APUSH Flashcards: B.C Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Dutch explorers
French Explorers
1858
Lincoln-Douglas debate
1869
Transcontinental rialroad completed
1960
Lincoln elected president
1859
John Brown's raid
1811
Battle of Tippecanoe
1849
California gold rush
1759
Britain captures Quebec
amendments
changes to the Constitution
suffrage
the right to vote
1852
Uncle Tom's Cabin published
1786
Annapolis ConventionVirginia adopts Jefferson's "statue of Religious Freedom"Shays' Rebellion
1788
Federalist Papers publishedNew Hampshire is ninth state to ratify constitution, making it the law of the land
1540
Coronado explores southwestern U.S.
500
Teotihuacan's population reaches 100,000 at peak of culture
1877
Compromis of 1877Reconstruction ends
1649
King Charles 1 executed
Scalawags
Southern whites who supported Republican policy throughout Reconstruction
Adam Smith
Founder of laissez-faire economics.
Hernan Cortez
conquests of the Aztecs
What was Oneida, NY?
A utopia
1830
jackson vetoes Maysville Road extensionBaltimore and Ohio becomes first railroad companyJoseph Smith publishes Book of Mormon
1836
Texas independence fightGag rule prevents discussion of slavery in Congress
1863
VicksburgGettysburgNew York City draft riots
1857
Dred Scott decision Lecompton Constitution in Kansas
600
Hohokam civilization develops in present Arizona and New Mexico
1847
Winfield Scott captures Mexico City
1828
Tariff of AboninationsJackson wins presidency
1622
Powhatan Confederacy attacks Virginia settlers
1793
Washington issues Proclamation of NeutralityLouis XVI executed in FranceCotton gin patented by Eli Whitney
1781
Articles of Confederation approvedGen. Cornallis surrenders at Yorktown
1681
Pennsylvania established by William Penn
1539
De Soto explores southeastern U.S.
Yeoman Farmers
most common, subsistence farmers, worked in fields with slaves; owner of a small farm with four or fewer enslaved persons
Enlightenment
movement during the 1700s that promoted science, knowledge, and reason
Nativism
a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones (immigrants)
Pilgrims
Separatists who journeyed to the American colonies in the 1600s for religious freedom
Propaganda
ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause
Francis Scott Key
Wrote the Star-Spangled Banner
Puritan Colonies
1st) Plymouth2nd) NA Bay Colony
1777
British surrender 5,800 men at SaratogaAmerican army at Valley Forge
1789
Washington elected and inaugurated as presidentFrench Revolution begins as Bastille is stormedFrench National Assembly issues "Declaration of Rights of Man"
1754
French and Indian War beginsAlbany Plan of Union
1803
Marbury v. Madison decision Luisiana Purchase
1831
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia denies Indian claim of nationhood Nat Turner's Rebellion
1850
Compromise of 1850Fugitive Slave Law passed
1662
Halfway Covenant established in New England
minutemen
members of the militia during the American Revolution who could be ready to fight in 60 seconds
Nationalism
the unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols
Loyalist
a person who supported the British during the American Revolution
entrepreneur
one who organizes, manages and assumes the risks of a business or enterprise
Chief Powhatan
leader of the Powhatan Confederacy located around Jamestown who attempted to befriend Captain John Smith
canvas
heavy closely woven fabric (used for clothing or chairs or sails or tents)secede: to leave the Union
Martin Luther King
Assassinated by James Earl Ray
Powhaten Confederacy
Helped Jamestown because thought new arrivals would help consolidate power over neighboring tribes. Cultural misunderstandings:1) Leaders were not autocratic --. English used to dealing with absolutist figures 2) Property ownership -- Indians -- Land was communal no buying or selling.3) English didn't care about their culture.
Christopher Columbus
= Looked everywhere for financial support for 8 years. = In 1492, got support from Isabella and Ferdinand = Spaniards looked at him as a failure because he never found the Indies --> only "New World"
April 1644
Powhatan Confederacy made last attempt to gain control of the region -- failed and was forced to sign treaty to be under colony power.
Bacon's Rebellion
SIR WILLIAM BERKELEY, the royal governor of VA, adpated policies that favored large planters and gov. largely on their behalf. Antagonized backwood farmers VA were not protected by Sir William Berkeley and resented him. So, a man named NATHANIEL BACON stood up for the Western farmer and helped lead a rebellion against Bacon's government.
Mayas, Incas, Aztecs
Complex Civilizations. Located in Central and South America. Francisco Pizzarro --> Incas Cortez --> Aztecs
John Cabot
England's earliest claims to territory --> EXPLORED NEWFOUNDLAND
Mayflower Compact 
While on board travelers signed agreement.- Est. Legal Authority and assembly- Recognize that authority was from the majority of the people and not from God.- first draft of the Constitution- "Civil Body Politic"
Who created the Albany Regency?
Martin Van Buren
1791
Bill of Rights approvedFirst Bank of united States chartered
1825
John Quincy Adams wins Corrupt Bargain presidential election
1772
H.M.S. Gaspee birned off coast of Rhode Island
12,000 B.C.E.
Asians begin several migraions over Bering Strait
republic
a form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting
protectorate
a country with its own government but partly controlled by an outside country and protected by it
joint-stock companies
form of business organization in which many investors pool funds to raise large amounts of money for large projects
Robert Fulton
an American engineer and inventor who developed the first useful submarine and torpedo and produced the first practical steamboat, the Clermont
Tea Act
refunded four-fifths of the taxes the East Indian Tea Company had to pay to ship tea to the Colonies
imperialism
a policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically
Spoil's System
a system in which incoming political parties throw out former government workers and replace them with their own friends
kakistocracy
government by the worst people in the state
Puritans
wanted to "purify" the church due to the creation of the Anglican Church from Catholic influences. - James saw Puritans as a threat to the church and often persecuted them and jailed them.
Middle Passage
Africans would go on Middle Passage during the Triangular trade route to be exchanged for sugar can in the West Indies.
"Great Puritan Migration"
when Congregationalists wanted to come to MA due to religious persecution in the 1630s
1876
Custer defeated by Sious at Little Big Horn
Flapper
a young woman in the 1920's who wore her hair bobbed, wore makeup, dressed in flashy, skimpy clothes, and lived a life of independence and freedom; rejected traditional ways
Subsistence farming
farming only enough food to feed one's family
separation of power
a government principle where power is divided among many different branches
Roger B Taney
Crucial ruling in Dred Scott v Sanford
John F. Kennedy
President who had VP(s): Lyndon Johnson
Jesse Owens
Won multiple gold medals at 1936 Olympics in Berlin, to the great embarrassment of Adolf Hitler
Battle of the Bulge
Germany's eastern front is destroyed, critical to destruction of the Luftwaffe and the German Military
Delaware 1702
Penn granted lower 3 counties in PA their own assembly --> created Delaware as separate colony.
Triangular Trade Route 
The colonies, Europe, and Africa all traded with eachother.
New Hampshire
Charles II separated NH from Mass bay Colony. Last colony to be founded. JOHN DAVENPORT founded New Haven colony.
Corporate Colonies (1/3)
Ex: Jamestown: Operated by joint stock company.
Cecil Calvert (1634)
Cecil Calvert carried out his Father's Plan, George Calvert, in 1634 --> Act of Toleration
The Carolinas
As a reward for helping him gain throne --> Charles II granted a huge tract of land to 8 nobles. Land was between VA and Spanish Florida.
Nathaniel Bacon
Stood up for the backwood farmer in the Western frontier and staged a rebellion against Sir William Berkeley's Government. Resented political control of the wealthy planters in Chesapeake Area.
1620 Mayflower
Pilgrims set sail for VA in Mayflower. Fewer than 100 were Separatists -- the rest were for economic motives.
Robert De La Salle
Explored Mississippi Basin --> named LOUISIANA
Maryland 1632
= In 1632 King Charles I subdivided the vast area that had been the VA colony. Chartered a new colony on either side of the Chesapeake Bay --> granted control of it to George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) as a reward for his nobleman's loyal service ofthe crown. = Catholic haven *** King wanted to est. proprietorships rather than granting colonial charters --> give him more control.
Who was John Marshall?
Chief Justice of the United States
What was transcendentalism?
A group of new ideas, religion, culture, and philosophy
Townshend Acts
a series of laws passed in 1767 to raise money for the 13 Colonies
checks and balances
the system in which each branch of government has the ability to limit the power of the other branches to prevent and branch from becoming too powerful
Plessy v Ferguson
NAME THE COURT CASE: Segragation in schools
Significance of 1492 Columbus
Columbus wanted a sponsor for his exploration of a new route toward Asia. After several attempts, he reached no luck, However, in 1492, Spain won against the Moors who had temporarily took over Spain. The marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand symbolized hope, leadership, and power for the country. In 1492, Columbus sails to explore the New Route.
New Jersey 1664
New York was seen as daunting to administer. So James in 1664 gave friends Lord John Berkely and Sir George Carteret section of colony located between Hudson River and DE Bay.
What is one of the new religions that emerged in the 19th century?
Mormonism
Tenant farmers
A poor farmer who did not own land and had to live on and work the land of others, either for wages or a share of the crop they produced
Gibbons v Ogden
NAME THE COURT CASE: Who has the authority to regulate interstate commerce?
King James I revokes charter
Due to VA Colony becoming bankrupt, the charter for VA was revoked and colony came under direct rule of King James I as a ROYAL COLONY
Vasco Da Gama
Used Cape of Good Hope route to sail to India. HE was the first explorer to do so.
The Holy Experiment
Penn wanted to test his ideas in the form of Quaker beliefs. 1) Quaker religious refuge2) Enact liberal ideas in government 3) Generate incomes and profits for himself
What was the period of the American Renaissance called?
The Second Great Awakening
Sir John Berkely and Sir George Carteret
Section of colony located between Hudson River and DE Bay. Sold proprietary interests to groups of Quakers. ** Crown declared New Jersey as Royal Colony
Why did railroads become more favorable than canals?
They were faster to transport, they wouldn't freeze during winter
What was the result of Bacon's Rebellion? 
= Sharp classes differences = Colonial resistance to royal authorityThese remained 2 long lasting disputes in colonial VA.
What was the case Dartmouth College v. Woodward?
New Hampshire wanted to turn the college into a public institution.
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