A The heart_1 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
P-wave represents
Atrial depolarization
QRS complex represents
Ventricular depolarization
Enlarged R Wave?
Ventricular Hypertrophy
Innermost layer of pericardium
Visceral pericardium
Smallest and thinnest blood vessels.
Capillaries
What gives rise to blood cells?
hemangioblasts
Dysrhythmia def.
Disturbance in heart's normal rhythm
Name of sling-like structure that supports the heart
Pericardium
Ventricular fibrillation def.
Uncoordinated contraction of myocardium causing the heart muscle to quiver. The heart is unable to pump blood.
these autonomic nervous system fibers increase the heart rate
sympathetic
another name for the visceral pericardium
epicardium
Represents onset of ventricular Depolarization. Shortly after this begins ventricules contract.
QRS Compex
Conduction Myofibers. Large in Diameter conduction, causes ventricles to contract which forces blood out?
Purkinje Fibers
The right pulmonary surface is formed mainly by?
RA
The left pulmonary surface is formed mainly by?
LV
systole
contraction of heart; used mainly in VENTRICULAR contraction
The semilunar valves have how many cusps?
3
During development of the interatrial septum, the fushion of the septum primum with the AV septum/fused endocardial cushion closes the
ostium primum
Myocardium is composed of which type of muscle?
Cardiac
Apex def.
Lower pointed end of the heart
where is the fossa ovalis found?
right atrium
the "internal pacemaker" of our heart
sinoatrial node
Carries blood from the left ventricule to the body?
Aorta
Blood is what type of tissue?
Connective Tissue
Increases Blood Pressure. Increases reabsorption of water by the kidneys (DCT) and casues vasoconstriction of arterioles during diuresis and during hemorrage.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
The slit-like space between the visceral and parietal pericardium? What type of space is this?
pericardial cavity, potential
Right chamber of the heart are not only right but also _______________.
anterior
Internally the right atria is divided by the
crista terminalis
Describe ectopia cordis
pericardium and heart are exposed through a defect in the chest wall due to a failure of lateral walls to fuse in week 4
Result of left to right shunt
Ventricular Septal Defect
this structure drains the blood supply from the walls of the heart
coronary sinus
This valve lies between the right atrium and ventricle?
Tricuspid Valve
Carries blood from the right ventricle to the body?
Pulmonary Arteries
The study of the forces involved in accomplishing that feat.
Hemodynamics
Factors that regulate stroke volume.
Preload, Contractility and afterload
What seperates the base of the heart from the diaphragmatic surface?
coronary sulcus
Blood flows from the left atrium to the left ventricle through the
mitral/bicuspid valve
After the closure of the foramen ovale, the lower margin of the septum secundum forms the
annulus fossa ovalis
The only valve with two cusps is the
mitral valve/bicuspid
Name the process in which the left heart pumps blood to the rest of the body.
Systemic circulation
What kind of blood does the right heart contain?
Deoxygenated blood
What creates heart sounds?
The closing of the heart valves
Location of semilunar valves
Between ventricles and exiting great vessels (aorta and pulmonary artery/trunk)
the superior vena cava is formed in the
right atrium
What type of fluid lies between the visceral and parietal pericardium?
Serous Fluid
This carries blood that is high in O2 & low in C02?
Arteries
The vesels that carry blood from the right ventricle to lungs, and the vessels that return the blood to the left atrium.
Pulmonary Circuit
How many primary papillary muscles are in the RV?
3 (anterior, posterior, septal)
What structures drain into the right atrium?
SVC, IVC, coronary sinus
What does the truncus arteriosus give rise to?
pulmonary trunk and aorta
Describe cardiac tamponade
blood in pericardial cavity due to a stab wound or MI rupture. Usually treated by pericardiocentesis
The cardiac plexus has which fibers?
parasymp and symp., viceral afferents
The right coronary artery splits into
posterior descending artery, right marginal branch, atrial branch
Name the two exit valves of the ventricles of the heart
Right/left semilunar valve
where is the opening for the coronary sinus?
the right atrium
The heart wall is composed of three layers what are they?
Epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
What is the embryological origin of the fibrous pericardium?
fusion of the pleuropericardial folds/membrane
Why does the heart tube fold?
Bulbus cordis and ventricle grow faster than the atrium and sinus venosus
Myocardial infarction (heart attack) def.
Death of myocardial cells due to coronary artery occlusion
When is coronary blood flow greatest?
When the heart is at rest
a greater preload (stretch) on cardiac muscle fibers just beofre they contract increases their force of contraction during systole.
Frank-Starling Law of the Heart
The oblique sinus is a cul-de-sac, what does this mean?
there is no passage through it
Describe a coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
long tube is inserted into the femoral artery in the thigh through aorta to coronary. A wire is used to cross stenosis and ballon open up artery.
Describe the direction of blood flow through the ventricles
Right ventricle pumps blood thru defect into left ventricle
The transverse sinus is located posterior to what two structures?
the arch of the aorta and the pulmonary trunk
What does the bulbos cordis give rise to?
conus arteriosus of right ventricle and aortic vestibule of left ventricle
One function of the heart is to:
Provide oxygen and nutrients to every cell
The heart is displaced to the right and its vessles are reveresed, left to right. This is due to
Dextrocardia: the heart tube bends to the left instead of to the
What happens to the blood pumped by the right heart?
Picks up oxygen and dumps carbon dioxide
Patient with down syndrome has a patent ostium primum and a cleft in the anterior cusp of the mitral valve. What is thiPas called and why does it happen?
primum type of ASD due to failure of closure of ostium primum.
Where on the body do you listen for the tricuspid valve?
left/right of the lower part of the sternum near the fifth intercostal space
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