Seedless Plants 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Rhizome
Stem.
Sori
Cluster of spores.
megaphyll
branching vein pattern
Shoot System
Stem + leaves
Equisetales
horsetails, homosporous, gametophytes are bisexual or male. sporangiophore, elaters
Horsetails are restricted to genus
Equisetum.
Whisk ferns have rhizome-like,
monoecious gametophyte.
sporophyte
dominant reproductive form of ferns
Lycopodiophyta
club mosses
1200 species
spores are flammable
Lycophytes
Phylum with predominately all microphylls
phloem
tisses where food is conducted
True leaves in ferns are called
fronds.
club mosses (we find them as...)
coal
Root
Underground organs that absorb water and minerals
lignin
substance in vascular plants that makes cell walls rigid
oogamous
What are the similarities of reproduction in seedless vascular plants?
Lycopodiaceae
club moss, have sporophyll, prostele, homosporous, sporngia located on upper surface of microphylll.
sporangiophore
umbrella like structure that bears sporangia
ginkgoes
gymnosperns with fan-likes leaves that fall off at the end of the growing seasons. (don't reproduce cones but seeds
sporangium
sporocyte undergoes meiosis to produce haploid spores
2 Types of vascular tissue
1) Xylem
2) Phloem
The monoecious gameotphyte in ferns is
called prothallus
xylem
transport water vapor and nutrients up the plant
leaf
the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants
Mesophyll
ground tissue of a leaf located between layer of epidermis
Petiole
The stalk of a leaf, attaching the blade to the stem.
Features of Ferns
- megaphylls
- true leaves
- mostly homosporous (one type of spore)
- monoecious gameotphyte
- sporangia is clustered
- fiddleheads
where is vascular tissue located
center of the roots
siphonostele
type of stele. phloem may form only outside the cylinder of xylem or on both sides of it
The ancestors of modern lycophytes, horsetails and ferns formed the
first forests (Caroniferous forest).
vasuclar tissue (what does)
specialized to conduct water and nutrients throughout the plant
Epidermis
outermost layer of the cell of a leaf and young stem root
Leptosporangium vs. EUsporangium development development
Lepto:
Each sporangium develops from a single initial cell
8 or 16 diploid sporogenous cells --> 32 or 64 haploid spores
Eu:
each sporangium develops from a group of cells
numerous diploid spore mother cells  hundreds of haploid spores
5 groups dominating the Carboniferous Age
1) Lycopod trees
2) Giant horsetails
3) Ferns
4) Seed Ferns
5) Conifer relatives with strap-like leaves.
Phloem consists of _________ cells and distributes
living,
A) sugars
B) amino acids
C) other organic products.
fronds
fern leaves
Lycopyta only group with
Microphylls.
Euphyllophyte clade
monoilophytes and lignophytes
psilotaceae, phioglossaceae, equisetophytes, maratiiales, leptosporangiate,
aneurophytes, archaeopteris, seed plants
Order ophioglassales
eusporgiate fern order
Ferns have more than __________________ species.
12,000
sporangia are in clusters called...
sori
tracheophyte
term for all vascular plants
seedless vascular plants
reproduce by spores
Lycophyta are ___________sporous or ___________sporous.
homo, hetero
rhizomes
the thick underground stems of ferns
sporocarp
group of bean shaped reprodcutive structure that survive desiccation
Cork cambium
secondary lateral meristem. produces periderm
Seed
mature ovule containing an embry. Ovule contains female gametophyte.
Structures that provide embryonic sporophyte with nutrients and help protect it
how reproduce?
w/ water and have spem
angiopserms
over 240,000 species of flowering plants: bearing fruit (ripened ovary that surrounds seed)
1.divided into monocots and dicots
sporophyte (2n)
embryonic sporophyte depends on gametophyte, adult sporophyte is independent
Sporophyll and Spore variations
a) Sporophylls
b) Sori
c) Strobili
roots are...
underground organs that absorb water and minerals from the soil.
megaphylls
larger leaf. with complex system of branching veins.
Have siphonosteles or eusteles
Odd ferns (4)
1) Psilotum (whisk fern)
-Dichotomously branched axes
-No leaves/noroots
-3 lobed sporangia
-Homosporous
2) Botrychium (Grape Fern)
-Lvs pinnately cmpd
-Veins dichotomous
-Sporangia
-separate
-pinnate pattern
3) Ophioglossum (Adder's tongue fern_
-Leaves simple
-Veins reticulate
-Sporangia
-confluent
-unbranched spike
2/3
small herbaceous plants
short stubby rhizome
adventitious roots:
crowded, stubby
mycorrhizal
leaves:
mostly just one per season
fertile & sterile portions on
common petiole
eusporangia (large rel. to other ferns)
cosmopolitan, ca 25 spp in each genus
4) Equisetum (Horsetail)
-Herbaceous perennials
-Rhizomes bearing roots & aerial stems stems hollow
-Leaves small, scale-like, in whorls
-sporangia in terminal strobilus
Leaves are organs that
increase surface area therefore capturing more solar energy for PS.
seedless vascular plants (ex)
ferns, horsetails, and club mosses
Frond
Ferns that thrive in areas with little light
Primary growth
growth that occurs relatively close to tips of roots and stems. Apical meristems. extends plant body
club mosses
produce spores in cones: look like tiny pine trees
Phylum Pterophyta includes
- ferns
- horsetails
- whis ferns (and their relatives)
alternation of heteromorphic generations
the sporophyte is larger and structurally much more complex than the gametophyte
whisk ferns
no roots or leaves: look like green wigs with llittle nodules on the sides
Microphylls leaves with a ____________________ and Megaphylls leaves with a ______________________________________.
single vein, highly branched vascular system
4 examples of seedless vascular plants?
ferns, clubmosses, horsetails, whisk ferns
Morphology and Anatomy of a Vascular Plant
3 Organs
3 Tissue systems
SPOROPHYTE is dominant
3 Organs:
1) Root
2) Stem (rhizome)
3) Leaf (frond)
3 Tissue systems:
1) Dermal (epidermis)
2) Ground (parenchyma/fibers)
3) Vascular (xylem/phloem)
underground stem
rhizome
evolution?
1st vascular plants
Whiskferns have evenly
dichotomous branching
Marsileales
have sporocarp and sori
Strobili are _____________ structures formed from groups of sporophylls.
cone-like
Horsetails (look like)
a horse's tail
stem
supporting structure that connects roots and leaves and carries water and nutrients between them
body of filicales
frond, pinnae, rachis,
tapetum
nutritive tissue in sporangium.
Part of Leptosporangium development
vascular cambion
produces secondary vascular tissues
heterosporous
megasporangium on megasporophyll --> megaspore --> female gametophyte --> egg
microsporangium on microsporophyll --> microspore --> male gametophyte --> sperm
Giant ____________ trived for millions of years in most swamps (40 m tall, 2 m in diameter).
lycophytes
veins are made of
xylem and phloem
sorus
cluster of sporangia usually on underside of a fern frond
eustele
type of stele. primary vascular cylinder consists of a system of discrete strand around a pith. almost all seed plants
microspores
produced in microsporangia. give rist to male microgametophytes
indusia
specalized outgrouwth of the leaf. protect sori
gnetopohytes
gymnosperns; can get the nedicine ephedrine from these plants
cycads
gymnosperms with huge fern like leaves;can live for 1000years. (slowing growing)
Steles
The overall configuration of vascular tissue configuration transformed over time
a) Protostele
-solid core xylem and phloem
-found in Lycophytes/early fossil vas. pl./young F
b) Siphonostele
-cylinder of xylem & phloem surrounding a pith
-found in ferns
c) Dissected setele
-vascular bundles
-found in ferns/seed plants
Xylem includes dead cells called
tracheids and vessels.
gametophyte looks like...
small heart shaped green structure
tracheid
long cell with tapered ends that transports water in the xylem
sporophylls
modified leaves, or leaf like organ that bear sporangia
ferns
have true leaves; produce spores on the bottom of leaves
Pinna
The singular part of the blade, on which there is the sori.
Monoecious means
having both male and femal structure in the same individual.
Phylum Lycophyta includes
- club mosses
- spike mosses
- quillworts
___ largest group of ___ bearing vascular plants
ferns; spore
vein
any of the vascular bundles or ribs that form the branching framework of conducting and supporting tissues in a leaf or other plant organ
cortex
ground tissue region of stem or root bounded externally by the epidermis and internally by the vascular system. primary tissue region
Peat under pressure becomes
fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, and natural gas.
primary plant body
composed of primary tissues. part of plant body arising from apical meristems
Colonization of Land
1) Depended sufficient ozone for UV portection
-made possible by O2.ozone producing PS algae
2) preceded by microbial mat communities
3) 1st plant habitats were mudflats, gravel bars, lake shores
4) Firstcomers: bryophytes & primitive vascular plants
5) mycorrhizal (fungal) symbioses present from the start
Carboniferous is the "Age of ___________"____________________, with coal being formed by the decaying plants of the carboniferous forests.
Coal, 300 million years ago
Eusporiangiate ferns and Leptosporangiate
typical or true ferns emphasized in next several slides learn life cycle of leptosporangiate ferns in detail**********
Eusporangiates include
Psilotum
Botrychium
Ophioglossum
Equisetum
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