Schizophrenia Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Reduced movement.
Disorganized behavior
Systained attendtion to external stimuli as if expecting something important or frightening to happen
forms long-term memories
Support of Dopamine Hypothesis

that increase dopamine levels (ex. cocaine, amphetamines) can produce positive
symptoms of schizophrenia

that block dopamine receptors (antagonists) sometimes reverse the symptoms of

“Acute” onset vs. “chronic” onset
- Acute onset: suddenly appearing psychotic symptoms with good “premorbid” adjustment
- Chronic onset: slow process of steady deterioration without periods of remission
Glutamate Hypothesis
Underactivation of glutamate receptors
Misperception or exaggeration of stimuli that actually exist in the external environment
e.g.: Wrinkles in the bed sheets talking to the individual
severe mental condition characterized by a loss of contact with reality: includes delusions and hallucinations
disruptions in speech and behaviorflat or inapporpriate affect and self absorbtionsif hallucinations or delusions are present they are usually organized around a themetend to be chonic, lack periods of remission
Disorder characterized both by a deteriorating ability to function in everyday life and by some combination of hallucinations, delusions, thought disorder, movement disorder, and inappropriate emotional expressions
Metonymic speech
Disorganized thinking
Use of words interchangeably with similar meanings
Historical medical treatments
Lobotomy, electroconvulsive therapy, insulin shock therapy (induse seizures and then coma, when the patient wakes up he is supposebly treated.)
Grandiose delusions
believed one is extraordinarily special, that one has special powers
SS: delusions/hallucinations of a persecutory and frightening naturel cognitive and negative symptoms are less prominent.
Paranoid Schizophrenic
Rhyme to think or express themselves
phases: prodromal
occurs before active phase, often involves deterioration in functioning, peculiar behaviors, social withdrawal and anger outburts
focuses on treating children who may be at riskalso may focus on birth complications and early illness especially in people are are predisposed to it.
Somatic delusions
Beliefs about abnormalities in bodily functions or structures
Negative symptoms
Missing behavior that was present before in a person before Schizophrenia Example: flat affect.
Persecutory delusions
most common delusion, often about being followed or deceived
Slowed mental or physical activities.
psychomotor retardation -
Phase where there is social withdrawal, or deterioration in personal hygiene.
prodromal phase
Sociocultural theorists argue that ______, _________, and __________ all contribute to schizophrenia.
multicultural factors
social labeling
family dysfunctioning
Better prognosis for acute onset than for chronic onset
Deterioration with each episode
Treatable disorder but as of yet no cure
vocational rehabilitation
used to help people with schizophrenia gain and maintaine empl;oyment
Dopamine Hypothesis
Positive symptoms too much dopamine increased sensitivity at synapse or post-synaptic receptors
Saying a string of words that all rhyme.
person makes up words that are only known to them
thoughts that have little or no logical connection to the nest thought.
loose associations
Various psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, flat or inappropriate affect, and catatonia that last for less than one month
Brief psychotic disorder
prodromal stage
in most cases, there is this stage about 1 to 2 years before serious symptoms appear. symptoms are similar to schizotypal personality disorder
Poverty of Speech
Very vague speech, usually slow and convey very little info.
what are the three phases of schizophrenia?
prodromal-negative symptoms, active-postive symptoms, residual-return to prodromal levels
the sudden onset of any psychotic symptom that may resolve after one day and does not last for more than one month
brief psychotic disorder
biological factors: structural brain imaging
decrease in total brain tissuelarger lateral ventriclesdecreased size of hippocampus, thalamus, amygdala
Loose associations
When a person goes on a tangin without reaching a point.
what are the symptoms of psychosis?
hallucinations, delusions, word salad, paranoia
Schizophrenia is associated with dopamine.
decreasing dopamine in the synapse decreases psychotic symptoms.
What three types of studies support the genetic explanation for schizophrenia?
Family, Twin and Adoption Studies
How does family relatedness affect schizophrenia?
The closer the relationship the more likely one is to have vs a twin... grandparent vs a sibling
Tardive dyskinesia is fairly common among schizos taking medication
52% of patients will develop these side effects
Amount of frontal lobe blood flow during rest & during tasks
blood flow @ rest - decreasedblood flow during tasks - decreased does not increase during task
frequent auditoy hallucinationsdelusions of persecution or grandeurno disorganized speech/behavior, flat affect or catatonia
Disorganized behavior
Repetative, purposeless movements that are idiosyncratic to the individual and to some degree outside of the individual's control
false sensory perceptionsmostly auditoryperceived as being real
Disorganized behavior
Behaviors or attitudes that reflect rage, hostility, and the potential for physical or verbal destructiveness
Usually comes about if the person believes someone is going to do him or her harm
disorders of the thought contentgrandeus, persecution etc
Disorganized thinking
The topic of conversation is changed to an entirely different topic that is a logical progression but causes a permanent detour from the original focus
Looks just like Parkisnson's disease
Rigidity, akinesia (slowed movement), and tremor are the classic triad
expressed emotion
negative or intrusive attitudes towards SZ patientsaffects course of disorderrelapse higher in high EE homeshigh EE more common in Western cultures
family interactions
schizophrenogenic: mother whose cold, dominant and rejecting nature was thought to cause schizophrenia in childrendouble blind: a type of comminication that produced conflicting messages resulting in schizophreniahow a family interacts contributes to relapse (expressed emotion- highly expressed emotion such as criticism, over involvement etc)
Sensory experience that does not correspond to reality
Neck muscles tense and pull head back
Repeating what people say to you
Perinatal hypoxia
oxygen deprivation in the womb
behaviors, emotions or thought processes that exist in people without a psychiatric disorder but are absent in people with schizophrenia
negative symptoms
1 of the world’s population i.e., 1 in 100
used to treat parkinsons and can produce schizophrenia like symptoms
can make psychotic symptomes wore in people with schizophrenia
Flat Affect
Behavior that doesn't express any change in mood. Voice and expressions usually just stayes flat.
Thought Disorder
Breakdown in processing of thoughts which leads to distorted speech. Distorted speech is however not unique for Schizophrenia.
Formal thought disorder
the general disorganized thought patterns of those with schizophrenia
The person had feelings of inflated worth, power, identity or special relationships to a deity or famous person
Made-up words that typically only have meaning to the person using them
Drugs that help correct grossly confused or distorted thinking
antipsychotic drugs
no active phase but shoe some negative symptoms and fewer positive symptoms
delusional disorder
persistent belief that is contrary to reality in the absence of other schizophrenia symptomstend not to have flat effect, anhedonia or other negative symptomsbecome socially isolated as a function of their delusions that are long lasting

Cite evidence supporting the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia.
The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia holds that schizophrenia results from excess activity at dopamine synapses in certain brain areas. Support for this hypothesis comes from the fact that large, repeated doses of amphetamine, methamphetamine, and cocaine can induce substance-induced psychotic disorder, characterized by hallucinations and delusions (positive symptoms of schizophrenia).
Paranoid Type or more delusions or frequent auditory hallicinatiosn 2.delusional tend to be around a theme. Example: persecution, grandeur, jealousy.
Affective flattening
severe reduction in the expression of emotional responses to the environment
a condition where all schizo symptoms are present, plus the patient suffers from a major depressive, manic or mixed episode during the illness
schizoaffective disorder
True or false: equal numbers of men and women receive a diagnosis of schizophrenia.

Explain the season-of-birth effect.
The season-of-birth effect is the tendency for people born in winter to have a slightly (5% to 8%) greater probability of developing schizophrenia than people born at other times of the year. This tendency is particularly pronounced in latitudes far from the equator. What might account for the season-of-birth effect? One possibility is complications of delivery or early nutrition. Another is viral infection. Influenza and other viral epidemics are most common in the fall. Therefore, the reasoning goes, many pregnant women become infected in the fall with a virus that impairs a crucial stage of brain development in a baby who will be born in the winter.
Most common types of delusions
Delusion of persecution, reference, being controlled, grandeur, thought broadcasting and thought insertion.
Delusion of reference
people believe that random events or comments are directed at them, related to persecutory delusions
parts of the body (usually arms) are frozen in a particular posture when positioned that way by a person.
waxy flexibility
smooth pursuit eye movement
eye tracking but keeping head still- not done easily in people with schizophrenia
Search for behavioral markers of schizophrenia
Smooth-pursuit eye movement. Tracking an object with head still: eyes move jerky. And many of their relatives!
what is shared psychotic disorder?
two people living closely together sharing the same delusion
Over the past four decades, researchers have developed a ____________________ to explain findings on schizophrenia.
dopamine hypothesis
[dopamine fire too often and transmits too many messages, thus producing the symptoms of the disorder]
what is the difference between type one and type two?
type one-dominated by positive symptoms; tied to biochemical abnormality > type two-dominated by negative symptoms; tied to structural abnormality
Folie a deux (Shared psychotic disorder)
Delusions due to living with someone else with delusions. Little is known about this condition.
schizophrenics do not have social cognition
the ability to perceive, interpret and understand social information, including other people's emotions.
The existence of abnormal dopamine levels in patients with schizo. has been established.
Too much dopamine in the limbic area is responsible for positive symptoms
Too little dopamine in the cortical areas responsible for negative symp.
/ 84

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})


{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online