APES Vocab 2 Flashcards

Environmental Studies
Terms Definitions
Nitrate formula
intrinsic value
value within.
synergistic interaction
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pertaining to the land.
International Whaling Commission. Promote and maintain whale fishery stocks.
intrusive in earth
the interacting system that encompasses a community and it nonliving, physical environment. in an ecosystem, all of the biological, physical, and chemical components of an area form a complex interacting network of energy flow and materials cycling.
solar energy
energy from the sun.
Endangered Species Act. Protect critically imperiled species from extinction.
reproductive strategy in which organisms reproduce late, bear few, cared for offspring (ex. humans, elephants)
Major trophic levels:
producers-primary consumer-secondary consumer-tertiary consumer
a region’s average weather conditions over a long time, typically considered over decades.  Average temperature and average precipitation are the two major factors that determine climate of a region, together with the related factors of latitude and elevation.
deductive reasoning
reasoning that operates from generalities to specifics and can make relationship among data more apparent.
land with low-growing vegetation cover used for grazing of livestock as part of a farm, or in ranching or other unenclosed pastoral systems.
the realized social system of production, exchange, distribution, and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area. A given economy is the end result of a process that involves its technological evolution, civilization's history and social organization, as well as its geography, natural resource endowment, and ecology, among other factors.
any undesirable alteration of air, water, or soil that harms the health, survival, or activities of humans and other living organisms.
an excavation activity or operation usually carried out at least partly underwater, in shallow seas or fresh water areas with the purpose of gathering up bottom sediments and disposing of them at a different location.
a forest management technique that involves the removal of all trees from an area at a single time.
Fish and Wildlife Service. Dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife, fish, plants and their habitats.
Volatile Organic Compound. Used in paint thinners, cleaners, etc. Damages the soil and groundwater, also air pollution.
Hydrologic Cycle Components
evaporation, transpiration, runoff, condensation, precipitation, infiltration
Carbon oxides
Source: auto exhaust, incomplete combustion) (Effects: CO binds to hemoglobin reducing bloods ability to carry O, CO2 contributes to global warming) (Reduction: catalytic converter, emission testing, oxygenated fuel, mass transit
A social movement dedicated to protecting the earth's life support systems for us and other species.
A close relationship between two organisms from which both derive a benefit
the addiction to over-consumption of material goods.
Organisms that complete the final breakdown and recycling of organic materials from the remains of all organisms
o Consumer
Organism that cannot synthesize the organic nutrients it needs and gets its organic nutrients by feeding on the tissues of producers or of other consumers
an externality or spillover of an economic transaction is an impact on a party that is not directly involved in the transaction.
air pollution
various chemicals present in high enough levels in the atmosphere to harm humans, other animals, plants, or materials. EXCESS NOISE AND HEAT ARE ALSO CONSIDERED AIR POLLUTION.
black or dark brown decomposed organic material.
diversity of living things found in the natural world, refers to the different species, also includes ecosystems and the genetic diversity within a given species
the relational position of a species or population in an ecosystem. How a population responds to abundance of resources or enemies.
Pragmatic Realism
Looking honestly at both our opportunities and our mistakes by applying the principles of environmental science.
Thomas Malthus
"human population cannot continue to increase. Consequences will be war, famines, and pestilence (disease)."
inorganic N is converted into organic molecules such as DNA/amino acids and proteins
Secondary pollutants
formed by reaction of primary pollutants
mass wasting
mass movement of geological materials downhill caused by rockslides, avalanches, or simple slumping
economic development
Improvement of living standards by economic growth. Compare economic growth, environmentally sustainable economic development.
The overall ecosystem of Earth. The sum total of all the biomes and smaller ecosystems, which ultimately are all interconnected and interdependant through global processes such as the water cycle and the atmospheric cycle
Nutrient cycles/biogeochemical cycles
Global recycling systems that interconnect all organisms
These cycles include the carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and water cycles. 
Specialist species
Species that have narrow ecological roles
1.    Specialist species can live only in very specific environments.2.    This makes them more prone to extinction when environmental conditions change.3.    If the environment is constant, specialists have fewer competitors.4.    Intense competition may lead to evolutionary divergence of a single species into variety of similar species with specialized niches. 
social capital
Positive force created when people with different views and values find common ground and work together to build understanding, trust, and informed shared visions of what their communities, states, nations, and the world could and should be. Compare natural capital.
Plants such as bromeliads share a commensalism interaction with large trees in trophical and subtropical forests. what the bromeliads are an example of
• Dew point
Temperature at which condensation occurs for a given amount of water vapor
sustainable living
refers to a specific lifestyle that attempts to reduce an individual's or society's use of the Earth's natural resources.
natural selection
the tendency of organisms that posses favorable adaptations to their environment to survive and become the parents of the next generation.
the gradual accumulation of salt in a soil, often as a result of improper irrigation methods.
the conversion of water from a liquid to a vapor.
zebra mussel
a species of small freshwater mussel, an aquatic bivalve mollusk.
e term used to describe a situation where different entities cooperate advantageously for a final outcome. Simply defined, it means that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
mangrove swamps
swamps of mangrove trees that grow along many tropical coasts.
piles of loose rock produced when a mineral such as uranium is mined and processed.
sound science
results of scientific work based on peer-reviewed research.basis for our understanding of how the world works and how human systems intereact with it
Humans hold a special place in nature being centered primarily on humans and human affairs.
Secondary Air Pollutants
formed by reaction of primary pollutants
Divergent Plate Boundaries
tectonic plate spreading apart, new crust bein formed (ex. mid-ocean ridges, rift valleys)
Major insecticide groups and examples
(chlorinated hydrocarbons, DDT) (organophosphates, malathion) (carbamates, aldicarb)
environmental movement
Efforts by citizens at the grassroots level to demand that political leaders enact laws and develop policies to curtail pollution, clean up polluted environments, and protect pristine aras and species from environmental degradation.
Trophic Level/Structure
Feeding level with respect to the primary source of energy. Green plants are at the first trophic level, primary consumers are at the second, secondary consumers at the third, and so on
Ground Fires
Fires that will go underground and burn partially decayed leaves or peat.
Trophic levels
feeding levels for organisms within an ecosystem
Niche structure
the number of ecological niches, their resemblance or difference from each other, and interaction of species with each other
Is said to occur when an interaction benifits one species but has little, if any, effect on the other
the are of earth in which a particular species occurs.
developed country
countries that have a high level of development according to some criteria.
range of tolerance
Every population thrives in an optimal range of abitoic factors.
human capital
refers to the stock of skills and knowledge embodied in the ability to perform labor so as to produce economic value.
nitric acid (HNO3)
a highly corrosive and toxic strong acid that can cause severe burns.
Heat Island effect
sparse vegetation and high levels of concrete and glass allow rainfall to run off quickly and create high rates of heat absoprtion during the day and radiation and night. Tall buildings create convective updrafts that sweep pollutants into the air.
Human Carrying Capacity
Theoretical estimates of the number of humans that can "safely" inhabit the Earth
What are quarries?
Lage holes that apre formed by open-pit mining.
tragedy of the commons
Depletion or degradation of a potentially renewable resource to which people have free and unmanaged access. An example is the depletion of commercially desirable fish species in the open ocean beyond areas controlled by coastal countries. See common-property resource.
Crown Fires
These are extremely hot fires that may start on the ground but eventually burn whole trees and leap from treetop to treetop. 
Eutrophic lake
has a large or excessive supply of nutrients.  Typically is shallow with murky brown or green water with low visibility and high net primary productivity
nonpoint source
Large or dispersed land areas such as crop fields, streets, and lawns that discharge pollutants into the environment over a large area. Compare point source.
biological pest control
Control of pest populations by natural predators, parasites, or disease-causing bacteria and viruses (pathogens).
Aquatic life zone
Marine and freshwater portions of the biosphere. Examples include freshwater life zones (such as lakes and streams) and ocean or marine life zones (such as estuaries, coastlines, coral reefs, and the deep ocean).
total fertility rate
the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime.
Replacement Level Fertility
the humber of children a couple must have to replace themselves (averages 2.1 in more developed nations, 2.7 in less developed nations)
An atom (or group of) that has lost or gained one or more electrons and, consequently, has aquired a positive or negative charge
Rainshadow Effect
where an air mass moves inland from an ocean, reaches a mountain range, and as the air is forced to rise, it cools and loses moisture on the windward side.  The leeward side of the mountain will be drier due to the loss of moisture on the windward side
second law of thermodynamics
when energy is converted from one form to another, some of it is degraded into a lower quality, less useful form.
ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation)
trade winds weaken and warm surface water moves toward South America. diminished fisheries off South America, drought in western Pacific, increased precipitation in southwestern North America, fewer Atlantic hurricanes
not true of a r-selected species
offspring are large in individual size
What is a slope mine?
has a slanting passage that makes it possible to haul broken ore out of the mine in cars rather than hoisting it up in buckets.
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