APUSH Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Berlin Airlift
Stock Market Crash
Tenure Of Office Act
Dwight Moody
Evangelical preacher; helped immigrants & street people
habitual disinclination to exertion; indolence; laziness.
James Madison
Strict constructionist, 4th president, father of the Constitution, leads nation through War of 1812
Northern Democrats, also known as Peace Democrats, who opposed Lincoln's war policies and were concerned with the growth of presidential power. In the election of 1864, General George McClellan was nominated by the Democrats with their support.
Quarantine Speech
President Roosevelt called for positive endeavors to quarantine the aggressors- presumably by economic embargoes caused isolationists to protest that a moral quarantine would lead to a shooting quarantine.
British practice of taking American sailors from American ships and forcing them into the British navy; a factor in the War of 1812.
Minute Men
Enter your back text here.
donated 60 million to library of congress
Comstock Lode
discovery of silver/ gold in Nevada
A millennial group who believed in both Jesus and mystic named Ann Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
Charter Colony
- colonists were essentially members of a corporation and based on an agreed-upon charters
- Jamestown (1607) was the first of this type of colony.
Midnight Judges
were the last-minute appointments of judges made by United States President John Adams to the Judicial Branch.
a nativist American political movement of the 1840s and 1850s, empowered by popular fears that the country was being overwhelmed by Irish Catholic immigrants, strove to curb immigration and naturalization
Know-Nothing party:
a person or thing of no importance.
Captain John Smith
Enter your back text here.
Central Pacific
the railroad, begun in the mid-1860s, built eastward from Sacramento as part of a trans-continental railroad
Teller Amendment
Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war
The nation as a whole was the principle actor in the economy, not the individuals within it.
Rush-Bagot Agreement
Treaty between US and Britain enacted in 1817; Signed April 28-29, 1817 in Washington DC; provided for the demilitarization of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain; agreement indicated improving relations between US/Britain in the period following the War of 1812; negotiated by Secretary of State Richard Rush and British Minister to Washington Sir Charles Bagot.
Presidential Reconstruction
Put forward by Andrew Johnson, it included repeal of ordinances of secession, repudiation of Confederate debts, and ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment. By the end of 1865, only Texas had failed to meet these terms.
Lords of Trade
English government officials sent to America to enforce Navigation Acts.
stephen douglas
Senator from Illinois, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Freeport Doctrine, argues in favor of popular sovereignty- debated Lincoln
Social Security Act
Provided security for old age, specified categories of retired workers were to recieve regular payments from Washington financed by a payroll tax on employers and employees.
is an informal practice where a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party.
Spoils System
a member of the patriotic party during the Revolutionary period; supporter of the Revolution.
Glorious Revolution
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
Knights of Labor
Labor union founded by Uriah S. Stephens in 1869, that grew out of the collapse of the National Labor Union and was replaced by AF of L after a number of botched strikes
Committees of Correspondence
These started as groups of private citizens in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New York who, in 1763, began circulating information about opposition to British trade measures. The first government-organized committee appeared in Massachusetts in 1764. Other colonies created their own committtees in order to exchange information and organize protests to British trade regulations. The Committees became particularly active following the Gaspee Incident.
Horace Greeley
Founder and editor of the New York Tribune. He popularized the saying :Go west, young man." He said that people who were struggling in the East could make the fortunes by going west.
Andrew Mellon, secretary of the treasury
introduced the "trickle-down" economics theory in order to promote business and increase money available for speculation
american antislavery society
Founded in 1833 by William Lloyd Garrison and other abolitionists. Garrison burned the Constitution as a proslavery document. Argued for "no Union with slaveholders" until they repented for their sins by freeing their slaves.
COnduct of Citizen Genet
liscensed American Privateers to work for French Navy
1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
Pontiac’s Rebellion
uncle tom's cabin
an antislavery novel (1852) by Harriet Beecher Stowe.
Eisenhower Doctrine.
policy of the US that it would defend the middle east against attack by any communist country
Dominion of New England
1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
personal liberty laws
The laws were designed to protect free blacks, freedmen, and fugitive slaves by effectively nullifying the Fugitive Slave Law without actually invoking the doctrine of nullification, which is unconstitutional.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
This document was the first written constitution in the American colonies. It was prepared as the covenant for the new Puritan community in Connecticut, established in the 1630s. This document described a system of government for the new community.
a. House of Representatives: Members elected for two-year terms; number of representatives for each state based on population; all revenue bills originate in the House; power to impeach.
b. Senate: Two senators from each state, chosen by state legislature
Article 1: Legislative Branch (Congress)
New Englander's were considered self-reliant, stern, pious, proud, family oriented, "sharp of thought and mind," and industrious.
Describe the characteristics of a New Englander.
tenure of office act
1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet
was an armed engagement between a Lakota-Northern Cheyenne combined force and the 7th Cavalry of the United States Army.
Battle of the Little Bighorn
Federal Securities Act and New Deal
A federal piece of legislation enacted as a result of the market crash of 1929. The legislation had two main goals: (1) to ensure more transparency in financial statements so investors can make informed decisions about investments, and (2) to establish laws against misrepresentation and fraudulent activities in the securities markets.
Constitution: Bills become law
n order for a bill to become a law, it must be introduced to committee and be approved. Then it must be voted on by the House of Representatives, and then voted on by the Senate, or vice versa, depending on the branch in which the bill was first introduced. Finally, it must be signed by the President.
Citizen Genet
iran hostages returned
Date Jamestown, Virginia founded
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telephone
any opinion, principle, doctrine, dogma, etc., esp. one held as true by members of a profession, group, or movement.
Bacon's Rebellion
Rebellion of discontent former landless servants led by Nathaniel Bacon. Though the rebellion was crushed, it caused a move from indentured servants to African slaves for labor purposes.
Thomas Gordon
wrote Cato's letters with Trenchard
Election Of '76-custer or grant re-election
Cold War causes...
Economic/political differences between US, USSR
No direct fighting
white backlash
backlash by white racists against black civil rights advances
Wilmot Proviso
When President Polk submitted his Appropriations Bill of 1846 requesting Congress' approval of the $2 million indemnity to be paid to Mexico under the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo, Pennsylvania Representative David Wilmot attached a rider which would have barred slavery from the territory acquired. The South hated the Wilmot Proviso and a new Appropriations Bill was introduced in 1847 without the Proviso. It provoked one of the first debates on slavery at the federal level, and the principles of the Proviso became the core of the Free Soil, and later the Republican, Party.
James Buchanan
the president who hopelessly divided the only national party left in 1857 with his weak stand on the Kansas constitution.
Sears Roebuck
Chicago based catalogue company still in existence; at one time allowed people in rural areas to get manufactured goods
Ministrel Shows
White actors mimicked and ridiculed African American Culture. They became very popular.
"benevolent assimilation"
under McKinley, millions of American dollars were poured into the islands to improve roads, sanitation, and public health; "pioneers of the blackboard" helped make English the second language
how were puritan efforts to convert indians?
Right to bear arms (militia).
Amendment 2 (1791)
making marks that cannot be erased, removed, or the like:
Roger Williams
leader of Rhode Island; established complete freedom of religion (even for Jews and Catholics); sheltered everyone
Title 9
Public edu. must provide same amount of money for women as for men
Daniel Shays
Head of Shay's Rebellion; he and several other angry farmers violently protested against debtor's jail; eventually crushed; aided in the creation of constitution because land owners now wanted to preserve what was theirs from "mobocracy"
Little Big Horn
battle where Custer was killed (Sioux); Sioux victory
Cornelius Vanderbilt
Acquired fortune in the steam boating industry. He also became rich from the railroads.
Edgar Allan Poe
- Romantic Movement writer known especially for his macabre poems, such as "The Raven"
a country's power is derived from its wealth, increasing wealth requires vigorous trade, and colonies are essential to that growth. AKA the idea of unending growth. Favorable balance of trade: gold enters and goods exit.
tariff of abominations
The bill favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp, wool, fur, flax, and liquor, thus favoring Northern manufacturers. In the South, these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods, thus angering them and causing more sectionalist feelings.
MOst famous native born revivalist of of Great Awakening
Jonathon Edwards
Article 6
constitution is supreme law of the land
was the California-to-Utah portion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in North America. Many of the labor came from the Chinese.
Central Pacific Railroad
london company
a company, chartered in England in 1606 to establish colonies in America, that founded Jamestown, Va., in 1607.
Martin Van Buren
Vice President to Jackson and elected president in the election of 1836, he tried to fix the economic problems that had been caused by Jackson and passed the Independent Treasury Act
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
Pres Monroe tells foreign countries to stay out of N&S America
Phillis Wheatly (1754-1784)
An African domestic in the colonies, and a well-known colonial poet. Her poetry was ornate and elaborate.
Columbian Exposition
an exposition held in Chicago in 1893 to honor the four-hundredth anniversary of Columbus's first voyage; so-called dream of loveliness; visited by over 27 million people; raised American artistic standards and promote city planning; was a revival of classical architectural forms, and a setback for realism
Desert Land Act
1877- the federal government sold arid land cheaply on the condition that the purchaser irrigate the thirsty soil within 3 years
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
1831 - Indians weren't independent nations but dependent domestic nations which could be regulated by the fed gov.
an American leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and a colonizer of the western United States. He was the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) from 1847 until his death. He was also the founder of Salt Lake City and
Brigham Young:
homestead act
a special act of Congress (1862) that made public lands in the West available to settlers without payment, usually in lots of 160 acres, to be used as farms.
Stephen A. Douglas
the Illinois senator of the 1850s who pushed for westward expansion as a way to help the railroad interests of his state.
Whiskey Rebellion
a protest caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government, Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy
Prohibition, rise of organized crime
supported by women and churches, instituted by Volstead Act, lacked enforcement; bootlegging and speakeasies, Al Capone and John Dillinger - gangsters and organized crime (casual breaking of the law)
Berlin Wall
In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989.
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the undergro
Fugitive Slave Law
Macon's Bill No. 2
1810 - Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.
Basic Ideas/ belief of Puritans
group of religious dissidents who came to America to establish a purer church than the one in England. Influenced by John Calvin and settled Plymouth colony and settled in Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630.
Stamp Act of 1765
mandated the use of stamped paper or the affixing of stamps, certifying payment of tax; economic program directly affecting colonial policy that was initiated in response to Britain’s greatly increased national debt
Debs v. United States (1919)
certain rights of U. S. citizens are restrained during a time war time or any other time the government feels the need to censor and impair such rights.
A consequence of the shift to sharecropping and the crop-lien system was
-a cycle of debt and depression for Southern tenant farmers
Trust busting
McCarthy Anti Communism
Panic of 1837
Van Buren
Greensboro sit-in
protested segregation in stores/restaurants, Sparked similar events in all parts of the country. Eventually achieved the goal of ending segregation.
The people sitting in stayed peaceful, even though they were often attacked
cotton mather
American clergyman and author.
Douglass, Frederick
former slave, noted abolitionist lecturer, founded abolitionistnewspaper North Star.
an alternative to Catholicism, spread quickly through northern Europe
Lucretia Mott
early feminist,for liberal causes, particularly slavery abolition and women's suffrage-helped 1st covention
promoting or conducive to some beneficial purpose; wholesome.
Nullification Crisis
Southerners favored freedom of trade and believed in te authority of states over the federal government. Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void.
Northwest posts
British fur-trading posts in the Northwest Territory. Their presence in the U.S. led to continued British-American conflicts.
an organization that is authorized by law to carry on an activity but treated as though it were a single person
Jacob Riis
Danish immigrant, reporter for New York Sun, 1890 exposed New York slums in How the Other Half Lives, influenced NYC police commissioner TR
can get elected officials out of office before their terms end (like people too loyal to party bosses)
to endow with the rights of citizenship, esp. the right to vote, to free, as from bondage
This was an executive department designed to manage the Army.
War Office
suitable or fitting for a particular purpose, person, occasion, etc.:
Coercive/Intolerable Acts (1774)
Enter your back text here.
Dwight Eisenhower
The president after Truman who waged the Cold War. His secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, believed in a more aggressice stand.
Salem Witch Trials
Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem, Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18 people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.
Root-Takahira Agreement
Japan and USA respect each other's territories; Open Door Policy
Charles A. Pillsbury
Had a flour milling industry monopoly
Baron von Steuben
trained the soldiers in the continental army to be equal to that of the British
Andrew Carnegie
created the Carnegie Steel Company and soon became the biggest steel producer in America
founded in 1607 in Virginia by the London Company and 105 of dere closest friends loljk they worked for them. named after jamesie da 1st they picked mad bad land to live on so for dumb long (17 years LOL) they tried to establish a nice colony but erryone died... mad strugglez for mad long but then there was relief i guess. pretty much where all the bamfs lived and grew tobacco
colonies to provide British troops with housing and provisions.
Quartering Act (1765)
Cuban Missile Crises
US realized Russians were moving missiles in Cuba
Kennedy blockaded Cuba, demanded Soviets remove missile bases and weapons
Khrushchev removed missile sites, US lifts blockade and removes missiles from Turkey
Stamp Act
for raising revenue in the American Colonies, a plan requiring stamps and stamped paper for official documents and commercial writing
"On to Canada"
Americans' war cry when America was attacking Canada but was later changed to "Not one inch of territory ceded or lost" when the Treaty of Ghent declared a cease fire; showed American pride
Sir Walter Raleigh
An English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, Raleigh sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is known as " The Lost Colony."
George III
Became King of England in 1760, and reigned during the American Revolution.
share our wealth society
group founded by lousianna senator Huey "Kingfish" Long
Long, a populist, criticized FDR for not doing more to help those on the lower end of the scale
proposed radical taxation plans on wealthy to make "every man a king"
when Long was assassinated, the society lost its drive
Sir Robert Walpole
(1721-42) leader of Whig party opposed by conservative Whigs and Tories.
Bad Neighbor Policy
policy similar to the Ugly American image because of US's attempt to intervene with Latin American affairs and take over if necessary
Compromise Tariff of 1833
by Henry clay-gradually reduced the rates levied under the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832
a decision by the United States Supreme Court that ruled that people of African descent imported into the United States and held as slaves, or their descendants-whether or not they were slaves-were not legal persons and could never be citizens of the Unit
Dred Scott decision:
articles of confederation
the first constitution of the 13 American states, adopted in 1781 and replaced in 1789 by the Constitution of the United States.
War of 1812
War between the U.S. and Great Britain which lasted until 1814, ending with the Treaty of Ghent and a renewed sense of American nationalism
Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
(General Allotment Act) Bill that promised Indians tracts of land if they left the tribe to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes
Good Neighbor Policy
Roosevelt wanted to use this policy to keep America uninvolved in Europe and withdrawn from Asia while embracing its New World neighbors. Accented consultation and nonintervention.
was an American writer best known as the author of Ramona, and a Century of Dishonor.
Helen Hunt Jackson:
Federalist opposition to the Louisiana Purchase
Federalists opposed it because they felt Jefferson overstepped his Constitutional powers by making the purchase.
Jones Act of 1916
granted to the Philippines the boon of territorial status and promised independence as soon as a stable government could be established (later, on July 4, 1946)
bounty broker or substitute broker
a citizen of the North who "found" volunteers for the Union army was given this nickname.
This was a bank chartered by the United States Congress to handle the newly consistent currency.
Bank of the United States
Panic of 1893 and other economic panics
The Panic of 1893 was a serious decline in the economy of the United States that began in 1893 and was precipitated in part by a run on the gold supply. The Panic was the worst economic crisis to hit the nation in its history to that point. Caused by Sherman Silver Purchase Act
Thomas Eakins
Landscape Painter
Eighteenth Amendment
Ratified in 1919; prohibition.
Francis Townsend
American physician; proposed "Townsend Plan" for old-age pension during the G.D.; this proposal influenced the establishment of the Roosevelt administration's Social Security system.
Literally "divine wind," Japanese term for fighter pilots who crashed their planes into American warships during the latter stages of World War 2.
John Sullivan
Commanded patriotic forces that retaliated against the Iriquios and Brants for raiding white settlements. So he led several raids on Indian settlements causing a lot of them to flee to Canada.
Slave codes
1660's: Barbados Caribbean islands harvested many sugar plantations: rich man's crops because they needed much labor to reap, clear, and grow. The islands squeezed out all other crops and the poor farmers who couldnt afford to keep up. They moved to the Carolinas (close to the Caribbeans) and brought their African slaves to the main land. They also introduced these new rules regarding the regulation of slaves (1696). Inspired statutory governing slavery through out the mainland colonies.
Mulligan Letters
Wrote by Blaine; sleezy letters
T. S. Eliot
an Anglo-American poet, playwright, and literary critic of the modernist movement; famous for The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock.
McNary-Haugen Bill
limited agricultural sales within the US, then store/export them. Never approved
Hideki Tojo
Japan's prime minister. ordered attack on pearl harbor
1st Point
Open covenants of Peace--No more secret treaties--
leader James G. Blaine; for civil service reform (jobs given based on competence)
Thorstein Veblen
United States economist who wrote about conspicuous consumption (1857-1929)
the first of a series of actions
Eugene Debs
Prominent socialist leader (and five time presidential candidate) who founded the American Railroad Union and led the 1894 Pullman Strike
The Nineteenth Amendment
Ratified in 1920, woman's suffrage.
William Penn
Founded Pennsylvania, new colony, in 1681, founded for the Quakers. The Savannah Indians had an alliance with the Carolinas, but when they started being treated unfairly, and sold into slavery, they moved up north to this man's colony where they were promised better toleration between whites and Indians. This colony (Penns' Woodland) was the best advertised colony = liberal land policy which brought many immigrants
Captured or traded from Africa and brought to the Americas along the Middle Passage; considered property of wealthy whites, treated harshly; Essentially replaced indentured servitude
William Bradford
30-time governor of Plymouth, very popular leader; distributed land among settlers to encourage farming
the combination of companies to form monopolies
Wendell Wilkie
Republican nominee when FDR won a third term; against New Deal policies; special ambassador to FDR
Nye Committee
studied the causes of United States' involvement in World War I
Pearl Harbor
Hawaii base surprise bombed by japan on December 7, 1941, which eagered America to enter the war
Charles Evans Hughes
Secretary of State under Harding, Proposed a 10-year moratorium on the construction of major new warships at the Washington Conference
Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war (plural)
Ida B. Wells
an African American sociologist, civil rights leader and a women's rights leader active in the History of women's suffrage in the United States.
Woodrow Wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
Robert Morris
When the possibility that the United States would not prospect and default in their obligations arose it brought to the fore a group of leaders who would play a crucial role in the shaping of the Republic for several decades. He was the head of the Confederation's treasury.
Judith Sargent Murray
leading essayist that believe girls and boys' minds were just as good so both should have equal right to education.
James Oglethrope
One of the many philanthropists who founded Georgia, named after King George II. Georgia was created as a buffer state for Virgina and the Carolinas. It was to protect against the Spanish in Mexico and Florida and Indian invasion. Originally, it was produced as a haven for the poor souls imprisoned for debt. This man became keenly interested in prison reforms.
Great Puritan Migration
1630's: the first Puritans, the Seperatists to leave Britain in 1608 went to America because they did not want to live with the impurities of the Church of England. The moderate Puritans sought to change the Chruch from within. However they called for a royal charter and formed the MASSACHUSETTS BAY COMPANY. They moved to America, used the charter as a kind of constitution, and declared that they didnt want to seperate from the Church of England, only the impurites. However, many Puritans followed across the sea to escape turmoil in England. 1630 migration.
George Whitefield
most influential figure of The Great Awakening; amazing orator who appealed to the Bible; founded methodism in GA and SC
restoration colonies
colonies that were not founded until after Charles II assumed the throne; EX. NY, SC, NC
Haymarket Riot
incident in which a bomb exploded during a lobor protest in Haymarket square in chicago, killing several police officers. Resulted in the end of the Knights of labor
100 days
Period from March to June 1933 when Congress passed major legislation submitted by
Roosevelt to deal with the Depression.
Operation Overlord
code name for the invasion of Western Europe during World War II by Allied forces; D-Day landing at Normandy
19th ammendment
Adopted in 1920, gave women the right to vote
Cross of Gold
speech given by #16 which advocated free coinage of silver and inflationary economic policy
John Spargo
The Bitter Cry of the Children (child labor)
The City-Manager Plan
An approach toward reform in which elected officials hired an outside, professionally trained business manager to take charge of the government. By the end of the progressive era, most smaller cities were operating under commission, and another 45 employed city managers.
Second Continental Congress
Met in Philadelphia three weeks after the battles of Lexington and Concord. Delegates from all colonies, except Georgia, who had not yet sent a representative, met and agreed to support the war, although they did not agree with the purpose of it. There were two sides, at one extreme was a group led by John and Samuel Adams, Richard Henry Lee, and others, these people had already favored independence and wanted to gain it from the war. At the other end of the extreme was a group led by such moderates like John Dickinson who hoped for a quick reconciliation with Great Britian.
The Great Awakening
1730's-1740's, began due to the loss of religious fervor in Puritan churches/socities. 2 courses: their elaborate theological doctrines and their compromising efforts to liberalize membership requirements. Also liberal ideas challenged the faith of orthodox Calvinists. Both clerical intelligence and lay liberalism challenged the faith in many denominations. This time period was a religious revival which began in Northampton, Massachusetts.
William Jennings Bryan
Gave famous Cross of Gold speech: advocated free silver
Increase Mather
son of Cotton Mather who became the president of Harvard University
Missouri Compromise
In 1820, The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
Sick Chicken Case
In Schechter Poultry v. U. S., the Supreme Court struck down the National Industrial Recovery Act as unconstitutional. The decision encouraged Roosevelt to consider ways to change the makeup of the court.
Chester A. Arthur
an honorable man but firmly believe in the spoils system but eventually demolished it, took Rutherford B Hayes place when he was assinated
Treaty of Greenville
A year after the Battle of Fallen Timbers, the Miami signed this. It ceded substantial new lands to the United States in exchange for a formal acknowledgment of their claim to the territory they had managed to retain. This was the first time that the new federal government recognized the sovereignty of Indian nations; in doing so, it was affirming that Indian lands could be ceded by only the tribes themselves. This hard-won assurance, however, proved a frail protection against the pressure of white expansion.
Sir Edmund Andros
Leader of the Dominion of New England. He established his headquarters in Puritanical Boston and (foolishly) gained hostility with his open affiliation to the Church of England. His soldiers also offended the Puritan way of life. He enforced his power and authoity over the Puritans' village ruthlessly and taxed the people without the consent of their duly elected representative. He enforced the Navigation Laws onto people who were accustomed to liberty and did not understand authority in the form of a king. He recieved much hate in America.
Haymarket Square Riot
This caused the Knights of Labor to die
Andrew and William Ashley
In 1822, they founded the Rocky Mountain Fur Company and recruited white trappers to move permanently into the Rockies. They dispatched supplies annually to their trappers in exchange for furs and skins.
Dawes and Young Plans
attempts following World War I for the Triple Entente to collect war reparations debt from Germany
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Wrote in 1892 of a woman as "the arbiter of her own destiny...if we are to consider her as a citizen, as a member of a great nation, she must have the same rights as all other members."
American Federation of Labor
Group of elitist workers; rose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor
The National Association of Colored Women
Modeled themselves and their lives on their white counterparts.
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