Aphasia Exam 2 Flashcards

temporal lobe
Terms Definitions
Alexia
reading
dynamic
Verbal initiative
psychogenic agraphia
hysterical agraphia
Problems naming actions
Averbia
Extrasylvian sensory impairments
semantic relations
WHO Model
Impairment-structure and functionActivity-impairment in ability to do certain thingsParticipation-restrictions in carrying out desired ADLEnvironmental factors-external factors that help or impede recovery and performance
Aud. comp and reading
Receptive
Bleeding within the brain
Intracerebral hemmorrhage
core
dead tissue that sustained irreversible damage (infarct site)
Cortical/Neurogenic Stuttering
acquired stuttering; disfluencies affect #__ and V_V phones, substantives and functors across all tasks with no 2dary behaviors or adaptation effect
Wernicke's Aphasia
Severely impaired auditory comprehension, Impaired repetition and impaired naming (Jargon)
Motor: Hyperkinetic Agraphia
Huntington's disease; chorea; cerebellar ataxic agraphia
Most common defect in aphasia
Naming difficulties
circumlocution
speaking around the target without naming it
paragrammatism
associated with fluent output, some errors, but attempt of a variety of grammatical structures
Gesner (1770)
identified "speech anmesia" following brain damage; also termed "word memory" loss
temporal lobe
contains Wernicke's area and insula
Fluent Aphasia Types
Wernicke's, Conduction, Transcortical Sensory, Anomic
where is the cerebellum and pons?
metencephalon
Transcortical Motor Aphasia
Good Auditory comprehensionGood Repetitionrelatively intact namingCaused by damage to the anterior extrasylvian region
Chemical substances that may be transferred from 1 neuron to another-dopamine, acetocholine
Neurotransmitter
Clusters of nueral cells (gray matter) under cortical
Subcortical
TCM aphasia factors
Good repetition.Great at repeating stuff you say
main symptom of transcortical (aka extrasylvian motor aphasia)
intact repetition
agraphia in wernicke's:
impairment in writing ability characterized by fluent writing, well formed letters, combined in an inappropriate way; literal paragraphias ( omissions, substitutions, additions) verbal and neologistic paragraphias are also found; written language is parallel with spoken language abilities/characteristics; paragrammatisms, paragraphias
Name the 7 proposed aphaisas
Acoustic-agnostic; acoustic-amnesic; amnesic; semantic; motor afferent; motor efferent; dynamic
Percentage of left-handers
2-12%; 11.6- England; 10.4-Canada; 10.5 female and 13 men in USA; less than 1 in Korea; 9- germany; 6.7-mexico; 3.1-japan; colmbia 7.3 F and 9.4 M
dysarthria
motor speech problem due to muscle weakness, slowness, or incoordination affecting upper motor neurons
reading deficits
often parallel problems seen in auditory comprehension errors; rarely occur in isolation
Wernicke's Area
auditory association area located in the posterior part of the superior and middle temporal gyri and plays a role in language
perseveration
any response which is either repeated or continued beyond the point of completion
Anomic Profile
speech and writing-periodic WFD, few grammatical errorsaud. comp-relatively sparedrepetition-relatively sparedphysical symptoms-rarelesion location-variesbreakdowns occur with stress or during complex task completioneasy to miss
Aphasia Syndromes are categorized by
Fluency,Auditory Comprehension, Repetition and location and extent of the lesion.
Fissure where temporal lobe lies beside and below
Sylvian fissure
basic lang. characteristics of extrasylvian sensory:
fluent, paraphasic echolalic conversational speech. lang. comprehension is severely impaired.
agraphia in broca's aphasia
sparse output, effortful, clumsy calligraphy, literal paragraphias, agrammatisms (just like the speech - dysprosody, poor artic, short sentences, etc.)
Werenicke defects in writing
no changes in calligraphy; substitution of letters & words, neologisms; jargonagraphia
Motor efferent
Defects in the kinetic structure of speech
semantic paraphasia
substitute is within same category or semantically related to the target
paradoxical translation
can only translate in one direction, not in reverse
successive recovery
languages recover one after the other at different rates
Gerstmann's Syndrome
Collection of symptoms seen post LH parieto-occipital lesion: acalculia, finger agnosia, right left disorientation (body and environment), agraphia
What are the three types of white fibers?
projection
association
commissural
What would damage to the primary motor cortex do?
hemiplegia 
Fissure that is downward and forward from the top of the brain just past it's midpoint almost to the Sylvian fissure-Frontal lobe is in fornt of it
Rolanic Fissure
Responsible for initiation of motor activity
Supplementary motor cortex
Areas most susceptible to TBI
frontal lobes (orbital), temporal lobe
Stroke facts
500,000 new cases every year; 10% die; 80% surivive, 50% 10 year survival
5 subtypes of word production anomia
prefrontal anomia; articulatory initiation anomia; articulatory reduction anomia, paraphasic anomia, phonemic disintergration anomia
Aphasia is characterized by (3)
errors in speech, impaired comprehension, and word finding difficulty
verbal or global paraphasia
replacing target word with another real word
spontaneous translation
may be a sign of cognitive inhibition as patient is not asked to translate
aphasia and intelligence
2 views: intellectual capacity is lost or that intelligence is modular and maintained following onset of symptoms
Concomitant symptoms of pure alexia
right hemianopia, acalculia, inability to identify colors, occasional naming problems
What are the L and R hemispheres separated by?
interhemispheric fissure
What does the supramarginal gyrus do?
symbolic integration for writing
Fluent aphasia syndromes characterized by:
relatively normal prosody, longer utterance length (+4 words), no articulatory struggle, empty speech (lack of content words), sem./phon. paraphasias
extrasylvian sensory aphasia II (angular and parietal-occipital syndrome)
some verbal amnesia. fluent language, few paraphasias. comprehension relatively good. good repetition. significant word-finding difficulties. gerstmann's syndrome. used to be called SEMANTIC APHASIA.
spatial agraphia is usually associated with:
spatial alexia, spatial acalculia, hemi-spatial neglect, and general spatial difficulties,
Word selection anomia is associated with
normal lingusitic funcion, normal repetition; nearly normal comprehension; langauge defect is in naming, Inferior portion of the left temporal lobe (area 37)
The most important aphasic sign in cases of brin infections
language word finding difficulties
anterior temporal lesion and anomia
affects auditory naming (verbal cue describing item "woof woof")
Physical Impairments in Global Aphasia
R hemiparesis, R sensory loss, hemianopia, limb apraxia, dysarthria, apraxia of speech
What are the three membranes (the meninges) from outermost to innermost?
dura matter
arachnoid matter
pia matter 
What is non fluent aphasia
words spoken are nouns and verbs onlysmall wordsgood self monitoringMinor auditory comp.- they hear you, just hard to respond
Tumors located in the language areas are associated with
aphasic-type symptomatolgy; the slower the growing the milder the symptomatology. faster=severe
Outcome and prognosis of TBI denends on
Age, severity, duration of anmesia
Relationship between aphasia and age
Wernicke's patients tend to be 10-12 years older than those with non-fluent aphasia; average age-55
What does the supplementary motor cortex do?
planning of complex motor movements and movements under internal control
What are the 6 levels of analysis of language
Phonetic, phonemic, morphemic, grammatic, semantic, Pragmatic
Where is Broca's area located?
Brodmann 44
in front of the area of the primary motor cortex that conntrols jaw, lip, tongue and vocal cord movements 
What are the Perisylvain pre-rolandic and post-rolandic types
Pre: Broca Type I and Broca Type IIPost: Conduction, Wernicke type I and II
what is the function of th primary sensory and motor areas?
most sensory info first arrives here
primary motor area sends commands to muscles
What is the usual procedures in neuroimaging
to have standard templates of brain to find those areas related with langauge areas. With CT you could see lesion which are darker
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