AP World History Key Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
John Locke
...
Spanish Civil War
1936-1937
Election of 1860
Abraham Lincoln
ulama
orthodox religious scholars within islam
Pendleton Act
hiring based on merit
mudslinging
slander; Jefferson- affairs with slaves John Adams- aristocratic
Bronze Metallurgy
copper alloyed with tin
Troubadours
Minstrels who were treated like royalty
Persepolis (Parsa)
Show that government officials distributed food and other essential commodities to large numbers of workers of many different nationalities.
city-state
A small independent state consisting of an urban center and the surrounding agricultural territory. A characteristic political form in early Mesopotamia, Archaic and Classical Greece, Phoenicia, and early Italy. (p. 32)
native slaves die off
solution: get ******s
compact
Form or make of close union
keiretsu
Alliances of corporations and banks that dominate the Japanese economy. (p. 861)
Politburo
Executive committee of the Soviet Communist party; 20 members.
Mongols
Central Asian nomadic peoples; smashed Turko-Persian kingdoms; captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed last Abbasid caliph. (p. 317)

Antifederalists
they argue that:
 
 
It gave too much power to the national government at the expense of the state governments.
 
 

There was no bill of rights.
 
 

The national government could maintain an army in peacetime.
 
 

Congress, because of the `necessary and proper clause,' wielded too much power.
 
 

The executive branch held too much power.
eradication
to remove or destroy utterly; extirpate:
variolation
The technique of enhancing immunity by exposing patients to dried mucous taken from those already infected. (p. 559)
Korean War
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
Indulgence
the forgiveness of the punishment due for past sins, granted by the Catholic Church authorities as a reward for a pious act. Martin Luther's protest against the sale of these is often seen as touching off the Protestant Reformation.
Yellow Fever
Walter Reed discovers that yellow fever is transmitted by mosquitoes. Without this discovery the Panama Canal would not have been possible since so many people died from yellow fever while around the standing water where mosquitoes breed.
mestizo
The term used by Spanish authorities to describe someone of mixed Amerindian and European descent. (p. 484)
Dean Acheson
United States statesman who promoted the Marshall Plan and helped establish NATO (1893-1971)
Embargo
An attempt to withhold good from export in order to influence the policies of the former purchasers.
Mazarin
Chief minister and regent to Louis XIV; tried to continue Richelieu's centralizing policies, but his attempts to increase royal revenue led to the civil wars known as the Fronde; He could not control nobility as Richelieu had.
Huns
large nomadic group from northen Asia that invaded areas from China to Eastern Europe
creoles
In colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World. Elsewhere in the Americas, the term is used to describe all nonnative peoples. (p. 482)
Astrolabe
Instrument ised to find the altitude of the sun or stars
Pueblo
means "village" in Spanish; lived in Rio Grande River Valley
Akbar
Akbar ruled the Mughal Empire from 1556-1605 and expanded the empire via a conciliation with Hindus.
Humanists(Renaissance)
Deals with the indvidual thing instead of the whole group.
Greenwich Village
A seething cauldron of writers, painters, musicians, actors, and artists
Ethan Allen
Green Mountain Boys Vermont, cannons from Fort Ticonderoga
Nirvana
The Buddhist state of enlightenment, a state of tranquility
Confederation of the Rhine
loose grouping of German states
Compromise of 1850
(MF) by Daniel Webster, California wanted to join the Union, but if California was accepted the North would gain control of the Senate, and Southerners threatened to secede from the Union. This compromise set up California joining the Union as a free state, New Mexico and Utah use popular sovereignty to decide the question of slavery, slave trading is banned in the nation's capital, The Fugitive Slave Law is passed, and the border between Texas and New Mexico was set.
zimmermann telegram
January 1917 the British intercepted a telegram from the German government to the Mexican government offering German support if Mexico declared war against the US; offered to return land Mexico lost the US
Hessians
German soldiers hired by George III to smash Colonial rebellion, proved good in mechanical sense but they were more concerned about money than duty.
trade diasporas
the relocation of a large population of a particular people group from one place to another triggered by economics.
Bonus Army
final blow to Hoover administration, a group of 20,000 veterans camped in makeshift shantytowns in Washington to lobby for payment of their deferred insurance bonus. Congress vetoed a bill and Hoover was left w/ the responsibility of disbanding the veterans. He managed to arrange transportation for some but others were directed to leave refused and the army was called to evict them, which was done with unnecessary force.
Haiti DIlemma
(RR) 1990s, had 30 year dictatorship, soon ends, then Bertrand Aristide overthrows with military, and UN awith US use mandate to restore constituional rule and Aristide's presidency.
Thirty
Years' War War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia.
Toulouse Lautrec
French artist, The Reception room in the Brothel on the Rue des Moulins. (806) Wealthy nobleman disabled by accident, combines creativity and debauchery. Ironic.
Laws of "free incorporation"
Meant businessmen could created businesses without applying for individual charters from legislature.
Daniel Tompkins
James Monroe's VP for two terms; involved in scandal where he allegedly stole money from NY, so he wasn't in the 1824 election
U.S. Steel
went on strike because they were overworked and to many hours, but public did not like it.
Maryland Act of Toleration
guaranteed toleration to all Christians, not Jews or atheists; passed in 1649 by local representative assembly
anti-federalist
a person who opposed a strong national government
Balfour Declaration
The British promised support for a Jewish settlement in the Middle East in the
Byzantine Empire
Eastern half of Roman Empire following collapse of western half of old empire; retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek; later lost Palestine, Syria, and Egypt to Islam; capital at Constantinople
Upper Egypt
Southern Egypt that is called Upper Egypt because the Nile flows North
River Valley that also led the overthrow of the Dominion of New England in America
Glorious Revolution
monogamy
marriage with only one person at a time.
Anne Hutchinson
Anne Hutchinson was a dissenter in the Massachusetts Bay Colony who caused a schism in the Puritan community. Eventually, Hutchinson's faction lost out in a power struggle for the governorship. She was expelled from the colony in 1673 and traveled southward with a number of her followers, establishing the settlement of Portsmouth, Rhode Island
pontiacs rebellion
broke out right after fall of quebec the ottahuas were french allies and they taught since th efrench were gone the english were gonna kill them- so they started rebeelion lead by chief pontiac
798. Boss Tweed
Large political boss and head of Tammany Hall, he controlled New York and believed in "Honest Graft".
Royal African Company
A trading company chartered by the English government in 1672 to conduct its merchants' trade on the Atlantic coast of Africa. (p. 507)
Eleanor Roosevelt
FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women
Aaron Burr
A political leader who served as vice president of the United States in the first term of Thomas Jefferson (1801-1805). After he killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel, his career declined. He was later involved in a bizarre conspiracy to sever the western states and territories from the Union. He was tried for treason but was acquitted.
Jimmy Carter
Called for "Peace in the MIddle East", Created Department of Energy, President during Three Mile Island incident
prehistory vs. history
the time before written records. all that is remembered of the past as preserved in writing
Headright system
parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Salary Grab Act
1873 50% retroactive pay increase for public officials
 
 
 
 
246. Slavery and the Constitution: slave trade, 3/5 Clause
 
 
 
The South’s slave trade was guaranteed for at least 20 years after the ratification of the Constitution. Slaves were considered 3/5 of a person when determining the state population.
English revolt that also led to the overthrow of the Dominion of New England in America
Glorious Revolution
Cult of Domesticity
women believed to belong in the home, scientific evidence, widespread in magazines and TV
1146. KDKA, Pittsburgh
One of the first radio stations to pioneer in commercial radio broadcasting in 1920. By 1922 there were 508 radio stations.
Ex Parte Merryman
A court case that stated that the suspension of habeas corpus was unconstitutional without an act of Congress (in response to Lincoln negating habeas corpus in order to arrest anti-Unionists during the war)
Post Hundred Years' war
France and England raised armies and levied taxes after .....
The Old Northwest
Ohio River Valley; govt wanted to sell (needed money to pay off national debt)
Voting Rights Act of 1965
A landmark piece of national legislation in the United States that outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the U.S.
652. Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan
Former Confederate states would be readmitted to the Union if 10% of their citizens took a loyalty oath and the state agreed to ratify the 13th Amendment which outlawed slavery. Not put into effect because Lincoln was assassinated.
Glorious Revolution
In 1688, James II was exiled in order to secure English Protestantism and Parliament's power. In the colonies, the Glorious Revolution resulted in the collapse of the Dominion of New England and in several colonial rebellions against James II's appointed governors.
1041. "Dollar Diplomacy"
Taft and Knox cam up with it to further foreign policy in the U.S. in 1909-1913 under the Roosevelt Corollary. It was meant to avoid military intervention by giving foreign countries monetary aid.
National Organizatoin for Women
founded by Betty Friedan in 1966, it focused on womens rights in the workpace, fought against legal and economic discrimination against woemn, and lobbied for the equal rights ammendment
. Harpers Ferry (1859)
Brown aimed to create an armed slave rebellion and establish black free state; Brown executed and became martyr in the North
280. Election of 1796: President Adams, Vice-president Jefferson
The first true election (when Washington ran, there was never any question that he would be elected). Adams was a Federalist, but Jefferson was a Democratic-Republican.
1057. Clayton Antitrust Act, labor's Magna Carta
1914 - Extended the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 to give it more power against trusts and big business. It outlawed practices that had a dangerous likelihood of creating a monopoly, even if no unlawful agreement was involved.
Many racist ideas of the ruling minority were adopted into laws
Which statement best characterizes the period of apartheid in South Africa?
Name where the chief Dutch trading fortress and port are located in Southeast Asia.
At Batavia on the island of Java
In regard to state building in West Africa, it can be said that Ghana was
the first great commercial state there.
Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints
the Mormons; sought to create a "New Jerusalem"; taught that every man and woman should aspire to become like a god and that family structure was very important.
Uskorenie
"Acceleration"
Russo-Japanese War
...
Germaine Greer
Female Eunuch
Rockefeller forms Standard Oil
1870
Mullahs
state-sponsored local mosque officals and prayer leaders
apportionment
Distribution of representatives among the states based on the population of each state
sovereignty
government free from external control
Yao Dynasty:
various Bantu-speaking peoples inhabiting southernmost Tanzania
Disraeli, Benjamin
Leading conservative political figure in Britain in the second half of the 19th century; took initiative of granting vote to working-class males in 1867; typical of conservative politician making use of popular politics.
confederate strengths
able generals-lee defensively home turf close supplies fight for homes, agriculture for food, skilled soldiers, knew the territory (defending own lands)
1643-1715CE
Louis XIV in France; absolute monarchy
Boxer Rebellion
Anti-foreign movement in China, against our economic expansion.
European Community
An organization promoting economic unity in Europe formed in 1967 by consolidation of earlier, more limited, agreements. Replaced by the European Union (EU) in 1993.
Jacques Cartier
France 1534
claimed canada for france
Protestant Reformation
permanent division in western Christendom (began in 1517)
The ______ practiced human sacrifice in order to dealy the final destruction of the world
aztecs
Tehran Conference*
(FDR) December, 1943, a meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace
bodhisattvas
Buddhist holy men; built up spiritual merits during their lifetime; prayers even after death could aid people to achieve reflected holiness.
Chandragupta Maurya
founder of Maurya dynasty; established firsrt empire in Indian subcontinent; first centralized government since Harappan civilization; governmental bureaucracy; National Postal System
European-style family
Emerged in 15th century; involved later marriage age and a primary emphasis on the nuclear family.
Yasser Arafat
Leader of the Palestinian Liberation Organization
Loyalists
(Tories) Colonials loyal to the king during the American Revolution.
6.9 Marcus Garvey; UNIA
Publisher, journalist, orator. Proponent of black nationalism. UNIA is Universal Negro Improvement Association. "Garveyism" inspired mass movement back to Africa.
Abolitionists
Those who wanted to abolish slavery; mostly Northerners; some assisted Railroad
Isolationism
a foreign policy that shuns alliances and compacts with other countries
Albert Einstein
German physicist who developed the theory of relativity, which states that time, space, and mass are relative to each other and not fixed.
Francisco Franco
Spanish general whose armies took control of Spain in 1939 and who ruled as a dictator until his death (1892-1975).
redundant
repetition of same sense in different words
Qutb-ud-din Aibak
Lieutenant of Mahmud of Ghur; established kingdom in India with capital at Delphi; proclaimed himself Sultan of india
chartered company
association formed by investors or shareholders for the purpose of trade, exploration and colonization.
George McClellan
union general, 1st commander, overly cautious, fired by Lincoln
October Revolution
Bolsheviks seize power from Russian provisional government in the name of all Soviets
Mughal Dynasty
controlled most of India during sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; greatest leader was Abkar (1560-1605)--brought more of N and C India under his control, established bureaucracy, patronized the arts, encouraged cooperation between Hindus and Muslims; Taj Mahal constructed
swathe
a long strip or large area especially of land
Ex: Cities such as Bombay and Calcutta were directly governed by the Raj, as were the coast and large swathes of the interior. (B.275)
Organization of American States
WHO: US
WHAT:an association of countries in the western hemisphere in Europe; they promoted economic, social and other things from there to prevent communism
WHEN:1950-1960
WHERE: W. Hemisphere
WHY: It was our base countries out of Europe
Hinton Helper
author of Impending Crisis of the South
Alexander Dubcek
Czech man who launched a "democratic socialist revolution", the Prague Spring
Buzurg ibn Shahriyar
definition: A storytelling mariner who came from the emporium of Siraf on the Persian Gulf
significance: Demonstrated trade influenced in India
Agrarian revolution
occurred between 8000 and 5000 B.C.E.; transition from hunting and gathering to sedentary agriculture.
La Reforma
The name given to the liberal rebellion of Benito Juárez against the forces of Santa Anna.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Ruled and legalized segregation in "separate but equal"
Protestant Ethic
the extolling of work and the abhorence of waste by Calvinists and their decendants. Connected in the United States eith the Puritans
Commercial Revolution
the expansion of the trade and buisness that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries.
the only place were a slave revolt actually brought about an end to slavery was
Saint-Dominuge
Charlemagne
King of the Franks (emperor); est. the Carolingian empire through a series of conquests, sponsered a brief intellectual revival (although illiterate himself)
Slav
any member of the people of eastern Europe or Asian Russia who speak a Slavonic language
Quebec Act
1774 act that angered colonists and anticatholics because it extended the canadian territory which was inhabited by mostly catholics
fidel castro
1. led the cuban revolution against batista.
2. established a communist dicatatorship in cuba.
ebeneezer howard
was responsible for the blueprint for a suburban utopia
Oregon Trail
the major route west which stretched from INdependence, Missouri across the Great Plains and through the South Pass of the Rock Mountains.
Mass Leisure Culture
An aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; decreased time at work and offered opportunities for new forms of leisure time, such as vacation time and team sports
Haymarket Square
Labor disorders had broken out and on May 4 1886, the Chicago police advanced on a protest; alleged brutalities by the authorities. Suddenly a dynamite bomb was thrown that killed or injured dozens, including police. It is still unknown today who set off the bomb, but following the hysteria, eight anarchists (possibly innocent) were rounded up. Because they preached "incendiary doctrines," they could be charged with conspiracy. Five were sentenced to death, one of which committed suicide; the other three were given stiff prison terms. Six years later, a newly elected Illinois governor recognized this gross injustice and pardoned the three survivors. Nevertheless, the Knights of Labor were toast: they became (incorrectly )associated with anarchy and all following strike efforts failed.
Oklahoma
Admitted to the Union in 1907 as "the Sooner State."
Dwight D. Eisenhower
1953-1961: , leader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2--leader of troops in Africa and commander in DDay invasion-elected president-president during integration of Little Rock Central High School
Specie Circular
Issued by Jackson - attempt to stop states from speculating land with money they printed that was not backed by anything - required land speculation in speci; Provided that in payment for public lands, the government would accept only gold or silver
Mason Dixon Line
Line that separated slave states from Free states
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in the pacific theater of World War II.
foot binding
in the song dynasty women had their feet bound at birth to keep them small because big feet were considered ugly and masculine
Populist Party
Founded 1891 - called for free coinage of silver and paper money, national income tax, direct election of senators, regulation of railroads, and other government reforms to help farmers
Pinckney Treaty 1795
Spain agreed to open the mississippi river and new orleans to american trade
French and Indian War
the English gained control over Florida in the aftermath of the French and Indian War and immediately started populating it with settlers from the north. It was also known as the seven years war. 1: 1607-1763
Cold War Renewwed
(RR), 1985, Reagan believe SALT II Treaty favored Soviet Union - evil, soon Mikhail Gorbachev party leadership, Reagan's view caused anxieties among America's Western European allies, antinuclear demonstrations in Europe start, the Yuri Andropov proposed arms reduction that he knew Reagan would reject, he wanted to corrupt Europe's and US's relations, but that didn't really work
Presidential Nominating Conventions
(GF) 1976, James E. Carter and Ronald Reagan
Bonanza
No. 1 TV show for several years in the 60's, depicted gold rush life.
Thomas Jefferson
1. He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress
2. wrote the Declaration of Independence.
3. He later served as the third President of the United States.
Francois Dominique Tousaint L'ouverture
Leader of the Haitian Revolution. He freed the slaves and gained effective independence for Haiti despite military interventions by the British and French.
Poor Richard's Almanac
This was a book written by Benjamin Franklin. It contained many aphorisms, or witty sayings that offered advice. It was more widely read in America than anything except the Bible. It was just another example of how influential Benjamin Franklin was.
Connecticut (Great Compromise)
Comprised of 2 houses: à Upper: 2 representatives per state; appeased smaller states. àLower: states represented on the base of population, appeasing the larger states. 3: 1775-1825
Rosie the Riveter
symbol of American women who went to work in factories during the war
Lord De la Warr
An Englishman who came to America in 1610. He brought the Indians in the Jamestown area a declaration of war from the Virginia Company. This began the four year Anglo-Powhatan War. De la Warr brought in "Irish tactics" to use in battle with the Indians.
What were the overall worldwide economic trends in the post-classical era?
Changes in trade networks resulted from and stimulated increasing productive capacity, with important implications for social and gender structures and environmental processes. Productivity rose in both agriculture and industry. Rising productivity supported population growth and urbanization but also straned environmental resources and at times caused dramatic demographic swings. Shifts in production and the increased volume of trade also stimulated new labor practices, including adaptation of existing patterns of free and coerced labor. Social and gender structures evovled in response to these changes.
Hawley Smoot Tariff
(HH) 1930 , charged a high tax for imports thereby leading to less trade between America and foreign countries along with some economic retaliatio, HIGHEST EVER
What pre-existing labor systems develop during the post-classical era?
As in the previous period, the main forms of labor organization includedfree peasant agriculture, nomadic pastoralism, craft production and guild organization, along with various forms of coerved and unfree labor and government imposed labor taxes and military obligations.
What is a city-state? Which early civilizations had city-states? Which classical had city-states?
Independent cith with a diff. gov., same culture.
Mesopotamia.
Greece b/c of geography
In what ways did the growth of the RRS contribute to the passing of the frontier
it split the western buffalo herd and brought hunters west, it led to the setting up of cow towns, and it sold excess land near RR tracks to settler
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