APUSH 16 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
annex Hawaii
Compromise of 1877
famous transcendentalist commune
Brook Farm
poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived
interbreeding between members of different races.
Crittenden Compromise
(1861) called for constitutional amendments guaranteeing the legality of slavery in slave states
transplantations of English society in Ireland
Aroostook War
Maine lumberjacks camped along Aroostook River in Maine 1839-tried to oust Canadian rivals. Militia called in from both sides until Webster Ashburn - Treaty was signed
domineering in a haughty manner; dictatorial; overbearing:
Civil rights
rights to personal liberty established by the 13th and 14th Amendments to the U.S. constitution and certain Congressional acts, especially as applied to an individual or a minority group.
Pan-American Conference
this was an international organization that dealt with trade; organized by james blaine; created to encourage cooperation and trust with the manufacturers
Charles Wilson Peale (1741-1827)
An American naturalist painter.
John D. Rockefeller
an American industrialist and philanthropist. revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. In 1870, founded the Standard Oil Company and ran it until he retired in the late 1890s. He kept his stock and as gasoline grew in importance, his wealth soared and he became the world's richest man and first U.S. dollar billionaire, and is often regarded as the richest person in history
Robert M. LaFollette
pompadoured gov of Wisconson, undersized and overbearing, the most militant of the progressive Republican leaders, wrestled power from the lumber and railroad "interests", perfected a scheme for regulating public utilities
consecutive elective terms
Roosevelt's rationalization for his accepting the Republican nomination
a dna-containing linear body of cell nuclei of plants and animals responsible for determination and transmission of hereditary traits
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, pu
Whiskey Rebellion
making marks that cannot be erased, removed, or the like:
George Grenville
Prime Minister after William Pitt; wanted Americans to pay 1/3 the cost of colonial defense, reduce national debt, and make the American colonials respect British law; the colonists resented him for securing the Sugar Act (1764), Stamp Act (1765), and the
Loyalty Oaths
Truman orders background checks on 3 millon fed. employees
British East India Company
Government charted joint-stock company that controlled spice trade in the East Indies after the Dutch
Open Door Note
by Hay; respect equal trade opportunities (China)
Social Gospel Movement
Progressive movement to have churches and religious followers focus on society's problems as a whole rather than personal salvation (mostly Protestant churches).
Sugar Act
purpose: to raise revenue and reduce smuggling, halved the duty on foreign made molasses, placed duties on certain imports, and strenghtened the enforcement of the law allowing prosecutors to try smuggling cases in a vice-admiralty court
Mary Harris Jones
organizer in the women's labor movement- Great strike of 1877
an estate where cash crops are grown on a large scale (especially in tropical areas)
Term used by historians to describe the United States under the Articles of Confederation.
Critical Period
Korean War
Starts when N Korea invades S Korea
Gen. Macarthur led forces and pushed the N Koreans back across the 38th parallel
Macarthur wanted to extend war to China --> Truman didn't --> fired Macarthur
webster-ashburton treaty
an agreement between the U.S. and England (1842) defining the boundary between British and American territory from Maine to present-day Minnesota.
he was the Shawnee leader who formed a confederation of tribes who lost the Battle of Tippecanoe to General William H. Harrison; his confederation made Americans suspicious of British help and led to the invasion of Canada
Indentured Servants
People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free.
Robert Walpole
Prime minister of Great Britain in the first half of the 1700s. His position towards the colonies was salutary neglect.
G.I. Bill
signed by FDR and passed to give educational benefits to those who had served in the Armed forces during WWII
bill was created to help members of the armed forces adjust to civilian life , afford a higher education, and restore lost educational opportunities
_______ also promotes volunteerism for the armed forces and led to a better educated population
Eugene V. Debs
hero of Pullman Strike in 1894, Socialist presidential nominee in 1908
Philippine Commission
appointed by McKinley in 1899 to make appropriate recommendations; in its second year, was headed by Taft
Election of 1844
James K. Polk - Democrat. (winner) Henry Clay - Whig. James G. Birney - Liberty Party.
a period of starvation, disease and mass emigration between 1845 and 1852[2] during which the population of Ireland was reduced by 20 to 25 percent. The proximate cause of famine was a potato disease commonly known as late blight
Irish potato famine:
boston massacre
a riot in Boston (March 5, 1770) arising from the resentment of Boston colonists toward British troops quartered in the city, in which the troops fired on the mob and killed several persons.
Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
St. Marks and Penascola
The 2 important Spanish Posts in florida captured by General Andrew Jackson.
Pacific Railway Act of 1862
1862, provides federal subsidies in land and loans for the construction of a transcontinental railroad by companies (mainly Union Pacific and Central Pacific)
Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)
established by the Agricultural Act of 1932, a New Deal bureau designed to restore economic position of farmers by paying them not to farm goods that were being overproduced
was a landmark United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of racial segregation even in public accommodations (particularly railroads), under the doctrine of "separate but equal
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896):
. British seizure of American ships
France blocked English ports during the Napoleonic Wars of the early 1800s; England responded by blocking French ports. The British seized neutral American merchant ships which tried to trade at French ports.
Tennessee Coal and Iron Company
J.P. Morgan's plan that U.S. Steel absorb this company without fear of antitrust reprisals
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
a mutual effort by the US and Soviet Union to limit the growth of their nuclear weapons but still maintaining a sufficient amount to deter a surprise attack
the first major land battle of the American Civil War, fought on July 21, 1861, near Manassas, Virginia. Unseasoned Union Army troops under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell advanced across Bull Run against the equally unseasoned Confederate Army under Brig. Gens
First Battle of Bull Run:
In october of 1962 Kennedy ordered a naval quarantine of Cuba, why? What were the results?34? results
Aerial pics in 1962 showed that Soviets were building nuclear missiles in Cuba& K. ordered the quarantine& demanded removal of the weapons. Krushchev gave in on Oct. 28& was disgraced/removed from power. Also, there was a US program of mil. expansion& Kennedy pushed harder for a nuclear test-ban treaty w/the Soviet Union which was signed in 1963
Dollar diplomacy
Governer John Altgeld
uncivilized; wild; savage; crude.
18th century philosophical movement emphasizing use of reason to reevaluate previously accepted doctrines and tradition. Examination of world and independence of mind.
first families of virginia that dominated the house of burgesses
1765 stamp act
no taxatio nw/o rep
Lincoln Steffens
American journalist that created muckracking
James Garfield
Election of 1880, Republican candidate. Term was short and full of conflict within Republican party. Shot by Guiteau
Amelia Bloomer
women's rights advocate who created the bloomers
Molasses Act
Attempt by British authorities to squelch colonial trade with French West Indies
"Great Society"
LBJ's domestic plan; civil rights laws; Medicare; Medicaid; aid to education; "War on Poverty"
Wilmot Proviso
David Wilmot, a Congressman from Pennsylvania, proposed that slavery be banned in land acquired from the Mexican War. The proviso was given to Congress in August 1846. It never passed the Senate, but passed the House. It was taken out of the War Appropriations bill in order for Senate to pass the actual bill.
wanted graduation income tax, to make more money, and to get rid of the middle man (also silver)
George M. Pullman
American industrialists that created the Pullman Sleeping Car for trains.
The theory of Republicanism was that the government was under the authority of the people it governs. The power in the peoples hand's is the basis for Democracy. The writers of the constitution used the Republicanism theory.
Unceasing, Never - Ending, Non - Stop
something that is put forward to conceal a true purpose or object; an ostensible reason; excuse:
McGuffey Reader
the first textbook that was used widely in America (still used in some private schools and home schools today)
Dias and da Gama
Portuguese navigators who sailed around the African coast
Townshend Act (1767)
Parliamentary measures (named for the Chancellor of the Exchequer) that punished the New York Assembly for failing to house British soldiers, taxed tea and other commodities, and established a Board of Customs Commissioners and colonial viceadmiralty courts
Nye Committee
Gerald Nye of North Dakota believed that the U.S. should stay out of foreign wars.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Prohibited discrimination against blacks in public place, such as inns, amusement parks, and on public transportation. Declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
Alice Paul
A suffragette who believed that giving women the right to vote would eliminate the corruption in politics.
Camp David Accords
Treaties signed by Israeli minister and Egyptian president agreeing on negotiations in the Middle Eastern territories at the U.S president's country home called Camp David
Eisenhower Doctrine
a country, specifically in the Middle East, could request American economic assistance and/or aid from U.S. military forces if it was being threatened by armed aggression from another state
Time Zones
Railroads brought the creation of time zones, to set firm schedules, now that trains could travel so fast.
Army Desegregation 1951
During the Korean War, President Turman desegregated the army because of man-power shortages. The military was the first profession to experience integration
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Court case which established "separate but equal" in school systems
middle passage
That portion of a slave ship's journey in which slaves were carried from Africa to the Americas
john jay, hamilton, madison
anonymous authors of the federalist paper
Presidents on the 1920s
Harding and Coolidge both Repubs. probusiness
Covenant of Works
Godly behavior and good work could influence gods decision and get you into heaven.
Yeoman Farmers
a smal plot farmer whose land is tilled by a few servants and family members solely to support themselves.
Morill Act of 1862
Land granted to colleges from government for campuses in return for promising agricultural programs.
Sinking of the Lusitania

 (1915) Germany raised a new naval power called the U-Boat during WWI. After issuing a warning to civilians saying that all boats with British flags were susceptible to fire, a German U-Boat destroyed the Lusitania which was carrying 128 American civilians. This attack directly affected Americans and engraged the general population, sparking newspapers to speak out about the sinking of the ship. The destruction of the Lusitania forced Wilson to rethink his views on the Great War, beginning to get America ready and armed for war if it should come. This event, along with the Germans continuance of unrestricted submarine warfare and the Zimmerman note which urged Mexico to join Central Powers in return for the help to recover lost territories of the United States, was a direct threat to America. After the U-Boats kept attacking American ships, Wilson declared war on April 6, 1917. 
David Walker
a free black who was one of the Freedom's Journal's agents. He published a radical pamphlet that rejected colonization and warned whites of the dangers if blacks had to fight for their freedom.
P. T. Barnum
Open the American Museum in New York in 1842, this wasnt a showcase for art or nature, but a great freak show populated by midgets, Siamese twins, magicians, and ventriloquists. He was a genius in publicizing his ventures with garish posters and elebrate nrespaper announcments. Later in the 1870s he launched the famous circus.
Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey
1920's sports heros, Ruth set the baseball record of 60 home runs in one season and Dempsey was the heavyweight boxing champion.
46. The "First Great Awakening" can be seen as a direct response to which of the following?
a. Puritanism
b. The Enlightenment
c. Transcendentalism
d. Existentialism
e. Post-modernism
b. The Enlightenment
Benjamin Franklin
One of the founding fathers of the U.S that was a writer, printer, satirist, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat
SALT II Agreement
limited the number of missiles held by the US and Soviet Union
Townshend Acts of 1767
New regulations on a light import duty of glass, white lead paper, paint, and tea. An indirect tax that was payed at American ports, so the colonists would not automatically see the tax put on their goods.
Pottawatomie Massacre
John Brown let a part of six in Kansas that killed 5 pro-slavery men. This helped make the Kansas border war a national issue.
 Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan

1860; Lincoln wanted to go easy on the South to have them admitted to the Union easily. Under this plan, if 10% of the voters of a southern state pledged their allegiance to the Union, then that state would be allowed to enter. They also would have to commit to not having slavery. The South rejected this and they kept fighting. this foreshadowed that the road of reconstruction was going to be a rocky one.

Secretary of the Treasury Mellon, tax cuts
An American financier, he was appointed Secretary of the Treasury by President Harding in 1921 and served under Coolidge and Hoover. While he was in office, the government reduced the WW I debt by $9 billion and Congress cut income tax rates substantially. He is often called the greatest Secretary of the Treasury after Hamilton.
"Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion"
James G. Blaine said that of the Irish Catholics. It offended many people and cost him the election.
51. In his interpretation of the Constitutional Convention, the historical Charles Beard focused on the importance of
a. Sectional differences
b. Conflict over slavery
c. Economic interests of a wealthy elite
d. Political factions from colonial ti
c. Economic interests of a wealthy elite
Establlishment of the 2nd bank of the US
1.) 20 year charter
2.)capital of $35 million
3.) right to establish branches throughout the country as needed
4) public-private institution- governmnet owns 1/5 stock and appointing 5/25 directors
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