APUSH - American Revolution Flashcards

Terms Definitions
arsenal
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Thomas Paine
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James Madison
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Declaration of Independence
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Land Ordinance of 1785
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1770
parliament repeals all Townshend duties except one on tea; british troops massacre boston civilians
Maryland
Only colony founded by Catholics
admiralty
colonies accused of violating british tax laws were tried in (military) courts where they were denied a jury trial
"continental"
paper currency authorized by Congress to finance the revolution. depreciated to near worthlessness
Patriots, Whigs
American colonists who were pro-revolution and independence. They were extremely passionate and zealous and were always trying to win over those colonists who were on the fence.
Deism
the form of theological rationalism that believes in God on the basis of reason without reference to revelation
Ethan Allen
together with Benedict Arnold, captured Fort Ticonderoga, leader of the Green Mountain Boys
Protestantism
Most religious sects in colonial America were a version of this
Lord Howe, Burgoyne
British Commandera in American Reovlution
1773
Lord North's gvt. passes Tea Act; Bostonians hold Tea Party;
Hessians
term for German mercenaries hired by the British to fight the Americans
Bunker Hill
military engagement that led King George III officially to declare the colonists in revolt
militiamen
irregular American troops who played a crucial role in swaying the neutral civilian population toward the Patriot cause
Colonial Agents
These were representatives sent to England by the colonies during the 1600s and 1700s. They served as a link between England and the colonies.
Salem
place in Massachusetts where a group of girls caused mass hysteria by accusing various members of the community of witchcraft
Glorious Revolution
overthrown King James II without bloodshed
mercantilism
colonies exist only to provide raw materials and a market of consumers for the mother country
Mayflower Compact
Agreement by Pilgrims which determined colony's civil laws
King Phillip's War
War between colonists and Indians
Navigation Acts
Act which England (a) restricted colonies from trading with other nation-state, (b) imposed duties or tariffs on colonial goods; angered the colonists
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization formed after the passage of the Stamp Act to protest various British acts; used both peaceful and violent means of protest.
currency act 1764
forbade colonists from printing their own money. required them to use gold and silver. British requires al taxes paid in gold and silver.
Townshend Duties (1767)
A piece of legislation that implemented taxes to bring in revenue with the justification that Americans had to pay 30% of the war debt from the Seven Years' War. Britain distinguishes internal and external taxes, but Americans do not observe this distinguishment. Instead, they claim that "a tax is a tax", and that this act was a remodeled sugar act. Further, this act pushed Americans to publicize the revolution and gain popular support. Boycotts and petitions caused England to repeal these taxes, but kept the tax on tea. (Act put a tax on paint, glass, etc.)
Olive Branch Petition
written by the Continental Congress after some initial military action between Britain and America. Proclaimed American loyalty to Britain and attempted reconciliation with the crown, but was rejected by King George III, who declared the colonies in rebellion.
Armed Neutrality
term for the alliance of European powers who did not declare war but assumed a hostile stance toward Britain
Montcalm
Military officer at Québec City to 14 Sept 1759. Defeated by the English at the Batlle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759.
Continental Army
the American army during the American Revolution
Patrick Henry
a leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies (1736-1799)
James Wolfe
English general, led troops up steep cliff to capture Quebec which marked the beginning on the end of the French/Indian War
Fundamental Orders
drafted in 1639 by citizens of Connecticut; modeled after the government in Massachusetts Bay Colony; called for the power of government to be derived from the governed; considered the "first constitution" in colonial America
Benjamin Franklin
The Albany Congress was under this person; wrote a newspaper called the Pennsylvania Gazette
Sugar Act
Imposed new duties on sugar, molasses, and similar products (by Grenville)
William Pitt
British Prime Minister which led the British victory in the French and Indian War
New York, New Jersey, Delaware
Colonies seized from Dutch
Treaty of Paris (1783)
Established American independence and officially confirmed British defeat in the Revolutionary War
Gaspee incident
Occurred to protest the enforcement of Navigation Acts. Residents of Rhode Island boarded Gaspee (a British ship) and sank it. The trial was sent to England.
wool hat and iron acts
intended to prevent american businessmen from turning raw materials into finished commodities
trenton & princeton
washington turns the failure of the battle of long island into a victory when he attacks in smaller groups. The hessians who had been at these posts had been on red alert for over a week, and their adrenaline decreased, causing 900 hessians to surrender
Benedict Arnold
won many key battles for the American cause during the Revolution. Shockingly turned traitor in 1780 and sold out West Point to the British
King William's War
Took place between 1689 and 1697. Conflict between English and French/Spanish. Fought in Northern England. Also known as the War of the League of Augsburg, it lasted from 1689-1697. It was the third time the major European powers crushed the expansionist plans of King Louis XIV of France.
Yorktown
The last major battle of the war in which Charles Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington. The French helped revolutionaries. The was over, and colonists had won!
Pilgrims
group of Puritans who set out in 1620 on the Mayflower to Virginia
Martin Luther
German monk who posted 95 Theses about his protests against the Catholic Church and its abuses; spurned the Protestant Reformation
Intolerable (Coercive Acts)
British response to Boston Tea Party; 1) closed Boston Harbor, 2) revoked Massachusetts charter, 3) replaced MA's elected officials with royal appointees, 4) town meetings were forbidden
Tea Act (1773)
Allowed East India Company to avoid navigation taxes when exporting tea to colonies and gave them power to monopolize tea trade; this angered colonists and threatened merchants and the colonial economy. The colonial response was the Boston Tea Party.
Lexington & Concord (1775)
British officer General Gage tries to get American supplies in this seizure as well as capture Sam Adams and John Hancock. Paul Revere alerts the town and a militia is formed. As a result, Paine wrote "common sense".
Samuel Adams
Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence
Peace of Paris
signed in 1763 between the French and British and gave Britain control of French Canada and Spanish Florida
ohio, indiana, illinois, michigan, wisconsin
states that emerged from the NW territory between 1803 and 1848.
Stamp Act Congress
came together in order to send word to England that only colonial legislature had the authority to tax the colonists
Battle of Yorktown (1781)
the British dig into the hills of the rural area in preparation for a battle. Americans plea with the french to aid, and the French Alliance pays off; Cornwallis, in an attempt to sustain his army, calls for reinforcements but cannot get any because the British ships block any reinforcements from coming through. Cornwallis must surrender his army to Washington
"Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
sermon given by Jonathan Edwards that basically said that God was angry with the sinners of earth and only those who obeyed God's word would be free from damnation
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