AP World History Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Japanese nuclear family
Emancipation Proclamation in US
elite Ottoman military group
Ottoman requirement that the Christians in the Balkans provide young boys to be slaves of the sultan
mongol forces basic fighting units
Degree-granting institutions of higher learning. Those that appeared in Latin West from about 1200 onward became the model of all modern universities. (p. 407)
a natural inclination or tendency:
Old Lights
traditional religious people; orthadox clergymen,
shi huangdi
emperor of the Qin dynasty
1781, American defeat British in Carolina; General Nathanael Greene exhausted General Charles Cornwallis
Religion of early Japanese culture; devotees worshipped numerous gods and spirits associated with the natural world; offers of food and prayers made to gods and nature spirits.
theory that all knowledge originates from experience. It emphasizes experimentation and observation in order to truly know things.
Well educated, didnt think america could win.
one of the earliest Christian kingdoms, situated in eastern Anatolia and the western Caucasus and occupied by speakers of this language.
First permanent English settlement in North America.
Catholic Reformation
Restatement of traditional Catholic beliefs in response to Protestant Reformation (16th century). During the mid-to-late 1500s (especially at the Council of Trent, which lasted from 1545 to 1563), the Catholic Church worked to eliminate the worst of its financially and spiritually corrupt practices.
sponsored creation of impressive religious art and architecture (gave birth to Baroque movement)
approved formation of Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
cemetery containing burials of young children, possibly sacrificed to the gods in times of crisis, found at Carthage and other Phoenician settlements in the western Mediterranean. (p. 108)
(AJohn) northern whites who moved to the south and served as republican leaders during reconstruction
the title of the ancient Egyptian kings
Albany Plan
a proposal formed by Benjamin Franklin, when delegates from Pennsylvania, Maryland, New York and New England met in Albany, (established concept of colonial unity),here they tried to negotiate a treaty with the Iroquois, by setting up a general government that would manage relations with Indians, but war was already breaking out and no one in the colonial assembly approved it.
Neolithic time period
8000 b.c.e - 2000 b.c.e
worked the land using the owner's machinery and seed. Generally got supplies and half the crop for their effort. Tenant farmers worked the land but used their own equipment and draft animals and bought their own seed. Usually earned ¾ of cash crop and 2/3 subsistence crop
where more than 50 South Carolina blacks along the Stono River unsuccessfully tried to march to in 1739 (stopped by local militia)
Marshall Plan
Program of substantial loans initiated by the United States in 1947; designed to aid Western nations in rebuilding from the war's devastation; vehicle for American economic dominance
Carolina Regulators
Western frontiersmen who in 1768 rebelled in protest against the high taxes imposed by the Eastern colonial government of North Carolina, and whose organization was crushed by military force by Governor Tryon in 1771. In South Carolina, groups of vigilantes who organized to fignt outlaw bands along the Western frontier in 1767-1769, and who disbanded when regular courts were established in those areas.
18th Amendment
Ratified 1919, called for Prohibiton in the U.S.
trans-siberian railroad
constructed in 1870s to connect european russia with the pacific; completed by the end of the 1880s
middle passage
second side trading triangle between england and africa, and the americas, and the americas and englad
George Whitefield
Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights."
shays rebellion
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
supremacy clause
constituion, treaties entered into by the us, and laws passed by congress are superior to state laws
Cattle Ranchers
Other common occupations on the Western frontier.
Jeffersonian Republicans
one of nations first political parties, led by Thomas Jeffrson and stemming from the anti-federalists, emerged around 1792, gradually became today's Democratic party. The Jeffersonian republicans were pro-French, liberal, and mostly made up of the middle class. They favored a weak central govt., and strong states's rights.
rising or tending to rise again; reviving; renascent.
Smoot-Hawley Tariff
1930 raised tariffs extremely high on manufactured goods
Cultural Revolution
Campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation.(p. 848)
border states
were important to control for the union, if they seceeded the union would be lost
Mashall Plan
$12.5 billion to friendly nations from US
Louis XVI
Bourbon ruler of France who was executed during the radical phase of the French Revolution.
World Bank
a United Nations agency created to assist developing nations by loans guaranteed by member governments
Agricultural Revolution
between 17th and 18th centuries in Britain a time of increased agricultural productivity which helped lead to the Industrial Revolution
known as the strip from Mexico to Midwestern United States and Canada, where the native Americans have inhabited over time
John Peter Zenger
published articles critical of british governor William Cosby. Then taken to trial, but not found guilty. The trial set a precedent for freedom of the press in the colonies.
Mandate of Heaven
the justification of rebellion that stated that the current regime had fallen out of favor with the gods and so should be removed; used for the first time to justify the Zhou taking over from the Shang
The Quebec Act
1774. designed to incorperate Fr. Canadians into American Empire. Quebec extended to Ohio Valley, Catholicism made official religion, and nonrep govt. established. Condemned by colonists because most were protestant, they themselves were denied migration, and they feared a precedent was established with nonrep government.
A Hindu god considered the creator of the world.
tribute system
A system in which defeated peoples were forced to pay a tax in the form of goods and labor. This forced transfer of food, cloth, and other goods subsidized the development of large cities. An important component of the Aztec and Inca economies. (p. 307)
Alexander Hamilton
Hamilton emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the outspoken leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers. Later, as secretary of treasury under Washington, Alexander Hamilton spearheaded the government's Federalist initiatives, most notably through the creation of the Bank of the United States.
Khyber Pass
The pass between the Kush mountains where the Indus RVC was able to trade with the Mediterranean for food.
Judicial Review
supreme court had final say in interpreting the constitution
established by Marbury v. Madison
type of democracy of the Jackson Era
new democracy
Treaty of Paris (1782)
The British recognized the independence of the United States. It granted boundaries, which stretched from the Mississippi on the west, to the Great Lakes on the north, and to Spanish Florida on the south. The Yankees retained a share of Newfoundland.
fine, light silt deposited by wind and water. It constitutes the fertile soil of the Yellow River Valley in northern China. Because loess soil is not compacted, easily worked, but it leaves the region vulnerable to earthquakes. (p.58)
mass consumerism
refers to the spread of deep interest in acquiring material goods and services spreading below elite levels, along with a growing economy capacity to afford some of these goods. While hints of mass consumerism can be found in several premodern societies, it developed most clearly, beginning in western Europe, from the 18th century onward.
fraternal organization
A society of men drawn together for social purposes and sometimes to pursue other common goals.
German Immigrants
German 48ers - protestant - has more money than irish ppl, came because of religious prosecution
Anne Bradstreet
A poet who wrote about women in puritan America; first published female colonial author
Jay's Treaty
Washington sent John Jay to London in 1794; fearful of war with Britain, he secretly supplied the British with details of America's bargaining strategy; British promised to evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and to pay damages for recent seizures of American ships; British forced Jay to make the U.S. pay the debts still owed to British merchants on pre-Revolutionary accounts; infuriated Jeffersonians and the French
William Bradford
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
Getulio Vargas
Dictator of Brazil from 1930 to 1945 and from 1951 to 1954. Defeated in the presidential election of 1930, he overthrew the government and created Estado Novo ('New State'), a dictatorship that emphasized industrialization. (823)
Suez Canal
Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882.
civil service
A system of hiring and promotion based on the merit principle and the desire to create a nonpartisan government service.
Republican Party
The Republican Party came about as a response to the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Those who opposed it, for various reasons, Whigs and Democrats, came together to form the Republican Party, which in 1854, won enough seats in Congress to organize the House of Representatives in alliance with other groups. 4: 1825-1865
Gen. William T. Sherman
commanded union army in TN
1864 captured Atlanta,GA
on way to take Savannah, burned barns and houses
163. Galloway Plan
A plan proposed at the First Continental Congress which would have created an American parliament appointed by colonial legislatures. It was defeated by one vote.
Books written by women about women and taught that women could overcome adversity.
Sentimental novels
New England Confederation
1643- Formed to provide the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies.
96. Theories of representative government in legislatures: virtual representation, actual representation
Virtual representation means that a representative is not elected by his constituents, but he resembles them in his political beliefs and goals. Actual representation mean that a representative is elected by his constituents. The colonies only had virtual representation in the British government.
National Defense Education Act
Passed in response to Sputnik, it provided an oppurtunity and stimulus for college education for many Americans. It allocated funds for upgrading funds in the sciences, foreign language, guidance services, and teaching innovation.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
Praying Towns and Indians
Mass Tribe Indians willing to try Christianity; established by the society of propagation of the gospel in new England
Motives for European Exploration
God- After the Reformation, people had a new found faith and respects for the church. Europeans wanted to spread Christianity to other parts of the world, including the teachings of the Gospel. Religion was a means of control. The more people controlled by a religion, the more power that religion had, and thus the more chance of dominance. Europeans believed they could save souls through Christian salvation. They also believed it was their duty to spread the word of God.
Gold- In general, wealth was a driving motivation of European exploration. The Ottoman Turks had taken control of the eastern Mediterranean and Europeans wanted to find a new route to Asia for trading. The rise in new monarchs led to the competition for wealth through trade and conquering new lands. Upper class men, especially in Spain, had limited power and wanted to seek their fortune elsewhere (Americas especially). Individual explorers, such as Christopher Columbus (although he wanted to spread religion as well) wanted profit and recognition to their name. The spice market was also a huge profit of trading and several countries tried to gain control of spice trade.
Glory- Somewhat mentioned in "gold," individuals and countries wanted recognition to their name. Prestige was a driving force for exploration. The more land and money a country owned, the better their chance of domination in Europe.
1481. "Impeach Earl Warren"
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Earl Warren used the Court's authority to support civil rights and individual liberties. He authored Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas and Roe v. Wade decisions. His liberal attitudes led conservative groups to brand him a communist and lobby for his impeachment.
Tennessee Valley Authority
this hired thousands of people in one of the nations poorest regions, the Tenessee Valley, to build dams, operate electrical power plants, control flooding and erosion,etc; it sold electricity to residents at lower than private power companies
1318. Winston Churchill (1874-1965), "Iron Curtain" speech
March, 1946 - He reviewed the international response to Russian aggression and declared an "iron curtain" had descended across Eastern Europe.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Set up a unified government for the towns of the Connecticut area (Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield). First constitution written in America.
warring states period
the period from 5th century BC to the unification of China by the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC when regional warlords battled amongst each other and there was no ruler
What 3 things does Implementation include?
1. creating/assigning an agency the policy
2. turning policy into rules, regulations and forms
3. coordinating resources to achieve the goals
what was the mandate of heaven designed to promote
loyalty to emperor centralization of power in the state, the remoteness of emperor from subjects explanation of the decline of dynasties
373. Rush-Bagot Treaty, Great Lakes
1817 - This treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain (which controlled Canada) provided for the mutual disarmament of the Great Lakes. This was later expanded into an unarmed Canada/U.S. border.
What nations makeup NATO and what was the Soviet response?
12 nations: US, Britain, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemburg, Canada, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, and Portugal
-The Soviet's response was to create the Warsaw Pact
273. Implied powers, elastic clause, necessary and proper clause
Section 8 of Article I contains a long list of powers specifically granted to Congress, and ends with the statement that Congress shall also have the power "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the forfegoing powers." These unspecified powers are known as Congress' "implied" powers. There has long been a debate as to how much power this clause grants to Congress, which is sometimes referred to as the "elastic" clause because it can be "stretched" to include almost any other power that Congress might try to assert.
Adams' VP
Xia Dynasty
2000 BCE
dukes, counts, earls, barons
Sun Yat-Sen
Chinese nationalist revolutionary, founder and leader of the Guomindang until his death. He attempted to create a liberal democratic political movement in China but was thwarted by military leaders. (p. 768)
Usually they were wealthy, well-educated, and unified by the desire for a powerful, centralized. George Washington and Benjamin Franklin were Federalist. Wanted an orderly, efficient government that could protect their economic status. Didn't think a bill of rights was necessary.
Radical Marxist political party founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1903; seized power in November 1917 during the Russian Revolution.
Orginization that brought togeter intellectuals and political leaders from areas of Africa and African diaspora before and after WW1.
Andean lineage group or kin-based community. (p. 312)
A religious reform movement which challenged political and ecclesiastical authority of the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages.
putting off, prison sentence or punishment
Walt Whitman
A nineteenth-century American poet. His principal work is Leaves of Grass, a collection of poems that celebrates nature, democracy, and individualism.
Ottoman empire was established by whom?
a seafaring Scandinavian people who frequently invaded Europe during the Middle Ages
the capital of the Mauryan Empire
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other.
Chautaugua Movement
Nationwide public lectures, often featuring prominent speakers.
Suffolk Resolves
organize militia, end trade with Britain, refuse to pay taxes to Britain
Networks of iron (later steel) rails on which steam (later electric or diesel) locomotives pulled long trains at high speeds. First railroads were built in England in the 1830s. Success caused a railroad building boom lasting into the 20th Century (704)
Why did Japanese forces attack Manchuria?
Natural resources
Latin West
Historians' name for the territories of Europe that adhered to the Latin rite of Christianity and used the Latin language for intellectual exchange in the period ca. 1000-1500.
Which of the following is true regarding the Marbury v. Madison case of 1803?
A) The case involved the Judiciary Act of 1803.
B) The Supreme Court upheld a law of Congress that was challenged by Jefferson.
C) The case was the first to involve the principle of judicial review by the Supreme Court.
D) The Supreme Court declared an action by the president unconstitutional.
E) Chief Justice Marshall and President Jefferson held similar political views.
The Association
created by the First Continental Congress; called for a complete boycott of British goods- nonimportation, nonexportation, and nonconsumption; in an attempt to get legislation from Parliament repealed
Jeffersons Presidency
reduced # of govnt employees
slashed army and navy
abolisted taxes(not protective tariff)
paid of part of natn'l debt
doctrine of John Calvin that adhered to the idea that each person's fate is predetermined by god
Ruler of Athens who zealously sought to spread Athenian democracy through imperial force
William McKinley
Republican nominee in 1896, creditable Civil War record, lived in Ohio
Nicholas Trist
U.S. diplomat who negotiated the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
First Temple
A monumental sanctuary built in Jerusalem by King Solomon in the tenth century B.C.E. to be the religious center for the Israelite god Yahweh. The Temple priesthood conducted sacrifices, received a tithe or percentage of agricultural revenues. (102)
Balfour Declaration
Statement issued by Britain's Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine. (p. 761)
Radio (KDKA)
A radio station licensed to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Created by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation on November 2, 1920, it has claimed to be the world's first commercially licensed radio station, a distinction that has also been challenged by other stations.
a political movement that advocates a greater economic and political cooperation among nations
League of Nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s. (763)
Warsaw Pact
The 1955 treaty binding the Soviet Union and countries of eastern Europe in an alliance against the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. (p. 836)
tired of tsar, don't believe in ANY gov't, used violence
Communist Manifesto
Karl Marx's 1848 work decrying the excesses of capitalism and predicting the
rising of the proletariat to establish a just, egalitarian society.
commissioner system
This type of city government appoints experts to run the city affairs. It was implemented by Galveston, Texas in 1901.
The formula, brought to China in the 400s or 500s, was first used to make fumigators to keep away insect pests and evil spirits. In later centuries it was used to make explosives and grenades and to propel cannonballs, shot, and bullets. (p. 289)
Rosa Parks
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
cow towns
Terminal points for cattle like Dodge City; Abilene, Kansas; Ogallala, Nebraska; Cheyenne, Wyoming
Zheng He
was a Chinese mariner of Turkic/Semu descent, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral, who made the voyages collectively referred to as the travels of "Eunuch Sanbao to the Western Ocean" (Chinese: 三保太監下西洋) or "Zheng He to the Western Ocean", from 1405 to 1433
Mansa Musa
Ruler of Mali (r. 1312-1337). His extravagant pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca in 1324-1325 established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world.
a strip of dry grasslands on the southern border of the Sahara; also known as "the shore of the desert"
indentured servants
colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years
Federal Trade Commision
A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy
a state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms
Russo-Japanese War
War between Japan and Russia over territory in Manchuria; Japan defeted Russians mainly because of its naval power; Japan annexed Korea in 1910 as a result of military dominance.
Tories (Loyalists)
fought for return to colonial rule, usually conservative (educated and wealthy)
Define Urban Dispersal
Resettling people in small communities in the country's vast open spaces
4. He was a revolutionary Filipino who commanded his Filipino troops to help American George Dewey to acquire Manila from Spain. He later led Filipinos against the U.S. in 1899 because of their denied freedom after the war.
Emilio Aguinaldo
Congress of Racial Equality
interracial group of protesters who aimed to dramatize the violations of the call for desegregation; harsh treatment by southern whites provoked Kennedy to more strictly enforce desegregation
Francisco Corronado
Arizona, New Mexico, All the way to Kanasas he found
1105. League of Nations
Devised by President Wilson, it reflected the power of large countries. Although comprised of delegates from every country, it was designed to be run by a council of the five largest countries. It also included a provision for a world court.
Sati Ritual
Once a Hindu's husband died, the wife were required to throw themselves on the funeral pyres of their dead husbands.
Guatemalan Coup
(1954) The CIA started a coup on Guatemala's President Jacobo Arbenz because he took land from the United Fruit Company.
King Clovis
united the Franks in the late fifth century; built an empire from Germany to France; capital at Paris; empire divided among his sons after his death
Harpers Ferry
1859 John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged
Treaty of Paris, 1783
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.
Compromise of 1850
(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
Bill of rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
835. Johns Hopkins University
A private university which emphasized pure research. It's entrance requirements were unusually strict -- applicants needed to have already earned a college degree elsewhere in order to enroll.
Quebec Act
After the French and Indian War, the English had claim the Quebec Region, a French speaking colony. Because of the cultural difference, English had a dilemma on what to do with the region. The Quebec Act, passed in 1774, allow the French Colonist to go back freely to their own customs. The colonists have the right to have access to the Catholic religion freely. Also, it extended to Quebec Region north and south into the Ohio River Valley. This act created more tension between the colonists and the British which lead to the American Revolution.
the noble class or the body of nobles in a country.
Emancipation of Serfs
1861 by Czar Alexander II - most ambitious attempt at reform in Russia during 1800s - some government officials began to think that Russia could develop economically only if serfdom were abolished
National Socialist (Nazi)
Led by Adolf Hitler in Germany; picked up political support in chaos of the Great Depression; advocaed authoritarian state under a single leader.
stock exchange
A place where shares in a company or business enterprise are bought and sold. (p. 460)
Marbury v. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).
Dominion of New England
1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
kentucky and virgina resolutions response
southeners started using it to nullify
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
part of FDR's New Deal, employed young men on conservation projects, it kept men off the streets and gave them hope and dignity.
collapse of the gupta empire
Huns invaded India, and the empire slowly lost more and more influence to these Huns
758. Andrew Mellon (1855-1937)
One of the wealthiest bankers of his day, and along with other business tycoons, controlled Congress.
Muhammad ibn Qasim
At age 17 was an Arab general.
He led warriors into Sind to avenge the assault on Arab shipping.Declared the region of the Indus valley provinces of Umayyad Empire.
Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO)
created by Johnson to provide array of educational, housing, employment, and healthcare programs for the poor.
What is the Command-and-control Policy?
gov't tells a business how to reach certain goals, checks the progress and punishes offenders
The Federalist
what was it?
who was involved?
What was it- a series of article advocating the ratification of the US constitution and to shape future interpretations of it
Who was involved? was written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison
Two reasons Jackson used to  back up Spoils System
1. Anyone could do it
2. Everyone deserved the oppurtunity
???? i dont really know, i did not catch exactly what Mr. Avery said on this one.
middle colonies
founder of Buddhism
city of prophet muhammad
Nongovernmental Organizations
Nonprofit international organizations devoted to investigating human rights abuses and providing humanitarian relief. Two NGOs won the Nobel Peace Prize in the 1990s: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (1997) and Doctors Without Borders (1999). (p. 8
France demanded coal-rich German inhabited Rhineland & Saar Valley. Wilson opposed bec. it would violate their self determination
French-speaking Acadians who were moved to Louisiana to protect Britain from being overthrown in the newly acquired Canadian territory- Roman Catholic
Jacob Coxey
Leader of Coxey's Army
Douglas MacArthur
(FDR), surrender the Phillippines during WWII, He was the supreme allied commander during the Cold War in 1945. After World War II, MacArthur was put in charge of putting Japan back together. In the Korean War, he commanded the United Nations troops. He was later fired by Harry Truman for insubordination.Allied commander and five star general in the U.S. army. He headed the U.S. army in Japan and Korea but was fired by Truman for questioning the actions of his superiors in the midst of the Korean war.
area of Greece, lost by Ottomans
Who was the last inca ruler?
period of new ideas in Europe
Spanish and Austrian, ruling family, dreamed of uniting Europe under Catholic Rule, stopped by Adolphus, enemies of France/Richelieu.
Heir to the technique of historia-'investigation'-developed by Greeks in the late Archaic period. He came from a Greek community in Anatolia and traveled extensively, collecting information in western Asia and the Mediterranean lands. (128)
military leader of greatest warlord family in Japan (minimoto)
Latifundia were
enormous plantations worked by slaves
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Kentucky nominees Lincoln (republican) and Douglas (Democrat) debate at Freeport, Illinois
slavery issue debated - hurt Douglas even though he won senate seat
Marian Anderson
this distinguished African American singer had been refused the use of the Constitutional Hall in Washington, D.C by the all white Daughters of the American Revolution; Eleanor Roosevelt and Ickes promptly arranged for her to give a special concert at LM
Kitchen Cabinet
Jackson's group of unofficial advisors consisting of newspaper editors and Democratic leaders that met to discuss current issues.
Mahayana Buddhism
Great Vehicle' branch of Buddhism followed in China, Japan, and Central Asia. The focus is on reverence for Buddha and for bodhisattvas, enlightened persons who have postponed nirvana to help others attain enlightenment. (p. 181)
tax for charity; obligatory for all Muslims
By 5 thousand B.C.E Mesoamericans had discovered potential of what crop?
vertical integration
Practice where a single company controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
Monroe Doctrine
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
Sun Dance
Religious ceremony performed by Plains Indians
Napoleon Bonaparte
A French general, political leader, and emperor of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Bonaparte rose swiftly through the ranks of army and government during and after the French Revolution and crowned himself emperor in 1804. He conquered much of Europe but lost two-thirds of his army in a disastrous invasion of Russia. After his final loss to Britain and Prussia at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled to the island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic Ocean.
The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
The 'divine wind,' which the Japanese credited with blowing Mongol invaders away from their shores in 1281. (p. 365)
an Indo-European people who settled on the Greek mainland around 2000 B.C.
T'ang Dynasty
china expanded under emperor xuanzong, but it became so big that warlords were able to come in and cause its collapse. famous for its poetry. used the civil service exams. expanded transportation, paper money, and letters of credit. power was based on the military. founded the tribute system. during this dynasty was the reign of wu zhao, the first and only empress of china.
Mckinley Tariff
1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history.
Bleeding Kansas
Missouri border ruffians crossed into the Kansas to vote against slavery (led by John Brown) - severely divided the fledgling state
This first European nation to dominate trade with India
Insular Cases 1901-1903
Supreme Court ruled that constitutional rights did not automatically extend to territorial possessions like Puerto Rico and Guam
salutary neglect
Salutary neglect was the English colonial policy that allowed the colonies to grow and develop relatively unsupervised. As England was focused on fighting wars with France, colonial assemblies expanded their power and influence, graduating to self-government.
The Myth of Continents
Book focusing on unexamined assumptions about continents
Sam Houston
Governor of lone star republic and U.S. senator Led the Texas rebels, defeated Santa Anna at san Jacinto Loved union, spurned confederacy on civil war Ex-gov of Tennessee
Port city of Mali, located just off flood plain on the great bend in the Niger River. It has a population of 50,000, contained a library and university.
William Borah of Idaho & Hiram Johnson of CA, militant isolationists, opposed League of Nations -their opposition was good for Allied adversaries, gave them stronger bargaining position
in India, were priests, top of the caste system
Joseph Stalin
Stalin became dictator of Russia after Lenin's death in 1924. He led the USSR through World War II and into the Cold War. He died in 1953 and is remembered for his brutal purges in his nation. (958,959)
the epic story of the king, Gilgamesh, who searched for immortality. This is a Sumerian legend and is believed to be the first story
A grant of legal freedom to an individual slave. (p. 505)
The capital city of the Incan Empire, Located in present-day Peru
The Embargo
In order to present future incidents that might bring the nation to the brink of war Thomas Jefferson enacted a measure to prohibit American ships from leaving the United States for any foreign port in the World(the French and English ports more specifically). This was soon followed by the force act which gave the American government the ability to enforce the embargo.
Indian woman saved the life of John Smith and married John Rolfe
Japanese Internment
After the bombing of Pearl Harbor decision made to put Japanese-Americans living on the west coast in these camps. President Roosevelt authorized this order, which was validated by the Supreme Court in 1944. in 1988 government paid compensation to the surviving detainees 8: 1941-1960
Quantum Physics
Branch of science that deals with discrete, indivisible units of energy called quanta as described by the Quantum Theory
Marcus Garvey
"Black is Beautiful" Back to Africa movement
John Winthrop
Winthrop served as the first governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, establishing a theocracy (government by the Puritan religious leaders). Winthrop took advantage of a charter loophole that allowed him to transfer the governing power to Massachusetts, rather than London. Winthrop landed first at Salem (1630) but then eventually made Boston (then called Charlestown after King Charles I of England) the colonial seat of government.
a city in and the capital of Brandenburg, in NE Germany, SW of Berlin: formerly the residence of German emperors; wartime conference July–August 1945 of Truman, Stalin, Churchill, and later, Attlee. 142,860.
A people and state in the Wei Valley of eastern China that conquered rival states and created the first Chinese empire (221-206 B.C.E.). The Qin ruler, Shi Huangdi, standardized many features of Chinese society and enslaved subjects. (163)
axis powers
in World War II, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which had formed an alliance in 1936.
1514. New Left
Coalition of younger members of the Democratic party and radical student groups. Believed in participatory democracy, free speech, civil rights and racial brotherhood, and opposed the war in Vietnam.
Espionage and Sedition Act
1917 legislation that enacted harsh punishments against anyone who opposed participation in the war
War Hawks
(JM), Henry Clay and Calhoun, one of the members of congress from the south and the west who called for war with Britian prior to the war of 1812
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over. Ran for president numerous times but lost
mayflower compact
created a "civil body politic" and a measure of self-govt among the pilgrims
Way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers for Inca armies on move; relay points for system of runners used to carry messages
The last major battle of the war in which Charles Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington.
Habeas Corpus Act, 1679
British law had traditionally provided a procedure that allowed a person who had been arrested to challenge the legality of his arrest or confinement, called the Writ of Habeus Corpus, or the Great Writ. The Act imposed strict penalties on judges who refused to issue a writ of habeus corpus when there was good cause, and on officers who refused to comply with the writ.
1539. Watergate tapes
Tapes which proved Nixon was involved in the Watergate scandal. Although he withheld them at first, the Supreme Court made Nixon turn over these recordings of the plans for the cover-up of the scandal.
Benjamin Franklin
Man who said, "We must all hang together or we will surely hang separately."
Clintons Big Ditch
The Governor Clinton emptied a cask of water from the lake to symbolize the marriage of the waters. The water "baptized" the empire state and the cost of chipping fell from $100 to 4% and time dropped from 20 days to 6.
Anderson and Beaugerard
Anderson was a Union commander in Ft, Sumter when his student was attacking on the Confederate side.
76. Woolens Act, 1699
Declared that wool produced in the colonies could only be exported to Britain.
lateen sail
a triangular sail set on a long yard mounted at an angle on the mast, and running in a fore-and-aft direction. Adopted in the Late Middle Ages, and Europeans were able to sail out of the Mediterranean
Third Bank Veto
Congress tries to pass a Third Bank Bill; Tyler vetoes because believes in state's rights; his cabinet risigns(except for Secretary of State Webster) and the Whigs abandon Tyler.
Burning of Washington DC
British had ended their war with France and turned attention to the US. 4000 troops descended on Washington with little resistance and burned the Capital and White House to the ground because America burned their capital down in York.
133. Virginia Resolves
May 30, 1765 - Patrick Henry’s speech which condemned the British government for its taxes and other policies. He proposed 7 "resolves" to show Virginia's resisitence to the British policies, 5 of which were adopted by the Virginia legislature. 8 other colonies followed suit and had adopted similar resolves by the end of 1765.
Camp David Accords
The Camp David Accords were signed by Israel's leader, Menachem Begin, and Egypt's leader, Anwar el-Sadat, on September 17, 1978 and were designed to put an end to the violence in the Middle East. The treaty, however, fell apart when Sadat was assassinated by Islamic funamentalists in 1981.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia 1831
elegation of Cherokee led by Chief John Ross selected William Wirt, attorney general in the Monroe and Adams administrations, on the urging of Senators Daniel Webster and Theodore Frelinghuysen to defend Cherokee rights before the U.S. Supreme Court
Stock Market Crash 1987
(RR) 1987, due to use of computerized program trading in stocks and stock-index futures by a few large institutional investors, however spring of 1988 steady growth but many jobs were lost
Second Party System
The Second Party System is a term of periodization used by historians and political scientists to name the political system existing in the United States from about 1828 to 1854. The system was characterized by rapidly rising levels of voter interest beginning in 1828, as demonstrated by election day turnout, rallies, partisan newspapers, and a high degree of personal loyalty to party. The major parties were the Democratic Party, led by Andrew Jackson, and the Whig Party, assembled by Henry Clay from the National Republicans. It was a distinct party system. It formed over a 15 year period that varied by state. It was produced by leaders trying to win the presidency, with contenders building their own national coalitions. Regional effects strongly affected developments, with the Adams forces strongest in New England, for example, and the Jacksonians in the Southwest. For the first time two-party politics was extended to the South and West (which had been one-party regions). In each region the two parties were about equal--the first and only party system showing this. Because of the regional balance it was vulnerable to region-specific issues (like slavery). The same two parties appeared in every state, and contested both the electoral vote and state offices. Most critical was the abrupt emergence of a two-party South in 1832-34 (mostly as a reaction against Van Buren). The Anti-Masonic party flourished in only those states with a weak second party. Methods varied somewhat but everywhere the party convention replaced the caucus. The parties had an interest of their own, in terms of the office-seeking goals of party activists. The System brought forth a new, popular campaign style. Close elections brought out the voters (not charismatic candidates or particular issues). Party leaders formed the parties to some degree in their own image.
43. Staple crops in the South
Tobacco was grown in Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina. Rice was grown in South Carolina and Georgia. Indigo was grown in South Carolina.
Battles of Brandywine Creek and Germantown
(other battle a battle in the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War, was fought on October 4, 1777, at this place, Pennsylvania. The British victory in this battle ensured that Philadelphia, the capital of the self-proclaimed United States of America, would remain in British hands throughout the winter of 1777-1778.
Why might anyone leave friends and family in a settled country like England to face the extreme dangers and hardships of settling in a New World?
religious freedoms; land issues in America; political freedom
what was the whitewater land corporation scandal and how did it involve president clinton?
a failed real estate venture. clinton had been accused of pressuring david hale into giving associate susan mcdougal an illegal loan for the land deal
1221. Section 7A of the NRA
Provided that workers had the right to join unions and to bargain collectively.
Athens and Sparta cam out as major powers, Persia never threatens Greeks away
What were the results of the Persian war?
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