scientific revolution Flashcards

Terms Definitions
French mathematician.Published Pensees(Thoughts).Ally of Jansenists. Felt reason to weak to resolve the problems of human nature.
Blaise Pascal
Heliocentric model, ellipitcal planetary motion
Johannes Kepler
Copernicus
Discovered that the universe revolves around the Sun instead of the Earth
Galileo Galilei
an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher. been called the "father of modern observational astronomy," the "father of modern physics," the "father of science," and "the Father of Modern Science."
Considered Father of empiricism. Englishman, High Royal Official. Amateur natural philosopher. Books: The Advancement of Learning(1605); Novum Organum (1620); The New Atlantis (1627). Attacked scholasticism. Believed new knowledge would increase power of
Francis Bacon
Deism
belief that a supreme being created the universe
Published Staary Messenger, Letters on Sunspots. First to use telescope to observe heavens.Put on trial by the Church for violating a mandate from 1616.
Galileo Galilei
This philosopher is considered the father of the scientific revolution used rational basis on practical and useful knowledge in his expiriments.
Francis Bacon
Revolution’s view
That there is a reason for everything
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres 1543.Heliocentric theory
Nicolaus Copernicus
Published Discourse on Method in 1637; Meditations (1641)Mathematician; invented analytic geometry. Developed scientific method that relied more on deduction. "I think,therefore I am". Divided thinking things into two basic categories (cartesian dualis
Rene Descartes
--- was a rationalist philosopher that believed the universe shall be Governed by natural laws, and estalished natural philosophy
Isaac Newton
Johannes Kepler
best known for his laws of planetary motion
Discovered comet in 1702. No credit for dicovery until 1930
Maria Winkelmann
what is diesm?
the belief that a supreme being created the Universe.
Causes of the Scientific Revolution, How did the ren/ref encourage the Scientific revolution
Believed that there is a "Supreme Being" that created it all
Scientific Method
Made by Francis Bacon
Provided philosophical justification for strong central authority.Humans are selfish. "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, short". Leviathan (1651). "a war of every man against every man". did not believe in divine right. use coercive force to compel com
Thomas Hobbes
Francis Bacon
Created the scientific method, sometimes called the ______ian method.
Second Treatise of Government (1690).Letter Concerning Toleration (1689).critic of absolutism. government must be responsible for and responsive to the concerns of the governed. Life, Lberty, Property- Natural rights. Religious toleration. Limited auth
John Locke
Rene Descartes
Made the Cartesian coordinate system allowing geometric shapes to be expressed in algebraic equations
the use of experiment and observation derived from sensory evidence to construct scientific theory of philosophy of knowledge.
empiricism
what philosopher discovered that there is a mathematical formula to describe the movement of the planets, and discovered elliptical orbits?
Johannes Kepler
Printing Press
were first created in germany by johanes gutenbergh
He did not embrace Copernicus's view of universe. Made more naked eye observations of planets than anyone had ever done. HIs data was used by his assistant, Johannes Kepler to help prove his theory of planetary motion
Tycho Brahe
Dicovered and established the law of inertia
Galileo Galilei
what scientist belived that the sun was the center of the universe and believed earth was no Different than any other planet?
Nicholas Copernicus
wife of Duke of Newcastle. well read. only woman allowed to visit Royal Society of London. Wrote Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy (1666) and Grounds of Natural Philosophy (1668)
Margaret Cavendish
during the scientific revoltuion which scientific communtity forme in 1662?
Royal Society of London
Royal Society of London
is a learned society for science that was founded in 1660
how did the scientific revolution change how we seen our world?
people had a mechanical veiw of the universe the planet is a circle after the revolutionand not a flat surface.
Newton
Gravity, calculas
JOHN LOCKE
(1632-1704) English political philosopher of the 17th century. Summarized many of the intellectual trends of his time and exerted strong influence for the next 100 years. Educated in medicine so had a science background. Knew Newton and associated with the great Whig noblemen of the day. Left England in early 1680s but came back with the Glorious Revolution. Supported the actions of parliament in 1688 and 1689 and gave political/philosophical justification for its actions in his Second Treatise of Government.
elaborated and consolidated the experimental method
Galileo
Who believed in rationalization?
Rene' Descartes
PIERRE BAYLE
(1647-1706): French philosopher and writer of the 17th century. Influenced by skepticism and new knowledge of world and other cultures. Held that belief systems were relative to time and place/culture. Influenced by scientific discoveries of his time, the writings of Montaigne and the realization that many popular beliefs were unfounded. In his book Thoughts on the Comet (Halley's came around in his lifetime) he argued against superstitions about comets. In 1697 he published Historical and Critical Dictionary in which he reveals fallacies of many previously accepted folklores. His views encouraged toleration. He stated that no opinion was worth burning one's neighbor for. In terms of his personal faith, he changed from Protestant to RC to Jansenist to Protestant.
adam smith
Scottish professor of philosophy. Developed the idea of free enterprise, critical of mercantilism. Wrote Wealth of Nations.
Cavendish
(woman) criticized the view that humans could be masters of nature through science. Wrote a number of works.
Edward Jenner
introduced a smallpox vaccine--used cowpox as the worlds first vaccination
HELIOCENTRIC THEORY
theory of the sun-centered universe first proposed by Copernicus and later added to by Kepler and proved by Galileo. Replaced the Aristotelian and Ptolemaic view of the universe which was geocentric(earth-centered).
Isaac Newton
"Principia." Defined laws of gravity. His laws explained motion in the universe.
salons
Sci. Revo. - Scientific "book club" (e.g. Newcastle circle).
new mathmatics
Arabic numbers, introduced in the Renaissance, came increasingly into use in the 16th century. Signs for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division were introduced by Francois Vieta in 1603. This became standardized so all mathematicians used the same signs (printing press). Logarithms were introduced by John Napier (Scotland). Logarithms reduced to addition and subtraction the more complex and timely math such as multiplication and long division. Analytical Geometry was introduced by Renee Descartes in 1637. This was useful in engineering and military ballistics. Calculus was introduced by Newton and Leibnitz in the 1660s. Calculus measures quantifies variations in speed, which is useful for tabulating the motions of planets.
Galileo Galeli
wrote Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World and Two New Sciences, used the scientific method, came up with inertia, proved heliocentricity, built a better telescope and observed Jupiter's moons with it
Rococo
A popular style in Europe in the eighteenth century, known for its soft pastels, ornate interiors, sentimental portraits, and starry-eyed lovers protected by hovering cupids.
mary wollstonecraft
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
Descartes
17th c. - Used deduction (logic, not experimentation) as his method of gaining knowledge because he was a mathematician, contributed to mathematics and geometry (Cartesian coordinate plane), used radical doubt (everything that he doubted at all he had to prove), started proving with his own existence (I think therefore I am), next universe exists, God exists, advocated concept of innate ideas, Cartesian dualism; two planes of existence: material (matter) responds to natural laws and plane of soul, God, and religion, separates laws of nature and faith.
Tyco Brahe
recorded data and saw stars changing (contrary to crystal sphere belief)
What was the name of Galileo Book?
The Dialogue
French Academy of Sciences
Royal societies who saw natural philosophy as a collective enterprise. They credited discoveries to the ones who were first to publish results.
baron de montesquieu
French aristocrat who wanted to limit royal absolutism; Wrote The Spirit of Laws, urging that power be separated between executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each balancing out the others, thus preventing despotism and preserving freedom. This greatly influenced writers of the US Constitution. He greatly admired British form of government.
Tycho Brahe
16th-17th c. - Worked for (as an astronomer) and friend of Danish king who sought to disprove the Copernican theory and instead his own model that made sense scientifically and worked with scripture. Claimed the Moon orbited the Earth and the Sun orbits the Earth. All other heavenly bodies orbit the Sun. Did not succeed in satisfying both the Church and science but was able to make very precise astronomical measurements. Upon death gave his data to his assistant Johannes Kepler.
Scientific Revolution
the series of events that led to the birth of modern science
French Academy of Science
A french scientific society founded in 1672
What is Scientific Revolution?
the scientific revolution was a period when new id
What was Copernicus theroy?
He purposed that the sun was centered of the unive
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