APUSH 15 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
KKK
Marshall Plan
Truman
Schenck v. US
Wilson
Commodity Dollar in 1933
Elias Howe
Invented the sewing machine
conciliate
to become agreeable or reconciled:
Romanticism
Was characterized by an optimistic faith in human nature and a desire for order and control
Mali
a large empire in West Africa
Manifest Destiny
Phrase commonly used in 1840's-1850's. expressed inevitableness of continued expansion of the U.S.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
Highest tariff in history
Caused international protectionism --> more depression in US
Black Panthers
a militant Black political party founded in 1965 to end political dominance by Whites
Missionary
someone who attempts to convert others to a particular doctrine or program
John Bartram (1699-1777)
America's first botanist; traveled through the frontier collecting specimens.
Capitalism
an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
urbanization
the growth of cities and population increased the number of urban residents.
(George) Dewey
commander of the American Asiatic Squadron at Hong Kong who sailed to the Philippines on May 1, 1898 with 6 warships into the harbor of Manila where he destroyed 10 Spanish ships; afterwards he was promoted to the rank of admiral
william penn founded penn just for quakers, t or f?
f
They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. They were instrumental in ob
Antifederalists
compunction
any uneasiness or hesitation about the rightness of an action.
Separatists
a tiny group of dedicated extremist Puritans who vowed to totally separate from the Church of England; eventually secured a royal charter to form the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Jackie Robinson
The first African American player in the major league of baseball. His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.
Non-Importation Agreements
Agreements not to import goods from Great Britain. They were designed to put pressure on the British economy and force the repeal of unpopular parliamentary acts.
National Grange
farmer group angry over prices, helped each other
Liberal Republicans
Republicans who favored a more lenient policy towards the south after the Civil War.
Writs of Assistance
reduce trade with France, ends smuggling
Navigation Acts
(1651) First Navigation Act- made by parliament to hurt Dutch economy, required English crops to be sent only to England or English colonies on ships that were England/English Colony made, had ½ English crew and master. 1660- Second Navigation Act- made by restoration government, same only ship crews had to be ¾ English, and enumerated commodities had restrictions.
The Jeffersonian "Revolution of 1800"
Chapter 11, Sub-Title 2
Shay's Rebellion
Daniel Shay and other farmers were upset because of the large amount of taxes they needed to pay and prevented supreme court from meeting
A form of protest against British policies; colonial merchants refused to import British goods.
Non-importation agreements
is an informal agreement between two or more parties. It may be written, oral, or simply understood as part of an unspoken agreement by convention or through mutually beneficial etiquette.
Gentlemen’s Agreement:
brook farm
a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, where an experimental cooperative community was established from 1841 to 1847.
William Crawford
From the South (Georgia) and ran in the 1824 election; he was an important candidate during the election because Clay had to chose between him, Adams, and Jackson
Mayflower Compact (1620)
- Was written because the Pilgrims settled outside of the jurisdiction of the London Company and therefore needed a way to govern themselves. It designated that society should be based on a set of rules chosen by its members, an idea later used in the Declaration of Independence
. Annapolis Convention, 1786
A precursor to the Constitutional Convention of 1787. A dozen commissioners form New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Virginia met to discuss reform of interstate commerce regulations, to design a U.S. currency standard, and to find a way to repay the federal government's debts to Revolutionary War veterans. Little was accomplished, except for the delegates to recommend that a further convention be held to discuss changes to the form of the federal government; the idea was endorsed by the Confederation Congress in February, 1878, which called for another convention to be held in May that year in Philadelphia.
National Consumers League
formed in the 1890's under the leadership of Florence Kelly, attempted to mobilize the power of women as consumers to force retailers and manufacturing to improve wages and working conditions.
Burlingame Treaty
This treaty with China was ratified in 1868. It encouraged Chinese immigration to the United States at a time when cheap labor was in demand for U.S. railroad construction. It doubled the annual influx of Chinese immigrants between 1868 and 1882. The treaty was reversed in 1882 by the Chinese Exclusion Act.
dawes act
An act that removed Indian land from tribal possesion, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.
Corrupt Bargain
1825 Clay supported John Q Adams in House presidential vote in return for office of Sec of State
farms land owned by a landlord, an agricultural production system in which landowners contribute their land and often a measure of operating capital and management; while farmers contribute their labor along with at times varying amounts of capital and ma
Tenant farms:
northwest ordinance
the act of Congress in 1787 providing for the government of the Northwest Territory and setting forth the steps by which its subdivisions might become states.
Fisk-Gould Scandal
A scandal in 1869 with an attempt to corner the gold market.
Hartford Covention
in the United States during the War of 1812 in which New England's opposition to the war reached the point where secession from the United States was discussed.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
insured deposits < $5000, reassured American public of the worth of banks [1ND]
Martin Luther King, Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Author who wrote many poems and short stories including "The Raven," "The Bells," "The Tell-Tale Heart," and "The Gold Bug." He was the originator of the detective story and had a major influence on symbolism and surrealism. Best known for macabre stories
Edgar Allan Poe
Causes of the War of 1812
These included: British impressment of sailors, British seizure of neutral American trading ships, and the reasons given by the War Hawks (the British were inciting the Indians on the frontier to attack the Americans, and the war would allow the U.S. to seize the northwest posts, Florida, and possibly Canada).
(Dr. Harvey W.) Wiley
chief of chemist of the Department of Agriculture attacked the vendors of potent patent medicines that were actually heavily spiked with alcohol; with his famous "Poison Squad" performed experiments on himself
The Federalist Papers (Hamilton, Madison, Jay)
propaganda; a series of 85 articles advocating the ratification of the United States Constitution; a primary source for interpretation of the Constitution, as they outline the philosophy and motivation of the proposed system of government
These were key in uniting the colonists against the Townshend Acts and were written by John Dickinson.
Letters of a Farmer in Pennsylvania
Lincoln did not want to free the slaves in the beginning of the Civil War because
he sought the keep the border states
Thirteenth Amendment
1865
Panacea
Cure - All
Midway


 p.771; Americans inflicted crucial damage to Japanese fleet near the island of Midway, dropping bombs from planes loaded with bombs on deck.
Bacon’s Rebellion
Disgruntled Virginia (Chesapeake) colonial farmers attempted to overthrow Gov. Berkeley in 1676 because of economic hardship and perceived failure with Indian raids and lack of women that could be married.
Impressment
British practice of taking American sailors from American ships and forcing them into the British navy; a factor in the War of 1812.
Nation of Islam
Malcolm X; "black power"
Alamo
Mexican church mission to convert people to native Mexican faith. Located in Texas.
Suburbanization


 (Late 19th century) The middle class, intermixed with new salaried middle classers from industrialism, wanted privacy and comfort away from the city. These middle class people held white-collar jobs which employed more than a fourth of all employed Americans. Some lived in apartments and houses in the city, but many wanted to follow the "rural idea" and find nature and domestic life. They fled to the countryside. This suburbanization affected all American cities, extending city borders and even going past the city limits. In a 1910 census, over 25 percent of urban people were said to live in suburbs. Where you lived in a suburb directly reflected your social class, the farther from the city you lived, the richer you were. Poorer people lived closer to the city because they needed to be close to the city for their jobs. The suburbs revived the idea of home ownership, while they continued to change the boundaries of suburbia. The living standards in the suburbs were good. The suburbs did not support community, but rather focused on work and family. 
Samuel Slater
Father of the American Industrial Revolution, who built factories exactly like how they were in Britain
lynching
The illegal execution of an accused person by mob action, without due process of law
 
 
Navigation Acts
 
A series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade. Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues. The Navigation Acts were reinstated after the French and Indian War because Britain needed to pay off debts incurred during the war, and to pay the costs of maintaining a standing army in the colonies.
Socialism, Communism
Socialism is the social theory advocating community control of the means of production. Communism is the social system based on collective ownership of all productive property.
Virginia Plan
drafted by Madison; bic cameral; federal form of government; representation based on population
Paxton Boys
Scot-Irish men living in Appalachian Hills who wanted protection from the Indian attacks. Marched on Philadelphia in 1764. Their ideas sparked the Regulator Movement
Task system
System for managing slave labor greatly used in lower south. A slave would be assigned a task or defined job to be completed that day. The slave then had discretion to use whatever time remained in the day after the completion of the task as free time.
SOUTH CAROLINA
BRITISH WEST INDIAN SUGAR COLONIES WHERE LARGE-SCALE PLANTATIONS AND SLAVERY TOOK ROOT.
Charles Darwin
an English naturalist. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection.
Free Soilers
political party who did not want slavery in the Midwest and got absorbed in the Republican Party
Operation Overlord
The Allied invasion of Normandy in June of 1944.
Transportation Revolution
rapid growth in the speed and convenience of transportation; in the United States this began in the early 1800s
Election of 1924: candidates
With Republican Coolidge running against Democrat Davis and Progressive LaFollette, the liberal vote was split between the Democrat and the Progressive, allowing Coolidge to win.
Winslow Homer
A Realist painter known for his seascapes of New England.
98 Brooks/Sumner Episode-
a bloody altercation between a southern congressman and a northern senator in the senate chamber in 1856.
Which of the following was not among the Border States? Missouri, Kentucky, Oklahoma, Maryland
Oklahoma
Black disfranchisement


 (1890) The two party system of Democrats and Republicans, the rich and the poor, began to adopt black disfranchisement.  The Democrats had grasped power, creating a one party rule where they could finally adopt black disfranchisement. Literary tests and poll taxes were created to get around the 15th amendment and keep blacks from voting. Poor whites took their anger out on the blacks. The Democratic Party changed the main issue of politics from economics to race. Democrats became the party of the white people. Jim Crow laws also became a part of this black disfranchisement, creating segregated communities by separating everything in society by black and white. 
Peace Corps
An American volunteer program run by the United States Government, as well as a governmental agency of the same name. Each program participant, or Peace Corps Volunteer, is an American citizen who commits to working abroad in an assignment for the organization for a period of twenty-seven months. Generally, the work to be performed is related to international development. Specialties include education, business, information technology, agriculture, and the environment.
Manifest Destiny
The term for the God-given right for America to move West
Royal colony
Term for a colony under direct control of the English king or queen
The majority of White families in the antebellum South owned
no slaves
Gentleman Johnny Burgoyne
carried too much equipment that wore them down and they were defeated at Saratoga
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Madison and Jefferson opposed alien and sedition acts by federalists;right of nullification
Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty that gave Spanish the western part of the new world and the Portugese got the eastern half
Checks and Balances
Checks and Balances "is the principle of government under which separate branches are employed to prevent actions by the other branches and are induced to share power." The framers of the constitution for the U.S. saw the policy of checks and balances necessary for the government to run smoothly. Third principle has prevented anyone Branch from taking over the government and making all the decisions.(Having a dictatorship.)
ELIZABETH I
THE UNMARRIED RULER WHO LED ENGLAND TO NATIONAL GLORY.
Fort Sumter
Fort at the mouth of the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; it was the scene of the opening engagement of the Civil War in April 1861.
Maybury v. Madison
A case under the Marshall court that implemented the rule of judicial review. It was a landmark case in saying that the court has the final say on constitutionality.
Inflation during WW I
Caused by increased taxes and the government borrowing money directly from citizens.
Treaty of Paris 1763
restored peace; France gave up North America excepting 2 small islands; got back sugar islands
Which of the following would have been least likely to join the Free Soil party?
John C. Calhoun
financing the war: union


excise tax- alcohol and tabacco tax is increased (legal cuz these items arent necessary for survival)
income tax (temporary)- 1%. 1st time ever happened
tariff (Morrill) - tax- raises to 25-30%
paper money= greenbacks- first federal paper money! printed 450 mil dollars but causes inflation (inflation rate is 80%)
war bonds (most succesful) patriotic citizens did this= loan gov. $ and paid back years later
national banking system (banking reform)
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Was the leader of a small group of intellectuals centered in Concord, Massachusetts, who developed the Transcendentalist philosophy. He was a Unitarian minister in his youth, but later devoted himself to writing, teaching, and lecturing, and was an advocator of commitment of the individual to the full exploration of inner capacities.
Resettlement Administration
est. in may 1935 part of 2nd new deal offered loans to small farmer who faced foreclosure.
“Log Cabin” election of 1840
It saw the first Whig president elected, which was William Henry Harrison with John Tyler (vice). The Whig leaders wanted a weak president (Harrison didn’t have much experience) so that they could get all their plans rubber stamped.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935), Women and Economics
She urged women to work outside the home to gain economic independence. Attacked the traditional role of homemaker for women.
96. Which of the following increased southern planters' reliance on slaves?
 
a. Missouri Compromise
b. Invention of the steamboat
c. Invention of the cotton gin
d. Lowell System
e. Louisiana Purchase
c. Invention of the cotton gin
Immigration Act of 1924
cut the number down to 2% of a group's population from 1890 (to before many new immigrants had arrived)-closed the door to japanese-canadians and latin americans : NOT INCLUDED
76. Which of the following resulted from the policies of the Andrew Jackson administration?
 
a. A central bank was established
b. The values of paper currency issued by individual banks become uniform
c. The number of banks, each issuing its own pap
c. The number of banks, each issuing its own paper currency, increased
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