APUSH : The American Revolution Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Loyalists
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Alexander Hamilton
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Battle of Saratoga
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1780
Brit take Charles Town
1777
General Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga
Southern Colonies
Area with large-scale agricultures
Writs of Assistance
general search warrants-allowed british officials to search colonial homes for smuggled goods. No description of where to search or what to confiscate.
1772
samuel adams forms committee of correspondence
Yorktown
decisive battle at which General Cornwallis surrendered. Washington assaulted the British by land while the French Navy blocked them off by sea.
Burgoyne
British general in the American Revolution who captured Fort Ticonderoga but lost the battle of Saratoga in 1777 (1722-1792)
Georgia
Colony founded as buffer and alternative to debtors' prison
Great Compromise
Connecticut. Dealing with rep in congress. state's rep in house of Rep. now on population. 2 senators from each state. all money bills would originate in the House. direct taxes on states to be assessed according to population.
Holland
European nation other than France and Spain that supported the American Revolution by declaring war on Britain
Crispus Attucks
alleged leader of radical protesters killed in Boston Massacre
tea
the product taxed under the Townshend Acts that generated the most colonial resistance
LaFayette
Marquis de Lafayette was a French major general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War. He and Baron von Steuben (a Prussian general) were the two major foreign military experts who helped train the colonial armies.
John Locke
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
John Calvin
French intellectual who elaborated on and differed with the teachings of Luther; believed in Supreme power of God and that humans were bad by nature and needed strict leadership to keep them from sinning
George Whitefield
English born "New Light" preacher; undermined the power and prestige of "Old Light" ministers by saying that ordinary people could understand the gospel of the Lord without leadership of a man of the cloak
Nathaniel Bacon
member of House of Burgesses; capitalized on complaints of his fellow backwooders by mobilizing them to form a citizen militia
Great Awakening
Wave of religious fervor (mainly Protestant) in the 1700s which emphasized religious was more emotional commitment, rather than reason/knowledge
Paxton Boys
An uprising of frontiersmen in Pennsylvania who massacred the (nonviolent) Conestoga Indians. Governor attempted to try those involved, but they were never tried. This showed the bias against frontiersmen in the eastern government and prompted 600 frontiersmen to march on Philadelphia.
Northwest Ordinance
NW territory divided into 3-5 sep territories. Methodical process outlined to advance each territory to statehood. unorganized territories would be overseen by officials appointed to congress. Once pop reached 5000 it could become a territory-residents would then elect a state legislature and send a delegate to congress. Once the population reached 60,000, a constitution would be written and the territory would apply for statehood.
virtual representation
notion that although colonists had not elected members to parliament, they were nonetheless represented by it. This claim was an attempt by the British to eliminate the idea that they had no voice in Parliament and therefore were being taxed without representation
George Rogers Clark
fronteirsman who seized many British forts in Illinois by surprise, helping to clear out the Ohio River Valley.
Common Sense
Argument for the importance of liberty and republicanism. Rallied the Americans together against the British Crown
William Franklin
Supporter of the loyalist cause who was the last royal governor of New Jersey.
Richard Henry Lee
member of the Philadelphia Congress from Virginia. Passionately believed that the American colonies should be free states independent from Britain. His idea was formally adopted by the Congress in the Declaration of Independence.
General John Burgoyne
British general in the American Revolution. His failure was important to the American capture of the Hudson River Valley. Surrendered his entire command to General Benedict Arnold.
Deerfield, Mass
Subject to bloody violence by the French/Spanish during King William's War/Queen Anne's War.
Gaspee
a British patrol boat that was torched by American revolutionaries
John Rolfe
introduced tobacco as a crop to Virginia farmers
Mayflower Compact
en route to Virginia, the pilgrims drafted an agreement to set up a secular body to administer the leadership of the colony; set the stage for the concept of the separation of church and state and the rule of majority
Puritans
Those who wanted to reform the Church of England; followed Calvinist teachings
Stamp Act (1765)
Taxed printed materials and legal documents. Resulted in the Virginia Resolves, Stamp Act Congress, and Sons of Liberty.
Circular letter
A letter circulated in 1767 in reaction to the Townshend Act. It urged colonists to jointly sign a petition of protest and was influential in causing colonists to work together against the British.
three fifths compromise
3/5 of a state's slave population would be counted for purposes to taxation and representation. Fugitive slave law required runaway slaves who escaped be returned to their owners.
Quebec Act (1774)
a piece of legislation that created provisional government in Canada as well as granting Canada more land, requiring canadians to take an oath of allegiance, and allowed them to freely practice catholicism. Passed as an act to punish the Boston Tea Party. Britain hoped that by this, they could get a stronger foothold in America and retain sovereignty, but was also joined to the Intolerable acts.
Treaty of Paris
ends the American Revolution. US is formally recognized as an independent nation, and receives land west of the Mississippi.
Proclamation of Rebellion
August 1775; The response of George III to the Battle of Bunker Hill. He proclaimed the colonies in rebellion and the skirmishes were now considered treason, a hanging crime.
Pontiac's Rebellion
Pontiac was the leader of the Ottowa tribe; he gathered a couple Indian tribes to revolt against the British in the Ohio Valley; aided by the French; overran all but three British posts west of Appalachians.
Sugar Act of 1764
Part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue program, the act replaced the Molasses Act of 1733, and actually lowered the tax on sugar and molasses (which the New England colonies imported to make rum as part of the triangular trade) from 6 cents to 3 cents a barrel, but for the first time adopted provisions that would insure that the tax was strictly enforced; created the vice-admiralty courts; and made it illegal for the colonies to buy goods from non-British Caribbean colonies.
Declaratory Act
maintained the right of the crown to tax colonists
Holy Experiment
sought to explor the establisment of a liberal state (Pennsylvania) while advertisting to attract a wide array of potential settlers to the colony
Coercive Acts (1774)
British response to the Boston Tea Party, intended to punish Boston. It resulted in the First Continental Congress.
Battle for Long Island
first battle in the war. Washington vs. the British navy, a miserable failure for the americans who retreated.
Sons of Liberty
a group of colonists who formed a secret society to oppose British policies at the time of the American Revolution
plantation system
growing large tracts of crop to gain a profit
Stamp Act Congress 1765
delegates from 9 colonies met in NY city. issued declaration of rights, saying british couldnt tax colonists without representation in parliament.
The Albany Plan of Union
plan created by the Albany Congress that called for a confederation of colonies to provide for teh defense from attack by European and native foes; rejected however by colonies since it seemed restrictive to them and British thought it was too much colonial independence
North and South Carolina Regulators
Designation for two groups, one in South Carolina, the other in North Carolina, that tried to effect governmental changes in the 1760s. In South Carolina, the Regulator movement was an organized effort by back-country settlers to restore law and order and establish institutions of local government.
Repeal of Stamp Act and passage of Declaratory Act
secured dependency of colonies on the crown. Outlined the sovereignty of England by saying "we're repealing this because it's too expensive, not because of you. You are still our subjects, we are still in power". The American's reacted by rejoicing over the fact that they got Britain to repeal an act, and generally ignored the act following. If Britain has to tell us that they're in power, then they're clearly not in power. Issued in 1766
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