantation colony on the coast of South America; location of runaway slave kingdom in 18th century; able to retain independence despite attempts to crush guerilla resistance.
Mummification
A process of embalming and drying corpses to prevent them from decaying; practiced by the Egyptians who preserved the bodies in tombs so they could get the best of their afterlife
tsar
From Latin caesar, this Russian title for a monarch was first used in reference to a Russian ruler by Ivan III (r. 1462-1505). (pp. 340, 551)
King Philip's War
Conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists
Gender Equality
Women fought for equality. Femminine Mystique. Burning Bras.
president's advisors
Another term for the president's cabinet
George Creel
Headed the Committee on Public Information
Muhammad Ali
Leader of Egyptian modernization in the early nineteenth century. He ruled Egypt as an Ottoman governor, but had imperial ambitions. His descendants ruled Egypt until overthrown in 1952. (p. 652)
Mao Zedong
Leader of the Chinese Communist Party (1927-1976). He led the Communists on the Long March (1934-1935) and rebuilt the Communist Party and Red Army during the Japanese occupation of China (1937-1945). (789)
Navigation Acts
Colonial goods must travel on colonial ships. Goods going outside empire must travel through great britain. colonists must not compete with GB manufactured goods.
Chief Dragging Canoe
leader of the Cherokee Indians, launched a series of attacks on outlying white settlements in the summer of 1776. Through battle and treaty, the Cherokee were forced to give up most of their land to the Americans. involved lord dunmores war
Tiananmen Square
Site in Beijing where Chinese students and workers gathered to demand greater political openness in 1989. The demonstration was crushed by Chinese military with great loss of life.
Champa Rice
Quick-maturing rice that can allow two harvests in one growing season. Originally introduced into Champa from India, it was later sent to China as a tribute gift by the Champa state. (See also tributary system.) (p. 295)
Watergate
1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down
Adkins v. Children's Hospital
-Adkins, Children's Hospital, Taft's Court.
-1923
-District of Columbia. In America.
-Congress had a law that guaranteed a minimum wage to women and children employed in the District of Columbia. Did the law interfere with the ability of employers and employees to enter into contracts with each other without assuring due process of law, a freedom guaranteed by the 5th Amendment?
-The Court found that it would dangerously extend the police power of the state and thus, found it unconstitutional.
Han Dynasty
Silk road was established in *which* dynasty?
William Sherman
Commander under Grant for the Union during the civil war. Led armies through Vicksburg and through Georgia and the Carolinas, he suceeded Grant as General when Grant became president
American System
an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.
Good Behavior
term length for the supreme court justices; appointed for life
Confederacy
An alliance or league of nations or peoples looser than a federation.
Horatio Alger
Writer of novels stressing rags to riches stories of boys
Eli Whitney
an American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged
Molasses Act, 1733
British legislation which taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her colonies. The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of molasses from the Caribbean as part of the Triangular Trade. The British had difficulty enforcing the tax; most colonial merchants ignored it.
 
 
 
 
155. Lord North
 
Prime Minister of England from 1770 to 1782. Although he repealed the Townshend Acts, he generally went along with King George III's repressive policies towards the colonies even though he personally considered them wrong. He hoped for an early peace during the Revolutionary War and resigned after Cornwallis’ surrender in 1781.
The Half-Way Covenant
In 1662 clergymen proposed this covenant due to the increasing interest in matterial wealth instead of heavenly wealth.
-Allowed for church memebership to maintain
-ultimate goal was to assure the church would always have some kind of influence in society.
secession
the withdrawal from the Union of 11 Southern states in the period 1860–61, which brought on the Civil War.
Spoils System
"rotation in office" / the practice of victorious politicians rewarding their followers with government jobs
delian league
Pact joined in by Athenians and other Greeks to continue the war with Persia
1364. Common Market
Popular name for the European Economic Community established in 1951 to encourage greater economic cooperation between the countries of Western Europe and to lower tariffs on trade between its members.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
gospel of wealth
Book by Carnegie, rich have obligation to improve society. Carnegie and Rockefeller both made large contributions
Richard Nixon
he was elected to be US President after Johnson decided to not to run for US president again. He promised peace with honor in Vietnam which means withdrawing American soliders from South Vietnam.
Taxation: "Virtual and direct"
Direct taxation taxes an individual and their property, while virtual taxes are paid indirectly; such as taxes on goods and activities.
Thomas Hutchinson
believed the tea tax was unjust, but disagreed that the colonists had a right to rebel. He angered Bostons radicals when he ordered the tea ships not to clear the Boston harbor until they had unloaded their cargoes
new england town meetings
Democratic style of government. Towns and cities grew around gathering places, and allowed mass participation in politics.
Erie Canal
goods able to be transferred from New York to New Orleans by inland waterways
Alien and Sedition Acts
Federalists enacted these laws hoping to weaken political support for Democratic-Republicans (immigrants)
297. Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828)
American painter, most famous for painting the portrait of Washington which was copied for the one dollar bill.
Treaty of Ghent
-No More Fighting-Return to Pre Status Quo-Joint Commision for border dispute
Agricultural Revolution
The change from food gathering to food production that occurred between ca. 8000 and 2000 B.C.E. Also known as the Neolithic Revolution. (p. 17)
Social Contract
the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others
Land Act of 1820
authorized a buyer to purchase 80 virgin acres at a minimum of $1.25 per acre in cash, it also brought about cheap transportation and cheap money
Khubilai Khan (1215-1294)
Last of the Mongol Great Khans (r. 1260-1294) and founder of the Yuan Empire. (p. 351)
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution. (p. 586)
elastic clause
clause in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution that gives Congress the right to make all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers expressed in the other clauses of Article I
The original reason for the Monroe Doctrine
Reason?- 2
1.  Noncolonization
2. Nonintervention
He declared the era of colonization in the Americas had ended.
pg. 899
PE
Suez Crisis
Nasser of Egypt invoked this crisis by nationalizing the dam so that suddenly France and Britain no longer owned it, in response to this they attacked Eygypt. Not liking this the US used black mail in the form of not importing oil to these countries for this war for the last time. France and Britain pulled out.
Economically the Western countries realized their newfound dependence and subsequent weakness.
John J. Pershing
General who was assigned a front of 85 miles stretching from Swiss border to French lines
The American Crisis
A set of pamphlets by Thomas Paine to push up spirits of soldiers
The twin capitals for the first indian society were...
Harappa and Mojeno Darro
808. American Protective Association
A Nativist group of the 1890s which opposed all immigration to the U.S.
Federal Reserve Act
a 1913 law that set up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to control the money supply
Caroline and Creole Incidents
Caroline was a ship that was raided By British on the St. Lawrence When Americans rallied support to send weapons to instigate a Revolt. Creole was a slvae ship that was raided in the Bahamas by Slave, brought worry from the Slave Nations.
The allied strateg against japan in the pacific was known as _____, which involed attemtping to capture key locations to assist in caputuring japan. Throughout the first half of 1942, the japanese continued to conquer the pacific rim, including China, fre
island hopping; coral sea; australia; midway; hawaii; guadal canal
1540. H. R. Haldeman, John D. Ehrlichman, John W. Dean and John Mitchel
Men involved in the Watergate scandal, who took the fall for Nixon. Mitchel was Attorney General at the time.
Eli Whitney: cotton gin (short for "engine"), 1798
He developed the cotton gin, a machine which could separate cotton from its seeds. This invention made cotton a profitable crop of great value to the Southern economy. It also reinforced the importance of slavery in the economy of the South.
Muhammad's death
632
Catherine the Great
...
Thomas Nast
famous muckraking cartoonist
Shah was a
Persian imperial title
Politics/Control
purpose of cities in Mesoamerica
Bureaucracy
The officials who administer government
who started the parochial schools
irish
Charter
legal document giving certain rights to a person or company
Repartimento
Spanish labor system in Latin America,
supposed to replace the encomienda system, in which native communities were
compelled to provide laborers for the farms or mines and the Spanish employers were
expected to pay fair wages.
Andrew Carnegie
American industrialist who established the Carnegie Steel Company, took control of steel industry
Hepburn Act
Effective railroad-regulation law of 1906 that greatly strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Vandals
Barbarians who invaded the Roman empire, moved into Spain, the Vandal kng Geisseric moved into Northern Africa captured Carthage and was not defeated
Janissary
Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826. See also devshirme. (p. 526, 675)
Gullah
language developed by African workers so white masters could not understand them, hybrid of English and African, culturally a connection to Africa
umma
Community of the faithful within Islam; transcended old tribal boundaries to create degree of political unity. (p. 286)
 
 
 
 
57. Pennsylvania, Maryland, Rhode Island - founders established churches
 
 
Pennsylvania: Founded by William Penn, a Quaker, to provide protection for Quakers. Maryland: Formed as a colony where Catholics would be free from persecution. Rhode Island: Formed to provide a haven for all persecuted religions, including all Christian denominations and Jews.
bourgeois
a member of the middle class.
Richard Arkwright
English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin several threads at once. (604)
Democratic-Republicans
a political party started by Thomas Jefferson; believed in states' rights and an economy based on agriculture
Songhai
successor state to Mali; capital at Gao
yellow journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
Winston Churchill
British statesman and leader during World War II
VISTA
Volunteers in Service to America which sent volunteers to help people in poor communties
Sunni
Muslims belonging to branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership. The majority religion in most Islamic countries.(p. 225)
Hagia Sophia
Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world.
Mongols
defeated the Abbasid Dynasty in 1258; destroyed Baghdad
Manchuria
Region of Northeast Asia bounded by the Yalu River on the south and the Amur River on the east and north. (p. 354)
Kulak
Prosperous russian farmer. As a class the kulaks opposed Soviet collectivization of agriculture
Gag Rule
1835-1844 - stopped any anti-slavery discussion in Congress
Pendleton Act
Reform passed by Congress that restricted the spoils system
Sylvester Graham
founder of the Graham cracker; emphasized a whole-wheat bread and cracker diet
guiteau
1881 a stalwart who killed Garfield because he didn't get the job he wanted. (chester a. arthur became president after garfield died.
pg. 924-925
PSI  
 
 
 
Voting Rights Act 1965
LBJ passed this legislation in response to the ballot-denying devices that didn't allow blacks to vote. e.g. literacy tests
Exactly 100 years after civil war this was passed, it was the result of extreme violence and opression to civil rights activists. They were killed for peaceful protest and the whites were acquited of their crimes
This also marked the end of peaceful civil rights revolution. Martin luther is demeaned as "the Lawd"
When did the Paleolithic Age end?
12,000 BCE
Vietnam War
Conflict pitting North Vietnam and South Vietnamese communist guerrillas against the South Vietnamese government, aided after 1961 by the United States. (p. 838)
Clinton's party
VP - Gore, SS - Christopher, Albright
clayton antitrust act
law that weakened monopolies and upheld the rights of unions and farm organizations
Judiciary Act 1801
This Act created 16 federal judgeships, the act promised to relieve Supreme Court justices of the burden of riding far from Washington to hear cases. However, it threatened both to strip Jefferson of his first opportunity to appoint a justice and to perpetuate Federalist domination of the judiciary.
oligarchy
a political system governed by a few people
Articles of Confederation
a national constitution that was debated by congress for over a year. All states were required to approve the Articles before they would go into effect. Were put into effect in March 1781
National Youth Administration
(FDR) , (NYA)1935, provided education jobs counseling and recreation for young people. part time positions at schools for students allowed for aid in h.s. college and grad school. part time jobs for drop outs
Pax Romana
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 1st and 2nd centuries C.E.
Poincare-
A French prime minister who was pissed cuz the british were willing to delay the debts that Germany owed but he was not. Thus after getting really pissed he got the Belgium chags to go with his French empire and acquire Ruhr. This lead to German unemployment.
Rock Paintings
paintings of the San peoples of southern Africa; evidence of aboriginal people lived in the area for ten thousand years
Napoleon Bonaparte
. Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile. (p. 591)
zero sum
total economic gains equal to tatal losses of wars for empire
Half-way Covenant
The Half-way Covenant applied to those members of the Puritan colonies who were the children of church members, but who hadn't achieved grace themselves. The covenant allowed them to participate in some church affairs.
electoral college
the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president
Cyrus McCormick
In 1831 he invented the first successful reaping machine 4: 1825-1865
Convention Peoples Party
Political party established by Kwame Nkrumah in opposition to British control of colonial legislature in Gold Coast.
Jefferson's Democracy
Nation governed by Middle and Upper Class property holders who were educated, and government have a balance with the service that it provided
The region that saw some of the Revolution's most bitter fighting, from 1780 to 1782, between American General Greene and British General Cornwallis.
South
animosity
a feeling of strong dislike, ill will, or enmity that tends to display itself in action:
Mansa Kankan Musa
Ruler of Mali (r. 1312-1337). His pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca in 1324-1325 established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world. (p. 376)
boston massacre
1770- a customs house in boston where they collected all taxes and duties of these newtaxes- and sons of liberties are confrontational grtoup- thye target customs house- infront was a british soldier- little peace of sport for guys who work aat the docks in boston- when they got of wrk for entertainment they would throw snow balls at the british guard- these snowballs had rocks in them- the guard gets knocked down he gets up and calls for back up-10-12 come out to support him with their muskets and bayonets-somebody gets pushed around and a shot goes off- all soldiers fire a volley into colonists- 5 killed 8 wounded
896. Chivington Massacre
November 28, 1861 - Colonel Chivington and his troops killed 450 Indians in a friendly Cheyenne village in Colorado.
Little Ice Age
A century-long period of cool climate that began in the 1590s. Its ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable. (p. 462)
Technological Trade within Eastern Hemisphere
Technological advances such as compass, the lateen sail, and the astrolabe led to increasing travel in the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, and the Indian Ocean
Boston Associates
The Boston Associates were a group of Boston businessmen who built the first power loom. In 1814 in Waltham, Massachusetts, they opened a factory run by Lowell. Their factory made cloth so cheaply that women began to buy it rather than make it themselves.
stalingrad
city in russia, site of a Red Army victory over the Germany army in 1942-1943. the battle of stalingrad was the turning point in the war between germany and the soviet union. Today Volgograd
Treaty of Greenville
This treaty between the Americans and the Native Americans. In exchange for some goods, the Indians gave the United States territory in Ohio. Anthony Wayne was the American representative.
Panay incident
A Japanese attack on the United States Navy gunboat USS Panay while she was anchored in the Yangtze River outside Nanking (now known as Nanjing) on December 12, 1937. Japan and the United States were not at war at the time. The Japanese claimed that they did not see the United States flags painted on the deck of the gunboat, apologized, and paid an indemnity. Nevertheless, the attack and the subsequent Allison incident in Nanking caused U.S. opinion to turn against the Japanese.
Society of the Cincinnati
Group of Continental Army officers formed a military order in 1783. They were criticized for their aristocratic ideals.
 
 
 
 
58. Great Awakening (1739-1744)
 
 
Puritanism had declined by the 1730s, and people were upset about the decline in religious piety. The Great Awakening was a sudden outbreak of religious fervor that swept through the colonies. One of the first events to unify the colonies.
Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king.
English Civil War
National Organization of Women
founded by Betty Friedan, Bella Abzug, and Aileen Hernandez; lobbied for equal opportunity for women
934. In Re Debs
1894 - Eugene Debs organised the Pullman strike. A federal court found him guilty of restraint of trade, stopping US mail, and disobeying a government injunction to stop the strike. He later ran for president as a candidate of the Social Democratic Party.
maroon
A slave who ran away from his or her master. Often a member of a community of runaway slaves in the West Indies and South America. (p. 505)
1919 Strikes
A series of strikes had hit the United States as unions attempted to gain higher wages to adjust for wartime inflation.
Stalin's second five-year plan
Intended to increase the output of consumer goods
Depression of 1893
This was a panic marked by the collapse of railroad overbuilding and shaky railroad financing which set off a series of bank failures. Compounding market overbuilding and the railroad bubble, was a run on the gold supply (relative to silver), because of the long-established American policy of Bimetalism, which used both silver and gold metals at a fixed 16:1 rate for pegging the value of the US Dollar. Until the Great Depression, it was considered the worst depression the United States had ever experienced.
466. Amana Community
A German religious sect set up this community with communist overtones. Still in existence.
The Prophet Who
The twin brother of the Shawnee Indian Tecumseh Where and When: Banded together many of the tribes along the Mississippi River in 1811 to stop the white settlers from pushing farther into the western wilderness. The groups of braves forswore firewater in order to be fit for the last-ditch battle with the whites. Significance: The war hawk Congress sent General William H. Harrison to repel a surprise attack at Tippecanoe and burn the settlement. The war hawks began to feel that the only way to remove Indian menace was to wipe out their Canadian base
225. Constitution: Checks and balances
Each of the three branches of government "checks" (ie, blocks) the power of the other two, so no one branch can become too powerful. The president (executive) can veto laws passed by Congress (legislative), and also chooses the judges in the Supreme Court (judiciary). Congress can overturn a presidential veto if 2/3 of the members vote to do so. The Supreme Court can declare laws passed by Congress and the president unconstitutional, and hence invalid.
Fishing, Shipbuilding, and Commerce
the three most important trades of New England
Federal Reserve Act (of 1913)
Act supported by Woodrow Wilson which established a system of district banks coordinated by a central board. Made currency and credit more elastic.
1164. Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey
1920's sports heros, Ruth set the baseball record of 60 home runs in one season and Dempsey was the heavyweight boxing champion.
531. Treaty of Guadelupe Hildago provisions
This treaty required Mexico to cede the American Southwest, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California, to the U.S. U.S. gave Mexico $15 million in exchange, so that it would not look like conquest.
7 (French and Indian) Years War
Fought both in continental Europe and also in overseas colonies between 1756 and 1763; resulted in Prussian seizures of land from Austria, English seizures of colonies in India and North America.
Learned quickly, could add vowels to use in communication without needing to memorize
Why was the Phoencian alphabet so beneficial to the Greeks?
177. Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, Robert Livington
These men, along with John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, made up the committee which drafted the Declaration of Independence.
the gap between the rich and the poor grew dangerously large
As the Han dynasty became more powerful and wealthy
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