AP world history test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Xuanzang
...
shi'a
followers of Ali
Luddites
Early-nineteenth-century artisans who were opposed to new machinery and industrialization.
Edmund Ross
acquitted Andrew Johnson
Primogeniture
right of inheritance belongs exclusively to the eldest son
Orwell:
(1903-1950) 1984 -ultimate anti utopian literature. Dictator(Big Brother) and totalitarian state strip a weak individual of his dignity. "if you want picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face." Bestseller.
whigs
conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin. Included Clay and Webster
flying money
Chinese credit instrument that provided credit vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage; reduced danger of robbery; early form of currency
dharma
in Hinduism, the duties and obligations of each caste
liability
legal responsibility for loss or damage
Harriet Beecher Stowe
wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin
Three-fifths Compromise
compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for enumeration purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives. It was proposed by delegates James Wilson and Roger Sherman.
Mohammad al-Razi
published a medical encyclopedia (during the Abbasid Dynasty)
Cleopatra VII
tried to reestablish Egypt's independence; her involvement with Rome led to her suicide and defeat
nonaligned Nations
Developing countries that announced their neutrality in the Cold War. (p. 846)
Counter-Reformation
(Or Catholic Reformation) denotes the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent (1545-1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War, 1648 as a response to the Protestant Reformation. The Counter-Reformation was a comprehensive effort, composed of four major elements:
-Ecclesiastical or structural reconfiguration
-Religious orders
-Spiritual movements
-Political dimensions
Such reforms included the foundation of seminaries for the proper training of priests in the spiritual life and the theological traditions of the Church, the reform of religious life by returning orders to their spiritual foundations, and new spiritual movements focusing on the devotional life and a personal relationship with Christ, including the Spanish mystics and the French school of spirituality. It also involved political activities that included the Roman Inquisition. However, in this movement to strengthen the authority of the Catholic Church, it has been argued that it also inadvertently helped set the stage for the Scientific Revolution, which would eventually present a more fundamental challenge to that authority.
States' rights
The anti-federalists opposed the constitution because they thought it did not give enough power to the states. They believed that each state deserved certain rights that were not clearly defined in the constitution but were pertinent in democracy. Since these rights were not included in the original draft of the constitution there was a delay in the ratification process until the states were granted individual powers in an added clause.
Wanag Anshi
confucian scholar and chief minister of a song ruler in the 1070s; introduced sweeping reforms based on legalism; advocated greater state intervention in society
gospel of wealth
justifies riches of the wealthy
maghrib
the arabic term for western north africa
Stone Mountain
Davis, Lee, and Jackson's statues carved here in GA (KKK meeting place)
Uthman
Third caliph and member of Umayyad clan; murdered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt; death set off civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan
Sigmund Freud
His hypotheses were used as justification for wild, sexiness of 20s. Claimed that repressed sexual urges were the cause of many ills.
Grandfather Clause
clause included in the state constitutions of several southern states after the Civil War placing high literacy and property requirements for voters whose ancestors did not vote before 1867. These clauses were designed to interfere with African-American citizens' right to vote
Sofala
Southern port with gold produced in the interior, controlled by Kilwa
Horizantal Intergration
Owning many different types of business that can logically work in synergistic ways
Nelson Mandela
leader of the African National Congress who was jailed for his opposition to apartheid in South Africa; later elected president in 1994 in the first free election; the first black president of South Africa instrumental in a new democratic constitution being written in 1996
Parthians
Iranian ruling dynasty between ca. 250 B.C.E. and 226 C.E. (p. 204)
Amerigo Vespucci
an italian navigator from florence, made two voyages to the new world and wrotea a vivid account of the lands, America is named after him , his name first appeared on maps in 1507
Plymouth Bay
where the pilgrims aboard the Mayflower landed
Fourteenth Amendment
Made former slaves citizens and provided for equal protection of the laws for all citizens.
African National Congress
What does ANC stand for?
1269. Ethiopia
Mussolini invaded, conquering it in 1936. The League of Nations failed to take any effective action against Mussolini, and the U.S. just looked on.
Fall of the Byzantine Empire
- - -
flora
the aggregate of bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms normally occurring on or in the bodies of humans and other animals:
John Winthrop
Calvinist, devised concept of "city on a hill" ("A Model of Christian Charity"); founded highly successful towns in Massachusetts Bay
Indian Civil Service
The elite professional class of officials who administered the government of British India. Originally composed exclusively of well-educated British men, it gradually added qualified Indians. (p. 661)
Kush
an African states created on the upper Nile that conquered and ruled Egypt for centuries
Thirteenth Amendment
1865 - Freed all slaves, abolished slavery.
c
The Embargo Act of 1807 and the neutrality legislation of the 1930s were alike in that both
A) prevented American ships from sailing for foreign ports.
B) prevented American citizens from lending money to belligerent countries.
C) relieved the federal government of the necessity of enforcing the right of freedom of the seas.
D) were intended to coerce America's traditional enemy, Great Britain.
E) prohibited Americans from traveling on ships of belligerent nations.
Thomas Paine
wrote Common Sense in 1776; helped American public recognize the need to separate from the crown
high interest rates
name one drawback to acceptin investment capital from first and second nation
Lech walesa
is a Polish politician and trade-union and human-rights activist.
gunpowder
The formula, brought to China in the 400s or 500s, was first used to make fumigators to keep away insect pests and evil spirits. In later centuries it was used to make explosives and grenades and to propel cannonballs, shot, and bullets.
Benito Mussolini
the Fascist dictator of Italy from 1922-1943; led Italy to conquer Ethiopia in 1935; joined Germany in the Axis pact in 1936; and allied Italy with Germany in World War II; overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy
freedom summer
In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.
Robert E. Lee
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
Moctezuma II
Last Aztec emperor, overthrown by the Spanish conquistador Hern?n Cort?s. (p. 437)
Jamestown
Established city in one of the first colonies named after King James I.
Conquered Areas: Turks
Central Asia; Middle East; Asia Minor
John Marshall
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court during Marbury vs. Madison and other landmark legal cases, and was a Federalist.
Economics
the study of how society manages its scarce resources
Incident in which a British warship, patrolling off Hampton Roads, Virginia, attacked an American naval vessel and impressed supposed deserters.
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
Brigham Young
A Mormon leader that led his oppressed followers to Utah in 1846 to escape persecution. Under Young's management, his Mormon community became a prosperous frontier theocracy and a cooperative commonwealth. He became the territorial governor in 1850. Unable to control the hierarchy of Young, Washington sent a federal army in 1857 against the harassing Mormons. Brigham Young led the Mormons essentially to their freedom y establishing a home in Utah. However, his untraditional beliefs caused many controversies and forced Washington to march a military campaign in order to contain the Young who was becoming to powerful.
Dawes Act
An act that removed Indian land from tribal possesion, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.
Stono Rebellion
A 1739 uprising of slaves in South Carolina,which led to the tightening of already harsh slave laws.
First Continental Congress
albany union- This was the first gathering of Americans as a response to the coercive acts. It was a group to complain about them and how unfair they are. It was a meeting in philadalphia- unified America with one cause. All colonies except Georgia came. Not a unified body. Came op with a restrained declaration of rights and resolves-define American greivences.
Brown vs Board of Education
Decision saying, segregation in SCHOOLS is a violation of the 14th amendment, 1954
Battle of Long Island
American defeat where Washington led his troops across Hudson river to the Delaware river
Oberlin, ; MtHolyoke,
Oberlin: founded by a New England Congregationalist at Oberlin, Ohio. First coed facility at the college level. The first to enroll Blacks in 1835. Mt. Holyoke: founded in 1837 in South Hadley, Massachusetts. Became the model for later liberal arts institutions of higher education for women. Liberal colleges.
Turkish Empires
Ruler is a khan - Excellent Calvary and archers = unstoppable - Establish empires in Persia, Anotolia and India
Compromise of 1850
Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War
Roe v. Wade
(1973) legalized abortion on the basis of a woman's right to privacy
William and Mary
ended the Dominion of New England, gave power back to colonies
Labor Unions
First formed in the mid 1800s in response to detoriating work conditions due to industrilization and met with violent opposition from industry.
pg. 870
P
 
Marshall Act
In this proposal Truman called for spending 12.5 bilion dollars over four years into sixteen countries that needed help. This successfully helped France and Italy which was more importantly best at keeping them out of the influence of communism.
Election of 1932
early 20th century, took place as effects of Stock Market crash and Great Depression were being felt intensely across country, Hoover's popularity failing, FDR used to his advantage and promoted New Deal policy, won by landslide
El Alamein
Town in Egypt, site of the victory by Britain's Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery over German forces led by General Erwin Rommel (the 'Desert Fox') in 1942-1943. (p. 793)
76. Woolens Act, 1699
Declared that wool produced in the colonies could only be exported to Britain.
Hepburn Act
(TR) 1906, , Gives the ICC the power to set maximum railroad rates, finally giving the agency enforcement power
code of hammurabi
set of laws that dealt with business practices, property ownership, medical practice, marrige, and childcare
Free Trade Agreement
The free trade agreement or the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The agreement eliminated most trade barriers between America, Canada, and Mexico
general douglas macarthur
He was one of the most-known American military leaders of WW2(He liberated the Phillipines and made the Japanese surrender at Tokyo in 1945, also he drove back North Korean invaders during the Korean War)
 
 
 
 
317. Rutgers v. Waddington, 1784
 
In 1783, the New York State Legislature passed the Trespass Act, which allowed land owners whose property had been occupied by the British during the Revolution to sue for damages. Rutgers sued in the Mayor’s Court over the seizure of her brewery, and the Mayor, James Duane, declared the Act void because it conflicted with a provision of the Treaty of Paris. It was the first time a U.S. court had declared a law unconstitutional, and was an important precedent for the later U.S. Supreme Court decision in Marbury v. Madison.
22. Passed in 1906, this act required federal inspectors to examine meat. This was a progressive reform under T. Roosevelt. This act was spurred by Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, which exposed the horrible conditions in the meatpacking industry
The Meat Inspection Act
1497. Cuban Missile Crisis, 1963
The Soviet Union was secretly building nuclear missile launch sites in Cuba, which could have been used for a sneak-attack on the U.S. The U.S. blockaded Cuba until the U.S.S.R. agreed to dismantle the missile silos.
in 1787-1789, who was most likely to oppose ratification of the constitution?
farmers in isolated areas
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Set up a unified government for the towns of the Connecticut area (Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield). First constitution written in America.
King George III
King George the third was the king of England in the 1770's.Though he was a good man he was not a good ruler. He lost all of the 13 American colonies and caused America to start to gain its freedom.
Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer
Concerned the powers of the presidency, strike by steel workers. Court said that the President had no power to seize the mills... the Constitution did not expressly give him the power to do it, nor did it indirectly by the commander-in-chief power and Congress had not given it either.
1071. Mexican Migration to the U.S.
In the 1800's, Mexicans began moving north to work in agriculture. In the 1920's, they moved into the cities. Men outnumbered women. They faced racial discrimination from Whites.
Women, their rights, areas of discrimination
In the 1800's women were not allowed to be involved in politics or own property, had little legal status and rarely held jobs.
Pollock v. Farmer's Loan and Trust Company
The court ruled the income could not be taxed. In response, Congress passed the 16th Amendment which specifically allows taxation of income (ratified 1913). Because Tariffs were cut tax of income suplemented it.
Dependent Economy
-
asylum
any secure retreat
Jonathan Edwards
new light minister
triple alliance
the alliance (1882–1915) of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
Cotton
was more profitable than tobacco
shogun
Japanese title of chief general
Reformation
The Protestant Reformation, also called the Protestant Revolt or the Reformation, was the European Christian reform movement that established Protestantism as a constituent branch of contemporary Christianity. It was led by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants. The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to ("protested") the doctrines, rituals and ecclesiastical structure of the Catholic Church, led to the creation of new national Protestant churches. The Catholics responded with a Counter-Reformation, led by the Jesuit order, which reclaimed large parts of Europe, such as Poland. In general, northern Europe, with the exception of Ireland and pockets of Britain, turned Protestant, and southern Europe remained Catholic, while fierce battles that turned into warfare took place in the centre. The largest of the new denominations were the Anglicans (based in England), the Lutherans (based in Germany and Scandinavia), and the Reformed churches (based in Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands and Scotland). There were many smaller bodies as well. The most common dating begins in 1517 when Luther published The Ninety-Five Theses, and concludes in 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia that ended years of European religious wars.
caliph
head of state, military commander, chief judge, and religious leader
hellenistic
Describing Greek history or culture after the death of Alexander the Great
gods in egypt
stable and not anthropomorphic
(multiple) Congress objected to the readmission of Southern states to the Union under Johnson's plan because
a. the states had adopted Black Codes that limited the civil rights of freed slaves.
b. the states had been readmitted without consultation with
abcd
During the age of imperialism, American wanted a foreign marked for surplus goods T or F
T
European Union
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
tatars
Mongols; captured Russian cities and largely destroyed Kievan state in 1236; left Russian orthodoxy and aristocracy in tact
marxism
is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Marxism holds at its core a critical analysis of capitalism and a theory of social change.
Stalin
Wanted to expand Communism throughout Europe during the Cold War. Was thought to have been bringing an iron curtain over Europe.
Bacon's Rebellion
Violent Conflict in virginia (1675-76). many settlers (wealthy new arrivers and poor) freed indentured servants and moved to Vir. western frontier. came in conflict with indians. a group of settlers attacked the indians and indians struck back. nathanial Bacon led settlers in a violent campaign against indians (even ones at peace with colonial gov). william berkely ordered halt of attacks. Bacon marched on jamestown. burned colonial capital at jamestown and indian villages. House of Burgesses passed allowing them to sieze lands belonging to indians who left villages w/o permission. bacon died and Berkeley arrested 23 rebels. Powhatans lived in poverty.
Renaissance
A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture. Usually divided into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century, and a Northern Renaissance 1400-1600 (445)
atahualpa
son of one of llanya copacs consorts-young vital athletic, and is good friends with is dad, gets northern(rich) half of territory
Space race
a competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union
ethnocentric
believing in the superiority of one's own ethnic and cultural group, and having a corresponding disdain for all other groups
(C.100)
Aurangzeb
despotic ruler, whose strict laws led to divisions and decentralization of government in the Mughal Empire, extended his empire over the whole Indian subcontinent
american liberty league
a conservative anti-new deal organization, members included alfred smith, john w. davis, and the du point family. it criticized the "dictorial" policies of roosevelt and what it percieved to be his attacks on the free enterprise system
The financial panic of 1893 started the rebirth of the Gilded Age T or F
F
Hoplite
a citizen-soldier of the Ancient Greek City-states. They were primarily armed as spear-men.
guru
a Hindu or Buddhist religious leader and spiritual teacher
diaspora
A Greek word meaning 'dispersal,' used to describe the communities of a given ethnic group living outside their homeland. Jews, for example, spread from Israel to western Asia and Mediterranean lands in antiquity and today can be found in other places.103
Dhimmi
people of the book, including Hindus and Buddhists
Zheng He
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa. (pp. 355, 422)
Abelard
Peter,Author of Yes and No; university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology; demonstrated logical contradictions within established doctrine. (p. 385)
Roger Williams
minister from Salem, Massachusetts who thought taking land from Indians was wrong, believed in church and state to be separate, but was banished and then harbored by Indians and founded Rhode Island

Jay’s Treaty
The Treaty eliminated British control of western posts within two years, established America's claim for damages from British ship seizures, and provided America a limited right to trade in the West Indies.
The oldest college in American, which reflected Puritan commitment to an educated ministry
Harvard
colonnaded
a series of regularly spaced columns supporting an entablature and usually one side of a roof.
Mycenae
Site of a fortified palace complex in southern Greece that controlled a Late Bronze Age kingdom. In Homer's epic poems Mycenae was the base of King Agamemnon, who commanded the Greeks besieging Troy. (74)
Union Pacific Railroad
Railroad from Omaha, Nebraska to Ogden, Utah
Walter Reed
This doctor helped combat the yellow fever problem in Cuba, experimenting upon soldier volunteers. He determined that the stegomyia mosquito was the carrier, and orchestrated a cleanup of mosquito breeding places, wiping out yellow fever in Havana.
Brooklyn Bridge
A suspension bridge across the East River in New York City
political machines
an organization linked to a political party that often controlled local government
Republican party
Political party that believed in the non-expansion of slavery and comprised of Whigs, Northern Democrats, and Free-Soilers, in defiance to the Slave Powers
strict construction
the belief that all powers not specifically granted to the central government were reserved to the states under the Constitution; the belief that what the Constitution did not permit it forbade; proposed by Jefferson
Robert M. LaFollette
governor of Wisconsin; "Fighting Bob"; most militant of the progressive Republican leaders; wrestled control from railroad and lumber industries; regulated public utilities; elected 1901
Thirty Years War
Protestant rebellion against the Holy Roman Empire ends with peace of westpahlia.1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
mass deportation
Removal of entire peoples used as terror tactic by Assyrian and Persian Empires. (95)
Suez Canal
Built accross Isthmus of Suez to connect Mediterranean Sea with Red Sea in 1869; financed by European investors; with increasing indebtedness of khedives, permitted intervention of British into Egyptian politics to protect their investments
Most Europeans
were entirely unaware of the existence of the Americas prior to the 15th century
monsoon system
The weather system that affected the sea trade routes in the Indian Ocean. Summer winds blew from the southwest. Winter winds blew from the northeast.
Ida Tarbell
most notable journalists who used a magazine to reveal the corruption among the railroad barons
164. Continental Association
Created by the First Continental Congress, it enforced the non-importation of British goods by empowering local Committees of Vigilence in each colony to fine or arrest violators. It was meant to pressure Britain to repeal the Coercive Acts.
Committees of Correspondence
Samuel Adams started the first committee in Boston in 1772 to spread propaganda and secret information by way of letters. They were used to sustain opposition to British policy. The committees were extremely effective and a few years later almost every colony had one. This is another example of the colonies breaking away from Europe to become Americans.
the basic pattern of the distribution of status and wealth in a society
social structure
Lyndon B Johnson
dealt with Vietnam War, Great Society program for improvement of American society, anti-poverty and anti-discrimination programs
Jay Gould
Man who controlled the stocks of the Erie, Kansas Pacific, Union Pacific, Texas, and Pacific railroads
1539. Watergate tapes
Tapes which proved Nixon was involved in the Watergate scandal. Although he withheld them at first, the Supreme Court made Nixon turn over these recordings of the plans for the cover-up of the scandal.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Tried to start Roanoke Island but failed.
John Slidell
A diplomat sent by Polk to buy California, New Mexico, and Texas from the Mexicans. Mexico rejected his offer and Polk sent Taylor's army into Mexico
impresario
The organizer or manager of a music or dance enterprise.
3000 BCE
Date: Beginning of Bronze Age - Early Civs
Yamagata Arimoto
One of the leaders of the Meiji Restoration. (p. 722)
The Pinckney Treaty
Treaty with Spain which opened trade and redefined Florida boundary (1795)
Hundred Flowers Bloom
critics in China were encouraged to speak out against the gov't and were later killed
Tordesillas
Treaty of ____ Spain gets west of the line.
114. General Braddock
British commander in the French and Indian War. He was killed and his army defeated in a battle at the intersection of the Ohio, Allegheny, and Monongahela Rivers, known as the Battle of Fallen Timbers. After his death, his colonial second-in-command, Col. George Washington, temporarily lead the British forces.
Poor Richards Almanac
most famous almanac full of wise sayings such as "Honesty is the best policy"
dogmatic
of, pertaining to, or of the nature of a dogma or dogmas; doctrinal.
Emancipation Laws
These laws were created out fo fear of the violence free blacks would generate. Their growing minority would serve as an example for blacks still in slavery. The new laws made it more difficult for owners to set their slaves free.
Schism in Islam
(650s) The Shia / Sunni split which occurred in the decades immediately following the death of the Prophet Mohammed in 632
Scramble for Africa
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts.
Treaty of Portsmouth
a treaty between Japan and China that ended the Sino-Japanese War in which Japan was granted Chinese port city trading rights, control of Manchuria, the annexation of the island of Sakhalin, and Korea became its protectorate
A. Philip Randolph
Labor and civil rights leader in the 1940s who led the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; he demanded that FDR create a Fair Employment Practices Commission to investigate job discrimination in war industries. FDR agreed only after he threatened a march on Washington by African American
Which of the following Russian developments was NOT adopted in other east European states?
Economic autonomy from the West
Roosevelt's Big Stick policy
"speak softly and carry a big stick"-wanted to build the reputation of the US as a world power.
Treaty of Paris (1763):
The 1763 Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years War in Europe and the parallel French and Indian War in North America. Under the treaty, Britain won all of Canada and almost all of the modern United States east of the Mississippi.
chartered Cities
A charter city is a city in which the governing system is defined by the city's own charter document rather than by state, provincial, regional or national laws.
House of Burgesses
In 1619 this was the first form of government established by the Virginia Company. Govenor could control laws.... they controlled salary
871. Joel Chandler Harris (1848-1908)
Wrote the "Uncle Remis" stories, which promoted black stereotypes and used them for humor.
Instead of letting European countries come in, the US would send gunboats to Latin American countries until debts were paid off
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
Independent Treasury System, Van Buren and Polk
Meant to keep government out of banking. Vaults were to be constructed in various cities to collect and expand government funds in gold and silver. Proposed after the National Bank was destroyed as a method for maintaining government funds with minimum risk. Passed by Van Buren and Polk.
In the 1780s what contributed to disatisfaction with the Articles of Confederation?
a farmer's revolt in Massachusettes against the collection of state taxes,
states refusing to honor the Treaty Of Paris, worthless paper money printed by many states, states restricting trade with one another
Secure political power for the majority of the people
A similarity of the goals of Nelson Mandela and Mohandas Gandhi is that both leaders wanted to
1169. Five Powers Treaty, Four Powers Treaty, Nine Powers Treaty
Five Powers Treaty: Signed as part of the Washington Naval Conference, U.S., Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy set a ten year suspension of construction of large ships and set quotas for the number of ships each country could build. Four Powers Treaty: U.S., Japan, Britain, and France agreed to respect each others possessions in the Pacific. Nine Powers Treaty: Reaffirmed the Open Door Policy in China.
1600-1690CE
Scientific Revolution
19th amendment
women's suffrage
Luftwaffe
the German airforce
Isis
Egyptian goddess of fertility
mandates
Governments entrusted to European nations in the Middle East in the aftermath of World War I; Britain occupied mandates in Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and Palestine after 1922.
Hay
Issued the Open door notes
Cixi
Ultraconservative empress in Qing (Manchu) dynasty China. Ruled china in the turbulent late 19th century, not as a true Empress but as an Empress Dowager.
Pericles
495-420 B.C.E.; Aristocratic leader who guided the Athenian states through the transformation to full participatory democracy for all male citizens, supervised construction of the Acropolis, and pursued a policy of imperial expansion taht led to teh Peloponnesian War
Holocaust
Term for Hitler's attempted genocide of European Jews during World War II; resulted in deaths of 6 million Jews.
Charlemagne-
is Charles the Great; Carolingian monarch who established substantial empire in France and Germany c. 800.
Popular Front:
Liberal, socialist, and Communist parties in France that forged a short-lived alliance in the 1930s.
Benjamin Franklin
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.
Byzantine Economy
traded with far away countries
Sectarian
Devoted to a particular religious sect, particularly when referring to religious involvement in politics
versatile
(used of persons) having many skills
Emporia
from emperors, merchant, traveler, to pass through
King Fernando
Sponsored Columbus' voyage in 1942
Diocletian
Roman emperor who was faced with military problems, when that happend he decided to divide the empire between himself in the east and maximian in the west. he did the last persecution of the Christians
Kenyatta, Jomo
Leader of the nonviolent nationalist party in Kenya; organized the Kenya Africa Union (KAU); failed to win concessions because of resistance of white settlers; came to power only after suppression of the Land Freedom Army, or Mau Mau.
Minamoto
Defeated the rival Taira family in Gempi Wars and established military government in 12th century Japan
Catherine the Great
German-born Russian tsarina; combined selective Enlightenment ideas with strong centralizing policies; converted the nobility to a service aristocracy by granting them new power over the peasantry.
New France
French colonies in North America; extended from St. Lawrence River along Great Lakes and down Mississippi River valley system
Pure food and drug act
formed the FDA
Pickney's Treaty
Spain fears Anglo-US alliance, grants some Florida, free Mississippi navigation
Amerind
of or pertaining to American Indians or their culture or languages; The first wave of Asians that migrated to America probably spoke this language
Minoans
One of the early proto-Greek peoples from 2600 BCE to 1500 BCE. Inhabitants of the island of Crete. Their site of Knossos is pictured above.
devshirme
'Selection' in Turkish. The system by which boys from Christian communities were taken by the Ottoman state to serve as Janissaries.
Homer
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)
Norwegians
a Scandinavian language that is spoken in Norway. the North Germanic language of Norway.
Louisiana purchase
the constitution said nothing about purchasing land
• Napoleon offered Jefferson Louisiana for a cheap price
Muckrakers
1906 - Journalists who searched for corruption in politics and big business
Canton
a small administrative division of a country
Johnson Impeachment
(AJohn) fired someone who was on tenure, only republican, democrats looking for reason to get rid of him
Yongle
Reign period of Zu Di (1360-1424), the third emperor of the Ming Empire. He sponsored the building of the Forbidden City, a huge encyclopedia project, the expeditions of Zheng He, and the reopening of China's border to trade and travel
Christian Missionaries
People sent by the Christians to convert people to Christianity. They also spread the idea of Christianity through schools.
Colorado
This state was admitted to the Union in 1876 as "the Centennial State." It was the offspring of the Pike's Peak gold rush.
swazi and lesotho
African states formed by peoples reacting to the stresses of the Mfecane. (wars among Africans in southern Africa during the early 19th century)
Novrongo and Kiev
important city trade centers of Rus
6.6 Bernard Baruch
Advied Wilson and Roosevelt on economic matters. Chairman of War Industries Board created under Wilson.
Ohio River Valley
Linked French claims in America; important to fur trappers, French survival
Iroquois League
a league of Iroquois tribes including originally the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca (the Five Nations)
Roman Principate
A term used to characterize Roman government in the first three centuries C.E., based on the ambiguous title princeps ('first citizen') adopted by Augustus to conceal his military dictatorship.
Constantine
Roman emperor from 312 to 337 BCE; established second capital at Constantinople; attempted to use religious force of Christianity to unify empire spiritually
continental paper money
currency authorized by congress to finance the revolution and depreciated to near worthlessness
Spread of Christianity in the Mediterranean basin and Southwest Asia
2nd Century CE
Shang Dynasty
the imperial dynasty ruling China from about the 18th to the 12th centuries BC., earliest recorded time period of China, skill in making bronze objects. Formed around 1766 BC, maybe later. Ruled by a strong monarchy. Agricultural society, tending to crops. Members of elite had much free time.
blackshirts
1. a squad paid by the national fascist party of italy to fight socialst and communist organizations.
2. this won the loyalty of bith factory owners and landowners to the party.
british name for native american raids on western fortifications after the french and indian war
pontiacs conspiracy
Kristallnacht
Night of Broken Glass, Nov 9 1938 night when the Nazis killed or injured many jews & destroyed many jewish propertys
Eleanor Roosevelt
FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women
Francisco Pizarro
Led conquest of Inca Empire of Peru beginning in 1535
Benedict Arnold
He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Lawyer and politician who studied law under her father. Was denied to speak at the World Anti-slavery convention
Mao Zedong
Chinese Leader who took China for the Communists
Sharecropping
a type of famr tenacy in which the tenant agrees to share part of the crop in lieu of rent and often to receive seed and other necessary capital goods
umma
term that came to refer to the entire population of Muslim believers
Alfred (Thayer) Mahan
Navy officer whose ideas on naval warfare and the importance of sea-power changed how America viewed its navy
silk roads and sea
In eastern hemisphere goods traveled through two primary routes
maximilien robespierre
1. led the committee of public safety in post-revolutionary france.
2. after tw years the french were fed up with his witch hunt and beheaded him with the guillotine he used on many others.
Taiwan Quemoy Matsu****
(DDE) 1953, Eisenhower said that they would aid Nationalist China, but if they acted against Taiwan, they would repel
first confiscation Act
Passed on August 6, 1861 and stated that any property belonging to confederates used in war could be seized by federal forces. Any slaves used by their masters to benefit the war would be freed.
Which of the following statements concerning bedouin society is NOT accurate
Clans were commonly congregated together in larger tribal groupings
The Chesapeake Incident
An incident that happened on June 22, 1807. The Chesapeake, a US frigate, was boarded by a British ship, the Leopard. The Chesapeake was not fully armed. The British seized four alleged deserters (the commander of the Chesapeake was later court martialed for not taking any action). This is the most famous example of impressment, in which the British seized American sailors and forced them to serve on British ships. Impressment was one of the major factors leading to the War of 1812.
Dartmouth College v Woodward
College wants to keep King's Charter; Marshal rules against states
Brown v. Board of Education
1954) Court ruled that seperate facilities were not equal. Instructed integration. Overruled Plessy v. Furgeson
charles darwin
1. wrote a book on the origin of species.
2. developed the theory of evolution by natural selection.
Federal Reserve System
(WW) 1913 , independent agency in the federal executive branch. Established under the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, the Federal Reserve System ("Fed") is the central bank of the United States. One of the most powerful agencies in the government, it makes and administers policy for national credit and monetary policies. The Fed supervises and regulates bank functions across the country, thus maintaining a sound and stable banking industry, able to deal with a wide range of domestic and international financial demands
Balfour Declaration of 1917
British promise to the Jews that they would receive a nationalist homeland
american colonists especially resented the townshend acts because
the revenues from the taxation would go to support british officials nd judges in america
what was the result of the brit blockade in w1812
the convention at hartford
Highway Act of 1956
was enacted on June 29, 1956, when a hospitalized Dwight D. Eisenhower signed this bill into law. Appropriating $25 billion for the construction of 40,000 miles (64,000 km) of interstate highways over a 10-year period, it was the largest public works project in American history to that point.
The Results of the Great Awakening
religion grew and split into the "new lights" and the "old lights"
The end of the gupta empire differed from the decline of Rome in that it did not involve
the introduction of a new religion for the majority
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