AP World History Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Polis
City-state
Han
separate Japanese territories
3rd century crisis
Roman crisis
Fatehpur Sikri
Akbar's capital city
Gauchos
Argentine cowboys, highly romanticized figures
Natural Laws
Principles that govern nature
Tanzimat
'Restructuring' reforms by the nineteenth-century Ottoman rulers, intended to move civil law away from the control of religious elites and make the military and the bureacracy more efficient. (p. 678)
hegemony
leadership or predominant influence exercised by one nation over others, as in a confederation.
Declaratory Act
1766 parliament had absolute power
daoism
philosophical system developed by of Laozi advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
Yorktown
where Cornwallis was forced to surrender his entire force of seven thousand men on October 19, 1781 to Washington and de Grasse
Sandino,
Augusto Led a guerrilla resistance movement against U.S. occupation forces in Nicaragua; assassinated by Nicaraguan National Guard in 1934; became national hero and symbol of resistance to U.S. influence in Central America.
neoclassical
Major Western artistic style from 1600s to 1800s. Symmetry, Greek/ Roman influence, patterns, simple in color
Antietam
the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation and France and Great Britian no longer willing to aide south
Ethiopia
east African highland nation lying east of the Nile River.
puritanism
English religious belief that stemmed from teachings of Calvin: wanted to purify the church of England of its surviving Catholic ceremonies and vestments.
By 1940, ______,_______,and______joined togerther as allies in the tripartite pact and would be known as the axis powers.
germany, italy, and japan
Pericles
Aristocratic leader who guided the Athenian state through the transformation to full participatory democracy for all male citizens. (130)
Reaganomics
(RR) The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side(cut income taxes), and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth, umemployed started going back to work
abu bakr
one of muhammad's earliest converts; first caliph of islamic community
highest class of Mesopotamia
royalty, high-ranking officials, warriors, priests, merchants, artisans
Nullification Proclamation
South Carolina nullified the tariff making Jackson extremely mad. So Jackson proclaimed this. It denounced South Carolina's action. After this congress passed the Force Bill
South Carolina
colony in which black slaves outnumbered white slaves 2 to 1
African National Congress
Group founded by western-educated lawyers and journalists in South Africa to defend the interests of Africans.
William Tennant
A strong Presbyterian minister and leader during the Great Awakening. Founded a college for the training of Presbyterian ministers in 1726.
21st Amendment
Ratified 1933, repeals 18th amendment ending Prohibiton
Chiang Kai-Shek
General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong. (p. 788)
Sarmiento
leader who brought many political and social reforms to Argentina
Five Nations
The federation of tribes occupying northern New York: the Mohawk, the Oneida, the Senecca, the Onondaga, and the Cayuga. The federation was also known as the "Iriquois," or the League of Five Nations, although in about 1720 the Tuscarora tribe was added as a sixth member. It was the most powerful and efficient North American Indian organization during the 1700s. Some of the ideas from its constitution were used in the Constitution of the United States.
david farragut
Union naval admiral whose fleet captured New Orleans and Baton Rouge
virtual rep
br argument that american colonies were represented in parliament, since the members of parliament represented all englishmen in the empire.
James Madison
Architect of the Virgina Plan, anymously authored the Federalist Papers in support of his plan, and remains among the more genius politicians in American history.
Republicanism
The theory of Republicanism was that the government was under the authority of the people it governs. The power in the peoples hand's is the basis for Democracy. The writers of the constitution used the Republicanism theory.
privatizing
to transfer from public or government control or ownership to private enterprise:
Tariff of Abominations
under JQ Adams, protectionist tariff, South considered it the source of economic problems, made Jackson appear to advocated free trade
monotheism
Belief in a single divine entity. The Israelite worship of Yahweh developed into an exclusive belief in one god, and this concept passed into Christianity and Islam. (102)
panic of 1873
Economic panic caused by overexpansion and overspeculation, causing the nation's largest bank to collapse (and bringing with it many smaller banks, business firms and the stock market)
United Nations
FDR, more effective than League of Nations
Imperialism
the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies.
Peace Corps
Kennedy proposed this which was an army of volunteers to bring help to underdeveloped countries
Nationalism
a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
Hundred Years' War
(1337-1453) Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.
Saybrook Platform
It organized town churches into county associations which sent delegates to the annual assembly which governed the colony of Connecticut.
Truman Doctrine
a US foreign policy doctrine of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology as part of the policy of containment of communism
James Polk
11th President of the United States, the eleventh President of the United States. He threatened war with Britain then backed away and split the ownership of the Northwest with Britain. He is even more famous for leading the successful Mexican-American War. annexed texas
karma
In Hindu belief, all the actions that affect a person's fate in the next life
Ramesses II
A long-lived ruler of New Kingdom Egypt (r. 1290-1224 B.C.E.). He reached an accommodation with the Hittites of Anatolia after a standoff in battle at Kadesh in Syria. He built on a grand scale throughout Egypt. (p. 68)
House Of Burgesses
the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legislative acts.
Pax Romana
200 years of Roman peace and prosperity
McCulloch v. Maryland
Marland tried to tax Bank notes
 
Marshall declared bank constitutional by loose construction
Jackson had issues with
Bank, tariff, internal improvements, and Indian Removal
"Boss" Tweed
Manipulated NYC to profit himself at expense of others.
three-field system
A rotational system for agriculture in which one field grows grain, one grows legumes, and one lies fallow. It gradually replaced two-field system in medieval Europe. (p. 396)
Thirty Years War
war within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia.
Pauper
A poor person, often one who lives on tax supported charity.
Peter Cartwright
Revivalist preacher - One of the best known traveling Methodist preachers, he wandered from Tennessee to Illinois for fifty years, calling for repentance and converting thousands. Known for beating up rowdies at his sermons.
"Mrs. Silence Dogod"
Ben Frank's pen name; Mass; sarcastic towards puritans
Traditional American Protestant religion received a substantial blow from
the biological ideas of Charles Darwin
Grenville's Program
As Prime Minister, he passed the Sugar Act in 1764 and the Stamp Act in 1765 to help finance the cost of maintaining a standing force of British troops in the colonies. He believed in reducing the financial burden on the British by enacting new taxes in the colonies.
Yuan Empire
Empire created in China and Siberia by Khubilai Khan. (p. 349)
White Man's Burden
idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized
magna carta
This document, signed by King John of Endland in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights
Missouri Compromise
a proviso by which slavery would be prohibited forever from Louisiana Purchase territories north of 36° 30'. Southern extremists opposed any limit on the extension of slavery, but Clay maneuvered the measure through the House by a three-vote majority. Missouri and Maine were to enter statehood simultaneously to preserve sectional equality in the Senate 3: 1775-1825
Emancipation Proclamation of 1863
issued by Lincoln after Antietam 1863
 
slaves forever free in US
Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
Outlawed Monopolies and practices that hurt trade, such as price fixing
War stemming from a 1637 attack on Native Americans in Mystic, Connecticut.
Pequot War
Church of England (Anglican Church)
The national church of England, founded by King Henry VIII. It included both Roman Catholic and Protestant ideas.
1034. William Howard Taft
27th President (1908-1912), he was the only man to serve as both President of the U.S. and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Overweight, he was the only president to get stuck in the White House bathtub. Roosevelt supported he in 1908, but later ran against him.
Arab Oil Embargo
After the U.S. backed Israel in its war against Syria and Egypt, which had been trying to regain territory lost in the Six-Day War, the Arab nations imposed an oil embargo, which strictly limited oil in the U.S. and caused a crisis
Phillip II
336 BC, was an ancient Greek king of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination in 336. He was the father of Alexander the Great.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
Helsinki Accords
was the final act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held in Helsinki, Finland, during July and August 1,1975. Thirty-five states, including the USA, Canada, and all European states except Albania and Andorra, signed the declaration in an attempt to improve relations between the Communist bloc and the West.
185. George Rogers Clark (1752-1818)
Frontiersman who helped remove the Indians from the Illinois territory in May, 1798.
Indian Reorganization (Wheeler-Howard) Act (1934)
this measure returned lands to the control of tribes and supported the preservation of Native American cultures
263. Sec. of the Treasury Hamilton
A leading Federalist, he supported industry and strong central government. He created the National Bank and managed to pay off the U.S.'s early debts through tariffs and the excise tax on whiskey.
Supreme Court: Darmouth College vWoodward
1819 - This decision declared private corporation charters to be contracts and immune form impairment by states' legislative action. It freed corporations from the states which created them.
Shah Abas I
Shah Abbas I was the first of the Safavid Shahs to establish Persia as a homogeneous state, enforcing, often brutally, adherence to Shi'ism, and imposing Farsi as a unifying language throughout the land.
List the 4 ways Congress tries to control bureaucracy.
1. Influence presidential appointments
2. Tinker with the agency's budget
3. hold hearings
4. rewrite legislation; more detailed
how were the byzantine empire and china similar
there was an elaborate trained bureaucracy whose education was based on classical models in both countries
698. Dred Scott v. Sandford
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
What happened to China after WWII?
-Civil war in China resumes after WWII with Mao Zedong the new Communist Leader
-chinese nationalists led by Kai-Shek fled to Taiwan
-US gives aid to Taiwan and will not recognize Communist China for 30 years.
326. Bank war: Veto message by Andrew Jackson
1832 - President Jackson vetoed the bill to recharter the national bank.
Neo-Babylonian kingdom
(blank)
ERA
Equal Rights Amendment
1st British Victory
Ft. Louisberg.
Maya
Mesoamerican civilization concentrated in Mexico's Yucat?n Peninsula and in Guatemala and Honduras but never unified into a single empire. Major contributions were in mathematics, astronomy, and development of the calendar. (p. 302)
Rachel Carson
environmentalist, wrote Silent Spring
Sparta
main Greek city-state; agricultural and highly militaristic; all boys (and some girls) received military training
Astrolabe
is a historical astronomical instrument used by astronomers, navigators, and astrologers. Its many uses include locating and predicting the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars; determining local time given local latitude and vice-versa; surveying; triangulation; and to cast horoscopes. They were used in Classical Antiquity and through the Islamic Golden Age and the European Middle Ages and Renaissance for all these purposes. In the Islamic world, they were also used to calculate the Qibla and to find the times for Salah, prayers. There is often confusion between the astrolabe and the mariner's astrolabe. While the astrolabe could be useful for determining latitude on land, it was an awkward instrument for use on the heaving deck of a ship or in wind. The mariner's astrolabe was developed to address these issues.
Ashoka
converted the Mauryan Empire to buddhism
Paleolithic time period
2 million- 8000 b.c.e
Abraham Lincoln opposed the Crittenden Compromise because...
a. it allowed the doctrine of popular sovereignty to be overridden once statehood was achieved
b. it permitted slavery in Utah territory
c. its adoption might provoke Kentucky to leave the Union
e
muckrakers
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
Religious Fundamentalism
religious movement whose objectives are to return to the foundations of the faith and to influence state policy
hopewell
Native American culture which centered in the Ohio valley from 200 to 500 C.E.; known for earthen burial and defensive mounds.
tax revenue
government income due to taxation.
Cardinal Richelieu
French Cardinal responsible for instituting absolutist practices in France
River valley where vast estates created an aristrocratic landholding elite in New Netherland and New York
Hudson
Platt Amendment
let US intervene in Cuba government
pilgrimage
Journey to a sacred shrine by Christians seeking to show their piety, fulfill vows, or gain absolution for sins. Other religions also have pilgrimage traditions, such as the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca. (270)
squanto
local indian by plymoth he didnt belong to native tribe who were th wampanoag who was lead by massasoit told ppl in plymoth how to plant corn- put 3 fish in bottom of hole for fertilizer
Lech Walesa
Polish leader who cofounded Solidarity and served as president of Poland from 1990 to 1995
Confucian
relating to the teachings of Confucius or his followers, emphasizing self-control, adherence to a social hierarchy, and social and political order
Muhammad
proph, the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
George Kennan
State Department official who was architect of the containment concept; in his article "the source of soviet conduct" he said the USSR was historically and idiologically driven to expand and that the United States must practive "vigilant containment" to stop this expansion
jacob riis
Early 1900's muckraker who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. with his novel "How The Other Half Lives"; exposed the poor conditions of the poor tenements in NYC and Hell's Kitchen
Lebensraum
The "living space" that Nazis believed they needed, which justified their plan to expand into Eastern Europe and Russia.
dharma
basic principles of the cosmos, In Hindu belief, a person's religious and moral duties
horse collar
Harnessing method that increased the efficiency of horses by shifting the point of traction from the animal's neck to the shoulders; its adoption favors the spread of horse-drawn plows and vehicles. (p. 269)
Zakat
tax for charity, obligatory for all Muslims
Sandinistas
Members of a leftist coalition that overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979 and attempted to install a socialist economy. The United States financed armed opposition by the Contras. The Sandinistas lost national elections in 1990
Greek fire
Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals that ignited when exposed to water; utilized to drive back the Arab fleets that attacked Constantinople. (p. 357)
Declaration of Independence
declares the colonies' independence from Great Britain, written by Thomas Jefferson in 1776

American System
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank,
high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in
the economy.
 
Formula devised by the Puritan ministers in 1662 to offer partial church membership to people who had not experienced conversion
1/2 Covenant
avenue
a wide, usually tree-lined road, path, driveway, etc., through grounds to a country house or monumental building.
Atlantic System
The network of trading links after 1500 that moved goods, wealth, people, and cultures around the Atlantic Ocean basin. (p. 497)
George Creel
A young journalist who sold American on the war and Wilsonian war aims
New Orleans
US city where, in 1891, eleven Italians were lynched, bringing US and Italy to the brink of war, until the US agreed to pay compensation.
Horatio Alger
Writer of novels stressing rags to riches stories of boys
Compromise of 1877
1877 compromise where Hayes was peacefully inaugurated, ended reconstruction
american diversity
the diversity of the American people and the relationship among different groups. The roles of race, class ethnicity, and gender in the history of the United States
Whiskey Rebellion
in Pennsylvania in 1794; Hamilton high excise tax was regarded by pioneers as a burden on an economic necessity and a medium of exchange; when they began to rebel, Washington summoned an inter-state militia (thirteen thousand people); the rebels fled (only three were killed); it commanded a new respect for Washington's government and appalled some by the brute display of force
Carey Act
1894; distributed federal land to the states on the condition that it be irrigated and settled; movement towards conservation
Philip II
Macedonian king who sought to unite Greece under his banner until his murder
encomienda
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians. (479)
Pearl Harbor
American naval base in Hawaii; attack by Japanese on this facility in December 1941 crippled American fleet in the Pacific and caused entry of United States into World War II.
Martin Luther
was the priest that challenged the practices of the Roman Catholic Church in 1517 by posting the 95 these
inca empire
Largest Empire ever built in South America; territory extended 2,500 miles from north to south and embraced almost all of modern Peru, most of Ecuador, much of Bolivia, and parts of Chile and Argentina; maintained effective control from the early 15th century until the coming of Europeans in the early 16th century. As the most powerful people of Andean America, the Inca dominated Andean society until the coming of Europeans; spoke Quechua language.
Meat Inspection Act
helped eliminate many diseases once transmitted in impure meat
938. "Yellow journalism"
Term used to describe the sensationalist newspaper writings of the time. They were written on cheap yellow paper. The most famous yellow journalist was William Randolf Hearst. Yellow journalism was considered tainted journalism - omissions and half-truths.
The Cabinet
A body of executive department heads that serve as the chief advisors to the President. Formed during the first years of Washington's Presidency, the original members of the cabinet included the Sec. of State, of the Tres. and of War. The cabinet is extremly important to the presidency, because these people influence the most powerful man in the nation.
any conflict between the citizens or inhabitants of teh same country
civil war
Dawes Plan
1924 plan to loan money to Germany, who would pay their reparations to France and Britain, who would pay back their debt to America
Borah and Johnson
Two senators who fought against the League, viewing it as a useless sewing circle
602. Popular Sovereignty
The doctrine that stated that the people of a territory had the right to decide their own laws by voting. In the Kansas-Nebraska Act, popular sovereignty would decide whether a territory allowed slavery.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Tried to start Roanoke Island but failed.
Underground Railroad
a system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada
Hindus v. Muslims
divisions began in 1937 when Hindus refused to share power with Muslims. Rioting, no response to Gandhi's protests. Resulted in division of India into India and Pakistan.
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor. (p. 663)
John Slidell
Sent by Polk to Mexico to negotiate Texas independence and purchase of California and New Mexico - was ignored by Mexican Government
Equal Employment Law
Japanese law that gave women equal emploment rights
The Dhow
What type of ship did Arab sailors use?
661. Conquered territory theory
Stated that conquered Southern states weren't part of the Union, but were instead conquered territory, which the North could deal with however they like.
Scots-Irish
Name for a group of Scots that were from Ireland and came to America
divine
of or pertaining to a god, esp. the Supreme Being.
Judiciary Act of 1801
Passed by the Federalists in Congress in 1801 after the election of Democratic-Republican president Thomas Jefferson. This act was a blend of needed judicial reform and partisan politics. The law added six new circuit courts and added 16 new judgeships, along with their support staffs, for outgoing Federalist president John Adams to fill. These judgeships were criticized as "midnight appointments." It was later repealed by Jefferson which eliminated the judgeships controlled by the Federalists. The 1803 case, Marbury v. Madison, showed the Supreme Court's reasoning in the decision making.
William the Conqueror
duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England
Pure Food and Drug Act
mandated federal inspection of food and drugs before sale or transport
Mikhail Gorbachev
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. attempted to improve relations with the West; lost power after his reforms; led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe
Jim Crow laws
Series of laws developed in the South that segregated many facets of life. Legalized segregation and was upheld constitutional from Plessy v Ferguson
What was the primary difference between the reformed Japanese government and reformed Russian institutions by 1914?
Japan's government had incorporated business leaders into its governing structure
organized crime during the 1920s
people defied the 18th amendment (Prohibition)
-Gangs gained a lot from the bootlegging trade
Four Power Pact
(WH) , An agreement made by the United States, Britain, France, and Japan to not seek further Pacific expansion or increased naval strength in the region. The countries also agreed to respect the Pacific holdings of the other countries signing the agreement. The signatories agreed to consult each other in the event of a dispute over territorial possessions
Hammurabi's Code of Laws
the series of laws made by Hammurabi, a king of the group of people called Babylonians. It is very detailed and it is recorded on a Stela.
"Out of Africa" thesis vs. multiregional thesis
the arguement that homo erectus evolved into homo sapians
986. Root-Takahira Agreement
1908 - Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door policy in China.
Ran by the Greenbacks; he was an old Granger who was a favorite of the Civil War veterans and who possessed a remarkable voice and bearing.
James B. Weaver
Charles River Bridge Decision, Chief Justice Roger BTaney, General Incooperation Laws
1837 - The Charles River Bridge Decision, delivered by Roger B. Taney, modified C.J. Marshall's ruling in the Darmouth College Case of 1819, which said that a state could not make laws infringing on the charters of private organizations. Taney ruled that a charter granted by a state to a company cannot work to the disadvantage of the public. The Charles River Bridge Company protested when the Warren Bridge Company was authorized in 1828 to build a free bridge where it had been chartered to operate a toll bridge in 1785. The court ruled that the Charles River Company was not granted a monopoly right in their charter, and the Warren Company could build its bridge. Began the legal concept that private companies cannot injure the public welfare.
The First Continental Congress was a reaction to:
the passage of the Intolerable Acts
Warren G. Harding (Return to Normalcy)
president who called for a return to normalcy following WWI. Harding's Campaign slogan "Return to normalcy" in 1920 election. It was part of a reactionary movement against proggressivism and resulted in the ultra conservative politics of the 1920's
8. John Winthrop (1588-1649), his beliefs
1629 - He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and served in that capacity from 1630 through 1649. A Puritan with strong religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of skillful leaders. He helped organize the New England Confederation in 1643 and served as its first president.
Confederate Diplomacy
...
Sedentary
not migratory; settled
Ronald Reagan
1981-1989,"Great Communicator" Republican, conservative economic policies, replaced liberal Democrats in upper house with consevative Democrats or "boll weevils" , at reelection time, jesse jackson first black presdiential candidate, Geraldine Ferraro as VP running mate (first woman)
Anne Hutchinson
dissenter from Massachusettes, believed in antinomianism and was kicked out for her views
Election of 1948
Truman vs. Dewey
Kuomintang
The Chinese Nationalist political party, formed after the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912 by Sun Yat-sen and that governed China under Chiang Kai-sek from 1928-1949 when the Communists took over; retained power in Taiwan
Literary works post WWII :
******
chinampas
Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields. (p. 301)
Consulado
Merchant guild of Seville; enjoyed virtual monopoly rights over goods shipped to america; handeled most of the silver received in return.
Harvard
college established in 1636 in Massachusetts as a place to train local boys for Puritan ministry
Nativism
The belief that native-born Americans are superior to foreigners; a milder (in theory) form of xenophobia which was responsible for a lot of United States' involvement overseas.
Iranian ruling dynasty between 250 B.C.E. and 226 C.E.
Parthians
Age of Reason
another name for "Enlightenment"
Diaspora
the dispersion or spreading of something that was originally localized (as a people or language or culture).
Pequot War
After Pequots attacked Puritan settlement, killing nine, the colonists responded by burning Pequot village, killing 400.
New Jersey Plan
equal representation in unicameral congress
Aztecs
Also known as Mexica, the Aztecs created a powerful empire in central Mexico (1325-1521 C.E.). They forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as a tax. (p. 305)
Define Janissaries.
Elite soldiers loyal to the sultan
Assyrians
Southwest Asian people who built and empire that reached it height during the eighth and seventh centuries BCE, it was known for a powerful army and a well-structured state
e
A major purpose of the Reconstruction Act (1867) in the United States was to
A) hasten the industrialization of the South.
B) break down the one-crop economy of the South.
C) "bind up the Nation's wounds."
D) prevent the readmission of the Southern states to the Union.
E) enable the Republican Party to retain control of Congress.
Suez Crisis
egypt took over British/French owned Suez Canal, possibly preventing oil trade, after UN / world pressure, Egypt withdrew
vedas
sacred texts in the Hindu religion, they are a set of four collections of hymns and religious ceremonies transmitted by memory through the centuries by Aryan priests
Northern Renaissance
An extension of the Italian Renaissance to the nations of northern Europe; the Northern Renaissance took on a more religious nature than the Italian Renaissance
tribune
in Ancient Rome, a plebian officer elected by plebeians charged to protect their lives and properties, with a right of veto against legislative proposals of the Senate.
Gran Colombia
Independent state created in South America as a result of military successes of Simon Bolívar; existed only until 1830, at which time Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador became separate nations.
John Harvey
English physician (17th century) who demonstrated circular movement of blood in animals, function of heart as pump.
Tang dynasty
buddhism gains popularity , among poor, empress wu adopts
Auschwitz
Nazi extermination camp in Poland, the largest center of mass murder during the Holocaust. Close to a million Jews, Gypsies, Communists, and others were killed there. (p. 800)
17th Amendment
Established direct election of United States Senators by popular vote. It was adopted on April 8, 1913.
washington conference
1921 - president harding invited delegates from europe and japan, and they agreed to limit production of war ships, to not attack each other's possessions, and to respect china's independence
Roosevelt Corollary
section warned LA to stabilize politics and finances, and made the US “an international police power.” This allowed for frequent US interventions [
Akbar
Most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India (r. 1556-1605). He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus. (p. 536)
umma
The community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of seventh-century Arabia, where traditionally kinship rather than faith had determined membership in a community. (p. 231)
Indian Removal Act
U.S. government maneuver (1830) that forced eastern Native Americans to move
west of the Mississippi.
Hetch Hetchy Valley
Conservationists lost a major battle in 1913 when the federal government allowed San Francisco to build a dam in this area for its water supply. John Muir called this area in Yosemite a "temple" of nature before it was dammed.
Bombing of Libya
code-named Operation El Dorado Canyon, comprised the joint United States Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps air-strikes against Libya on April 15, 1986. The attack was carried out in response to the 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing.
vigilante justice
Justice performed by common people who took law into their own hands
Toltecs
70 miles north of Mexico City. Toltecs built their capital city there. 10th-12th centuries the Toltecs dominated most of mexico
Diocletian
Roman emperor of 284 C.E. Attempted to deal with fall of Roman Empire by splitting the empire into two regions run by co-emperors. Also brought armies back under imperial control, and attempted to deal with the economic problems by strengthening the imperial currency, forcing a budget on the government, and capping prices to deal with inflation. Civil war erupted upon his retirement.
trans-Saharan Caravan Routes
Trading network linking North Africa with sub-Saharan Africa across the Sahara. (p. 210)
Sundiata
the founder of Mali empire. He crushed his enemies and won control of the gold trade routes
Mayflower Compact
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
Pullman Strike
1894 - nonviolent strike (brought down the railway system in most of the West) at the Pullman Palace Car Co. over wages - Prez. Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery
Federalists vs. Democratic Republicans
FEDERALISTS: commercial, urban and industrial American society. wanted to create a complex economy with agricultural, industrial, national, and international commerce along with immigrant labor. believed in a strong central government with government support for economic development because they were skeptical of state rights. In addition, they favored a broad, loose interpretation of the Constitution. DEMOCRATIC - REPUBLICANS: They believed in a decentralized, rural, agrarian society that opposed a commercial, urban, and industrial society. liked an agricultural economy with an emphasis on local commerce and slave labor. believed in a limited central government in order to preserve the states' rights. they had a strict interpretation of the Constitution.
Thomas Hooker
Clergyman, one of the founders of Hartford. Called "the father of American democracy" because he said that people have a right to choose their magistrates.
George Grenville
Head of the British government from 1763 to 1765. He passed the Sugar Act, Quartering Act, Currency Act, and the Stamp Act, provoking the Imperial Crisis of 1765-1766.
Panic of 1819
Speculators over bought land (think housing crisis); where the economy slumped
Define convoy
the movement of British merchant and troop ships escorted by armed naval vessels
Erie Canal
goods able to be transferred from New York to New Orleans by inland waterways
American crops
Were not widely accepted and did not impact the dynasties much
710. Ohio Idea
1867 - Senator George H. Pendleton proposed an idea that Civil War bonds be redeemed with greenbacks. It was not adopted.
legal tender
Any form of money that must be accepted in payment for goods purchased or for repayment of debt.
Iron Curtain Speech
March 1946 Winston Churchill at Fulton College Missouri; said an "iron curtain" had fallen across the Continent.
Villein
one of a class of feudal serfs, that held legal status of freedom in dealings with ppl except their lord
Joan of Arc
farm girl; claimed to have heard voices that told her to liberate France from the hands of the English; forced the British to retreat from Orleans; captured by the French, tried by the English, and burned at the stake by the French
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Author of the antislavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin. hugely popular book in US and Europe
lost colony of Roanoke
An enterprise financed and organized by Sir Walter Raleigh in the late 16th century to establish a permanent English settlement in the Virginia Colony. The final group of colonists disappeared after three years elapsed without supplies from England, leading to the continuing mystery known as "The Lost Colony". The most likely explanation is that they were assimilated into one of the local indigenous tribes
In which polis did women have the most freedom?
Sparta
Peace of Paris 1783
American Delegates: Ben Franklin, John Adams, John Jay; Instructed to follow lead of France; John Jay makes side treaty with England; Independence of the US; land area Atlantic of Miss. River, Great Lakes to Florida; End of loyalist Persecution, pay debt to England.
202. Articles of Confederation: powers, weaknesses, successes
The Articles of Confederation delegated most of the powers (the power to tax, to regulate trade, and to draft troops) to the individual states, but left the federal government power over war, foreign policy, and issuing money. The Articles’ weakness was that they gave the federal government so little power that it couldn’t keep the country united. The Articles’ only major success was that they settled western land claims with the Northwest Ordinance. The Articles were abandoned for the Constitution.
Tariff of 1816
caused by British cutting prices below cost in an effort to strangle the American war-baby factories in the cradle. Americans saw British seeking to crush Yankee factories. Nationalist Congress passed the Tariff(1816)- created taxes on imports to protect nation, while at the same time promote welfare. It was the first tariff in American history with aims that were primarily protective to merchants. It was abold beginning to adequate safeguards. A strong protective trend was started that stimulated the appetites of the protected for more protection. This Tariff hurt farmers, especially southerners. It was part of Clay's American System.
ecclesiastical
of or pertaining to the church or the clergy; churchly; clerical; not secular.
How did Augusto Pinochet change the Chilean Economy?
Periods of rapid growth
South Carolina Exposition
The document was a protest against the Tariff of 1828, also known as the Tariff of Abominations. The document stated that if the tariff was not repealed, South Carolina would secede
In the late nineteenth century, American colleges and universities benefited especially from
federal and state "land-grant" assistance and the private philanthropy of wealth donors.
breech loading rifle
Gun into which the projectiles had to be individually inserted. Later guns had magazines, a compartment holding multiple projectiles that could be fed rapidly into the firing chamber. (p. 681)
Liberal land laws in Pennsylvania
William Penn allowed anyone to emigrate to Pennsylvania, in order to provide a haven for persecuted religions.
conditions of approval of the articles  or the constitution
unanimous approval from the states
JFK's Party
VP - Lyndon B Johnson, SS - Dean Rusk, AG - Robert Kennedy, SD - Robert McNamara
Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)
part of the truce agreement at the end of Korean War. Its on the 38th parallel, its 2.5 miles wide and 155 miles long. Its heavily fortified and tension-filled.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo
1848- ends the Mexican War, treaty in which mexico gave up california and new mexico to the us
1329. Department of Defense created
Headed by McNamara, it succeeded in bringing the armed services under tight civilian control.
10. The treaty that ended the Sino-Japanese War. It granted Japan Chinese port city trading rights, control of Manchuria, the annexation of the island of Sakhalin, and Korea became its protectorate. Was put together by TR.
TR and the Treaty of Portsmouth
Election of 1844: Candidates
James K. Polk - Democrat. Henry Clay - Whig. James G. Birney - Liberty Party.
in response to the great depression, John Maynard Keynes
• John Maynard Keynes most influential economist of 20th century wrote The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money he said that the depression was caused from inadequate demand of items and his idea of fixing the problem was to print more money to stimulate the economy
Describe Alexander Hamilton's financial program.
Pay off the war debt at face value and have the federal government assume state war debts.
Protect the nation's young industries with tariffs on imported goods.
Create a national bank for depositing government funds and for printing bank notes to provide for a stable US currency.
strikes and race riots during late 1910s/early 1920s
series of strikes caused people not to trust unions. shipyard strike in Seattle. Boston police strike. U.S. Steel Corporation strike.

African Americans moving North caused racial tension. Riots erupted in East St. Louis and Chicago.
Catherine II
1762-1796
President John Adams
...
City-States
Area under one government
John Quincy Adams
1825-1829, National Republican
Luanda
Portuguese factory established in 1520s south of Kongo; became basis for Portuguese colony of Angola.
Manchuria
Japenese aggression, established a puppet government
-League of Nations did nothing but condemn Japan, Japan left League of Nations
Columbian Exchange
Biological and ecological exchange that took place following Spanish establishment of colonies in New World. People of Europe and Africa came to New World; animals, plants, and diseases of two hemispheres were transferred.
prohibition
Forbidding by law the manufacture, sale, or consumption of liquor.
Non-Separists
believed in seperation from anglican church, not english society.
Hartford Convention
feds meet. didnt want war
Tycho Brahe
Influenced by Copernicus; Built observatory and collected data on the locations of stars and planets for over 20 years; His limited knowledge of mathematics prevented him from making much sense out of the data.
Confucius
Western name for the Chinese philosopher Kongzi (551-479 B.C.E.). His doctrine of duty and public service had a great influence on subsequent Chinese thought and served as a code of conduct for government officials.(p. 62)
foragers
people who support themselves by hunting wild animals and gathering wild edible plants and insects
Greek historian Herodotus used the phrase "the gift of the _____" to describe egypt
Nile
John Brown
Radical abolitionist involved in Bleeding Kansas and John Brown's Raid in MD later on.
Whigs opposed Jackson and....
Formed from Federalists.
Thomas Jefferson
a. Basically everywhere- was president in 1801 b. Led the republicans
longhouse
The basic house type of northern Iroquoian peoples such as the Huron or Iroquois
Who believed that the caliphate should follow the line of ali?
Shi'ite
scalawags
term for Southern whites who supported the Republican Party
Horace Mann
United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)
Alice Paul, National Woman's Party
-Alice Paul
-1917
-America.
-Alice Paul was known social activist who grew more daring in her strategies to win the vote.
-She formed this party, which used public protest marches. This became the first group to march with picket signs outside the White House.
-Hundreds of women were arrested in these protests. Some went on hunger strikes, refusing to eat until they could vote. And she used militant tactics.
-This group angered many people including other women in other suffrage groups.
-They did help to win the right to vote, because the actions made less-radical groups look tame in comparison.
-During the first World War NAWSA and NWP were able to work together to gain the right to vote in America.
noncolonization
Noncolonization was a principle of the Monroe Doctrine proclaimed by United States president James Monroe in 1823. It stated that the Americas should undergo no further colonization by European powers.
Communism
According to Karl Marx, a classless and stateless society at its ultimate peak of historical development.
tsar
From Latin caesar, this Russian title for a monarch was first used in reference to a Russian ruler by Ivan III (r. 1462-1505). (pp. 340, 551)
Johnson Immigration Act
allowed unrestricted immigration of Canadians and Latin Americas, but it discriminated against new immigration by lowering the amount of yearly immigrants to 2%
Albert Gallatin
Jefferson's Secretary of Treasury who was a financial wizard - reduced govt. spending through careful management
Stock Market Boom
Who: Stocks, especially big industries
What: Began increasing by 2 or 3 million shares a day, to over 5 million.
When: October 21 and 23, 1929, there were alarming declines in stock prices dropped. On October 29, "Black Tuesday" stock market failed.
Where: All over America, but was influenced by people withdrawing stocks in England.
Significance: Beginning of the Great Depression
self-determination
the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
Three-Fifths Compromise
black slave was counted as three-fifths of a person when they were counting the population. The southern states wanted them counted as one whole person for more representatives in the House of Representatives. The northern states did not want them counted at all.
Gilded Age
era between Reconstruction and 1900; politics looed good, but just beneath the surface lay crass corruption and patronage.
Nickname for Europe’s nuclear family in which the father’s authority over his family mirrored a king’s over his subjects.
Little Commonwealth
Legalism
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime. (p.52)
Initiative
(TR) law must be signed by designated percentage of voters then submitted to state legislature
actium
the naval battle in which Antony and Cleopatra were defeated by Octavian's fleet under Agrippa in 31 BC
tariffs
an official list or table showing the duties or customs imposed by a government on imports or exports
Annapolis Convention
it was clear that the government lacked sufficent authority under the articles of confederation so Alexandler Hamilton convened this convention to discuss revision of articles of confederation but only 5 delegates showed up.
Joseph McCarthy
A senator from Wisconsin who claimed he had a list of 250 government employees who were communists
acquisition
The act of contracting or assuming or acquiring possession of something.
Chandragupta Maurya
The first ruler to unify India was
Dutch East Indies
The Netherlands. These were the colonies set up by the Dutch East India Company - Founded in 1602, this joint-stock company had total control over trading (mainly in spices) between the East Indies and the Netherlands.
nirvana
in Buddhism, the release from pain and suffering achieved after enlightenment
Muslim
An adherent of the Islamic religion; a person who 'submits' (in Arabic, Islam means 'submission') to the will of God. (p. 231) )
When did Homo Erectus people exist?
800,000 years ago
Chinese Classical Social Hierarchy
SPAM- Scholars, Peasants, Artisans, "Mean People"
Bedouin religion
blend of animism and polytheism; it didn't have much to do with ethics (that was taken care of in the unwritten codes of honor and tribal customs)
Agrarian
relating to land, land tenure, or the division of landed property
Paul Revere
American silversmith who became a hero after his famous ride to warn of the British advance on Lexington and Concord.
Ngo Dinh Diem
a strong anti-communist, but a dictator and bad leader - America supported him in the South although he failed to uphold his side of the bargain. Turned against him - coup
Bands or tribes
Social group which resulted from clans becoming larger and mixing with neighboring groups
social mobility
Mobilityrefers to the degree to which an individual's or group's status is able to change in terms of position in the social hierarchy.
Treaty of Versailles
The treaty imposed on Germany by France, Great Britain, the United States, and other Allied Powers after World War I. It demanded that Germany dismantle its military and give up some lands to Poland. It was resented by many Germans. (p. 763)
908. Bimetalism
Use of two metals, gold and silver, for currency as America did with the Bland-Allison Act and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. Ended in 1900 with the enactment of the Gold Standard Act.
W. E. B. DuBois
criticized Booker T Washington for unfairly making African Americans responsible for correcting racial injustice
The Leisure Class
Book by Thorstein Veblen, which stated that the rich only engaged in wasteful business, not industry that was helpful to society
League of Nations
One of Woodrow Wilson's 14 points after WWI. U.S rejected joining the league of nations. The League of Nations (LoN) was an above the state organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919-1920. At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to the 23 February 1935, it had 58 members. The League's goals included disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation, diplomacy and improving global quality of life.
King Louis XVI
1643- 1715 King of France, interested in colonies
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
Chandra Gupta 1
First emperor of Gupta Empire, came from family not high class family, but had fortunate marriage, named self after Chandragupta Maurya.
Covenant Chain of Peace
An agreement negotiated by Governor Edmund Andrus in 1677 that linked the colony of New York to the Iroquois Five Nations and was later expanded to include other colonies and Indian peoples.
Captain John Smith
An adventurer, Smith was appointed to manage Jamestown. He was a strict disciplinarian and said, "he that will not work shall not eat." He bargained with the Native Americans and explored (mapped) the Chesapeake area. He returned to England in 1609 after suffering a gunpowder burn and never returned to the colonies.
The Compromise of 1850
This was signed by Millard Fillmore and deals with disputed territory, and the controversy of whether California should join the Union as a free or slave state. The results were that California joined as a free state, and what was left of the Mexican Cession land became New Mexico and Utah, and did not restrict slavery. It benefited the North more than the South. It was a turning point for the North as it split the deadlock between slave states and free states tipping the scale to the free states. This was one of the final activities that lead to the civil war.
McKinley Tariff of 1890
tariff that eliminated the duty free status of Hawaiian sugar, led to annexation of Hawaii
newlands reclamation act of 1902
funded irrigation projects for the arid lands of the American West
Peloponnesian War
a war in which Athens and its allies were defeated by the league centered on Sparta
North Africa Campaign
Took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940-16 May 1943. It included campaigns fought in the Libyan and Egyptian deserts and in Morocco and Algeria and Tunisia. The campaign was fought between the Allies and Axis powers. The Allied war effort was dominated by the British Commonwealth and exiles from German-occupied Europe. The U.S. entered the war in 1941 and began direct military assistance in North Africa, on 11 May 1942.
154. Committees of Correspondence
These started as groups of private citizens in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New York who, in 1763, began circulating information about opposition to British trade measures. The first government-organized committee appeared in Massachusetts in 1764. Other colonies created their own committtees in order to exchange information and organize protests to British trade regulations. The Committees became particularly active following the Gaspee Incident.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
1st Englishman to attempt to start and English Colony in the New World. He died before it could materialize
Battle of Quebec
Battle that was a turning point in the French and Indian War,the British defeated the French
Marbury v. Madison
1803 (TJ) , The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, in this case the Judiciary Act of 1789
Forty Acres and a mule
failed attempt to help freed blacks during reconstruction - had promised blacks forty acres of land and a mule to plow with
4. Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.
221. Constitution: Interstate relations
No state is allowed to form a compact with another state or with a foreign power without the consent of Congress.
Fundamental Orders of Conneticut
a set of laws that were established in 1639 by a Puritan congregation who had settled in the Connecticut Valley and that expanded the idea of representative government.
Why did the new Republican Party oppose slavery?
Because it degraded manuel labor, enslaving blacks and thereby driving don the wages and working conditions of free white workers
"New Negro", Jazz Age (Louis Armstrong), Cotton Club
the first time "black art" (or black culture) was cool with whites and accepted
499. Supreme Court: Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
1831 - Supreme Court refused to hear a suit filed by the Cherokee Nation against a Georgia law abolishing tribal legislature. Court said Indians were not foreign nations, and U.S. had broad powers over tribes but a responsibility for their welfare.
Osman Sundiata
...
britain
intervened with egypt
Commonwealth
self-governing territory associated with another country
Comintern
International office of communism under USSR dominance established to encourage the formation of Communist parties in Europe and elsewhere.
Mound Builders
first Native American people
Harlem
the largest black urban community
Ozbegs
Safavid's ancient enemies, nomadic Turkic people, driven back into modern-day Iraq
Manumission
releasing an individual from slavery or servitude
Pilgrims
Group of English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands. (p. 487)
Nara Japan
definition: Japanese period (710-794) centered around city of Nara, that was the highest point of Chinese influence
significance: demonstrated CHinese influence
Sectionalism
Different parts of the country developing unique and separate cultures (as the North, South and West). This can lead to conflict.
Carthage
City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E. (p. 107)
Chatauqua Movement
American Adult educational movement which was popular through the 19th and 20th movements - brought people into communities to lecture
William James
United States pragmatic philosopher and psychologist (1842-1910)
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
which outlawed monopolistic practices, and a bill creating the Federal Trade Commission (1914), which could investigate companies and order them to stop unfair trade tactics.
output
the act of turning out; production:
George Washington
Military commander of the American Revolution. He was the first elected president of the United States (1789-1799). (p. 581)
"Pittsburgh plus"
Steel lords of Pittsburgh charged Birmingham steel a fictional fee as if it had been delivered from Pittsburgh
Separate Spheres
Starting in 19th Century - Middle-class ideal where home life was strictly separated from the workplace and womens roles were separate from mens, with women running the household and men earning money outside it.
U.S. Steel
Taft's suit against this company infuriated Roosevelt.
Peter the Great
(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg. (p. 552)
Social Security Act
Gives retired/disabled Americans a monthly check.
Kanishka
The Kushans in India reached their peak under
I. Turgenev
Major Russian novelist and playwright, writes Fathers and Sons, (Realist)
Charlemagne
(747-814 CE) "Charles the Great"; son of Pepin; crowned by the pope in 800; emphasized the arts and education with a religious bent
Triple Entente
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muslim nationalist in India; originally a member of the National Congress party; became leader of Muslim League; traded Muslim support for British during World War II for promises of a separate Muslim state after the war; first president of Pakistan.
Jonathan Edwards
American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703-1758)
neo-confucianism
term that describes the resurgence of Confucianism and the influence of Confucian scholars during the T'ang Dynasty; a unification of Daoist or Buddhist metaphysics with Confucian pragmatism
Khanate of Jagadai
Mongol Empir in Central Asia.
conciliation treaties
..., wilson, created by Bryan, negotiate treaties, submit disputes observe 1 year and then descide
116 day trek of indians
Trail of tears
Sacco and Vanzetti
early 20th century, Italian-American anarchists whose trial and execution aroused widespread protest
Mugwamps
(GC) , a group within the Republican party who could not accept Blaine and supported the Democrats
Battle of Alamo
1836, America claimed its independence from Mexico in this battle.
Black Death
Plague that struck Europe in 14th century; significantly reduced Europe's population; affected social structure
Semitic
refers to a family of languages spoken in parts of western Asia and northern Africa
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln outlined the terms of freedom for slaves in states that were still in rebellion. Did not immediately free any slaves. He hoped the declaration would weaken the moral cause of the South.
Viet
Cong Name given by Diem regime to Communist guerrilla movement in southern Vietnam; reorganized with northern Vietnamese assistance as the National Liberation Front in 1958.
The Barbarians
north sacked by Celts along Danube River. For the Romans and Greeks people who spoke foreign languages, were alien, and usually considered inferior.
zenger case provided for
greater freedom of the press
Alexander Nevski
Prince of Novgorod (r. 1236-1263). He submitted to the invading Mongols in 1240 and received recognition as the leader of the Russian princes under the Golden Horde. (p. 339)
dias
succeeded in rounding the cape of good hope at the souther tip of africa, sailed for portugalz
passive resistance
peaceful resistance to a government by refusing to cooperate; part of Quaker belief system, esp. in regards to war
Grimke Sisters
Quaker women who were advocates for women's rights and abolitionism.
Cornelius Vanderbilt
was an American entrepreneur who built his wealth in shipping and railroads and was the patriarch of the Vanderbilt family.
dominican intervention
..., First use of the Roosevelt Corollary. Took over control of tariff collection in Dominican Republic, and unhappy DR officials struggle to get out of grasp.
William McKinley (Republican) runs against William Jennings Bryan (Democrat)
Outline election of 1896
James Buchanan
After Lincoln was elected, but before he was inaugurated, seven Southern states seceded. Buchanan, the lame duck president, decided to leave the problem for Lincoln to take care of.
economy
the management of the resources of a community, country, etc., esp. with a view to its productivity.
The Jay Treaty
Treaty in which Britain agreed to evacuate its posts on the US western frontier (1794)
What did the Germans want in their Revolution in 1848?
Individual rights
Tiananmen Square
A huge public space in Beijing, China; in 1989, the site of a student uprising in support of democratic reforms.
Hidden Imam
Last in a series of twelve descendants of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali, whom Shi'ites consider divinely appointed leaders of the Muslim community. In occlusion since ca. 873, he is expected to return as a messiah at the end of time. (p. 532)
monarchy
a form of government in which power is vested in hereditary kings and queens who govern in the interests of all
George Mason
The person who proposed the Bill of Rights be added to the Constitution.
Epic of Gilgamesh
the first literary epic; written down ca 2000 BC; included story of the great flood.
Li Bo
Most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings.
Compromise 1850
California is a free state, D.C slave trade abolished, New Mexico Utah and Arizona go to popular sovereignty, stronger fugitive slave law
Seminole War
Conflict that began in Florida in 1817 between the Seminole Indians and the US Army when the Seminoles resisted removal.
Lost Generation
Group of writers in the 1920s who believed that they were lost in a greedy, materialistic world without moral values; some fled to Europe

Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
Affirmed federal control of interstate commerce
under commerce clause of the Constitution.
"54/40 of fight"
An aggressive slogan adopted in the Oregon boundary dispute, a dispute over where the border between Canada and Oregon should be drawn. This was also Polk’s slogan – the Democrats wanted the U.S. border drawn at the 54 40 latitude. Polk settled for the 49 latitude in 1846.
Olive Branch Petition
to George III on July 5, 1775; affirmed the colonists' loyalty to the Crown, did not mention "rights", and implored the king to take the initiative in devising a reconciliation
187. Robert Morris (1734-1806)
A delegate to the Second Continental Congress. He agreed that Britain had treated the colonies unfairly, but he didn't believe that the colonies should dissolve ties with Britain. He argued against the Declaration of Independence.
Ghost Dance
a dance preformed on the even of each New Moon. Was based on Wovoka's dream that a supreme being would rescue the Indians. White settlers feared the atmosphere of that the Ghost Dance created, they wanted to have it made illegal.
Sheikh and Majlis
the ruler of an Arabic tribe, chosen from one of the leading families by a council of elders and, council of elders in Bedouin tribes
colony maryland disnictive because
charlers granted to calverts, who made Catholic refudge
Creole Affair
The Creole Affair was an uprising by a group of slaves who were in the process of being transported in the ship, the Creole. They killed the captain, took control of ship and sailed for Bahamas, where they became free under British. Incidents such as this contributed to the intensification of sectional conflict in the United States.
1457. Robert Weaver (b. 1907)
Influential Black economist, he served in the Department of the Interior and was Secretary of Housing and Urban Affairs under Lyndon B. Johnson, becoming the first Black Cabinet official in the U.S.
GULF OF TONKIN RESOLUTION
law that allowed Johnson to use further force in Southeast Asia
24. New England Confederation
1643 - Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies.
Attila the Hun
was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in 453. He was leader of the Hunnic Empire, which stretched from Germany to the Ural River and from the Danube River to the Baltic Sea. During his rule, he was one of the most fearsome enemies of the Western and Eastern Roman Empire. He invaded the Balkans twice and marched through Gaul (modern France) as far as Orléans before being defeated at the Battle of Châlons. He refrained from attacking either Constantinople or Rome.The conventional account, from Priscus, says that at a feast celebrating his latest marriage to the beautiful and young Ildico, he suffered a severe nosebleed and choked to death in a stupor.
Helen Hunt Jackson
Author of the 1881 book A Century of Dishonor. The book exposed the U.S. governments many broken promises to the Native Americans. For example the government wanted Native Americans to assimilate, i.e. give up their beliefs and ways of life, that way to become part of the white culture.
617. Panic of 1857
Began with the failure of the Ohio Life Insurance Company and spread to the urban east. The depression affected the industrial east and the wheat belt more than the South.
319. Bayard v. Singleton
1787 - First court decision in which a law was found unconstitutional based on a written constitution.
Declaration of Principles (Palestine in Gaza 1993)
was an attempt to resolve the ongoing Palestinian-Israeli conflict. One of the major continuing issues within the wider Arab-Israeli conflict, it was the first direct, face-to-face agreement between the government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). It was intended to be the one framework for future negotiations and relations between the Israeli government and Palestinians, within which all outstanding "final status issues" between the two sides would be addressed and resolved. Negotiations concerning the agreements, an outgrowth of the Madrid Conference of 1991, were conducted secretly in Oslo, Norway, hosted by the Fafo institute, and completed on 20 August 1993; the Accords were subsequently officially signed at a public ceremony in Washington, DC on 13 September 1993, in the presence of PLO chairman Yasser Arafat, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and US President Bill Clinton. The documents themselves were signed by Mahmoud Abbas for the PLO, foreign Minister Shimon Peres for Israel, Secretary of State Warren Christopher for the United States and foreign minister Andrei Kozyrev for Russia.
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
In this 1837 Supreme Court Case, Chief Justice Roger Taney that a state had a right to place the public's convenience over that of a private or particular company, over the presumed right of monopoly granted in a corporate charter. Thus a company that had a prior long-term contract for a toll bridge over the Charles River between Boston and Cambridge—and hence a monopoly on bridge traffic—could not prevent a second company from receiving another state contract to construct a competitive toll-free bridge. It advanced the interests of those who favored economic development.
Who was a part of the triple alliance? Why did they allign?
Germnay, Austria_hungary, and Italy; alligned out of fear of France
240. John Locke, Second Treatise of Government
He wrote that all human beings have a right to life, liberty, and property and that governments exist to protect those rights. He believed that a contract existed between a government and its people, and if the government failed to uphold its end of the contract, the people could rebel and institute a new government.
republican motherhood
?
Satrapy
persian administration,persian administrators, usually from the royal family
Fujiwara
Mid-9th-century Japanese aristocratic family; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power.
Aristotle
Greek philosopher; teacher of Alexander; knowledge based on observation of phenomena in material world
Federal Reserve Act
-Wilson, Congress
-1913
-America.
-This law placed national banks under the control of a Federal Reserve Board, which set up regional banks to hold the reserve funds from commercial banks.
-This system, still in place today, helps protect the American economy from having too much money end up in the hands of one person, bank, or region.
Sumerians
invented cuneiform alphabet; used different pictures to represent various objects; but later shifted to the use of geometric shapes to signify sounds; as many as 2,000 symbols; later reduced to about 300; writing & reading remained complex skills; art developed steadily as statues & painted frescoes were used to adorn the temples of gods; science aided a complex agricultural society; people sought to learn more about the movement of the sun & stars; founding-astronomy; employed a system of numbers based on units of 10, 60, & 360; it is still used to calculate circles & hours; charted major constellations that have been current for 5,000 years;
Federalists
Americans who advocated centralized power and constitution ratification
- Used The Federalist Papers to demonstrate how the Constitution was designed to prevent the abuse of power.
- Supporters of Federalist platforms included Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay, and northeastern business groups
- Federalists believed that the government was given all powers that were not expressly denied to it by the Constitution; they had a loose interpretation of the Constitution
Daniel Webster
against protective tarrif of 1816
Internal improvements
Included roads, canals, railroads; essentially, an internal transportation network that would bind the country together.
liberalism
A political ideology that emphasizes rule of law, representative democracy, rights of citizens, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes.
Cyrus
Founder of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Between 550 and 530 B.C.E. he conquered Media, Lydia, and Babylon. Revered in the traditions of both Iran and the subject peoples.
headrights
Encouraged the importation of servant workers by offering the importer several acres of land.
election of 1932
Herbert Hoover/republican ("prosperity around the corner") vs. Franklin D. Roosevelt/democrat (3 R's- "relief, recovery, reform)= Roosevelt
New South
came after Reconstruction, vision included a self-sufficient Southern econonmy built on modern capitalistic views, industrial growth, and improved transporation
diffusion
The spreading of something more widely
Funan
An early complex society in Southeast Asia between the first and sixth centuries C.E. It was centered in the rich rice-growing region of southern Vietnam, and it controlled the passage of trade across the Malaysian isthmus. (p. 191)
henry the navigator
(1394-1460) Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa. (p. 425)
Murad
shared power in Egypt, defeated by Napoleon, led Mamluks
Holy Roman Empire
Germans, Italians, French, Hungarians, Slavs
Augustus
Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate. (151)
For blacks, emancipation meant all of the following except
A) the ability to search for lost family.
B) the right to get married.
C) the opportunity to form their own churches.
D) the opportunity for an education.
E) that large numbers would move nor
e
Yangdi
Second member of Sui dynasty; murdered his father to gain throne; restored Confucian examination system; responsible for construction of Chinese canal system; assassinated in 618.
Carlsbad Decrees
Issued by Metternich, required 39 independent German states, including Prussia and Austria, to root out subversive ideas. (censorship) Also established permanent comittee with spies to punish any liberal or radical organization.
cuneiform
Sumerian writing made by pressing a wedge-shaped tool into clay tablets
Shang
The dominant people in the earliest Chinese dynasty for which we have written records (ca. 1750-1027 B.C.E.). Ancestor worship, divination by means of oracle bones, and the use of bronze vessels for ritual purposes were major elements of Shang culture.
Abbasid
The dynasty that came after the Umayyads. Devoted their energy to trade, scholorship, and the arts.
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson's philosphy - trusts were busted so government must now regulate business
Granger Laws
railroad rates and practices were monitored by the government 5: 1865-1900
lydians, phoenicias, hebrews
Lydians: coined money, cosistent prices Phoenicias: power naval city-states, alphabet using 22 letters, Hebrews: 1000 bce judaism, monotheistic, gods chosen people
Meiji Restoration
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
Fulton's Folly
The steam-boat invented by Robert Fulton
charter colonies
financed by companies as an investment and populate a region
Genenva
a city in germany which calvin made the most rigerous protestant regime in. he made it god's world
683. Napoleon III
Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, and elected emperor of France from 1852-1870, he invaded Mexico when the Mexican government couldn't repay loans from French bankers. He sent in an army and set up a new government under Maximillian. He refused Lincoln's request that France withdraw. After the Civil War, the U.S. sent an army to enforce the request and Napoleon withdrew.
Schism
The formal separation of a church into two churches or the withdrawal of one group over doctrinal differences.
Margaret Sanger
fiery feminist who led the organized birth control movement. She openly championed the use of contraceptives.
Referendum
(TR) passed only by being referred to the voters
new frontier
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.
President Jefferson
He believed in a less aristocratic presidency. He wanted to reduce federal spending and government interference in everyday life. He was a Democratic-Republican (originally an Anti- Federalist), so he believed in strict interpretation of the Constitution.
Moctezuma II
Last Aztec emperor, overthrown by the Spanish conquistador Hern?n Cort?s. (p. 437)
Philippine insurrection
Before the Philippines were annexed by the U.S. there existed tension between U.S. troops and Filippinos. eventually we entered into a war with the Philippines.
Half-Way Covenant
A Puritan church document; In 1662, Allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
American Federation of Labor
Organized skilled workers, repudiated violence, and fought for higher wages and better working conditions.
Federal Trade Commision
A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy
Reserved powers
Powers given to the state government alone.
83. Quitrents
Nominal taxes collected by the crown in crown colonies, or by the proprietor(s) of proprietary colonies.
faction
a group or clique within a larger group, party, government, organization, or the like:
Tydings McDuffie Act
(FDR) 1934, provided for the drafting and guidelines of a Constitution for a 10-year "transitional period" which became the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines before the granting of Philippine independence, during which the US would maintain military forces in the Philippines.
grandfather clause
said that you couldnt vote unless your grandfather could
Booker T. Washington
as an American educator, author and leader of the African American community. He was freed from slavery as a child, gained an education, and as a young man was appointed to lead a teachers' college for blacks
Gerald Nye/ Nye Committee
chaired a committee that investigated America's entry into WWI. The committee concluded that economic interests played a major role in American military intervention on the side of the Allies. Lead to the Neutrality Acts
Flint Sit-Down Strike
work stopage in which workers refuse to leave a factory, Dec 30 1936-Feb 11 1937, considered the most important strike in American labor history- a battlefield in Flint that changed the face of America. changed the United Automobile Workers (UAW) from a collection of isolated locals on the fringes of the industry into a major union and led to the unionization of the domestic United States automobile industry.
Great Depression-
the economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s.
Joseph Stalin
Leader of the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death in 1953 who succeeded Lenin; created a purely communist totalitarian state; industrialized Russia very quickly through a series of Five Year Plans
When did Australopithecines start?
3 to 4 million years ago
Schechter v US
This court case, involving the blue eagle status from the NRA, declared the NRA unconstitutional.
Office of Price Administration
went to work controlling inflation through price ceilings on commodities and rents, as well as establishing rationing through local War Price & Rationing Boards
Force Acts
The four Force Acts passed by the Congress of the United States shortly after the American Civil War helped protect the voting rights of African-Americans.
Compromise of 1850
Devised by Clay - California was free state, stricter Fugitive Slave Law, ended Slave Trade in DC
643. Suspension of habeas corpus
Lincoln suspended this writ, which states that a person cannot be arrested without probable cause and must be informed of the charges against him and be given an opportunity to challenge them. Throughout the war, thousands were arrested for disloyal acts. Although the U.S. Supreme Court eventually held the suspension edict to be unconstitutional, by the time the Court acted the Civil War was nearly over.
Irish Potato Famine
All the potatoes in Ireland went bad, so most of the Irish immigrated to America and started working in factories.
Stab in the Back
Myth that the Jews and Socialists conspired to surrender to the Allied Forces, used by Nazis
The Anasazi Peoples
lived (roughly) about the same time as the Hohokam: ad 1- ad 1300, in the 4 corners (Utah,Colorado,Arizona, New Mexico), built great stone dwellings called pueblos, Pueblo Bonito: huge, resembles an apartment building, four stories high, one hundred rooms; left in about 1300 because of a drought.
1773 Boston Tea Party
Due to British East India trading company's full monopoly on Tea due to surplus.
535. Carolina and Creole Affairs
A group of Canadian malcontents determined to free Canada from British rule made looting forays into Canada from an island being supplied by a ship from Carolina. The Canadians burned the vessel and killed an American on board. The Creole Affair involved slaves who mutinied and killed a crewman, then sailed to the Bahamas, where the British let them all go. The U.S. wanted the slaves back, but Britain refused. The ship stolen by the slaves was the Creole.
1137. Bruce Barton, The Man Nobody Knows, 1925
Advertising executive Barton called Jesus the "founder of modern business" because he picked men up from the bottom ranks and built a successful empire.
Juan and Eva peron
was the second wife of President Juan Perón (1895-1974) and served as the First Lady of Argentina from 1946 until her death in 1952.
Alexander Hamilton's Early Economic Plan
Trickle down economics were best, pay off debt at par plus interest to strengthen National credit. Convinced congress to take over state debt
The Dred Scott Case
Scott was not a US citizen and therefore couldn’t sue, (2) residence in free territory didn’t make him free and (3) Congress couldn’t ban slavery from any territory anyway.
1601. Supreme Court: Doe v. Bolton, 1973
Supreme Court found that physicians consulted by pregnant women had standing to contest the constitutionality of the state's abortion law.
In which areas were the Mayan and Aztec civilizations similar?
They both practiced human sacrifice.
1280. "Cash and carry" revision of neutrality
Stated the warring nations wishing to trade with the U.S. would have to pay cash and carry the goods away in their own ships. Benefitted the Allies, since German ships could not reach the U.S. due to the Allied blockades.
Stamp Act and Stamp Act Congress
Met in New York City with delegates from nine colonies in 1765 to discuss grievances. Had little effect at the time but was big step towards colonial unity. Helped repeal act in 1766.
1. Royal Colonies2. Proprietary3. Self-governing
Three types of government in the 13 colonies
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