APUSH Midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Seven Years War
Midnight judges
Adams federalists appointments
Great Awakening 

religious revival movement
sparked by tour of minister Whitefield
divided congregations and weakened authority of churches
first truly national event
resulted in creation of many colleges 
This philosophy claimed that human nature was essentially good and that everyone had a chance at salvation. They believed that though God created the world, he now no longer interferes in its affairs and allows matters to run their course.
Americans that feared revolution & supported the british
King Philips' War
Indigenous people massacred massachusetts settlers in 1637
George Whitefield
Anglican minister and famous revivalist from England. He visited the colonies seven times and drew enormous audiences to his spellbinding sermons.
What is not associated with the cultural developments of the 1920s except
"Loose construction"
The Constitution derived from the consent of the people and thus permitted the government to act of their benefit.
The Constitution was to endure, be adapted, and be legitimate.
government based on consent of the governed, a just society in which all citizens willingly subordinated their private,selfish interests to the common good.
War of 1812

britain & america
mostly over british restrictions on american shipping
The system of government and religious beliefs of a Protestant denomination in which each member church is self-governing.
Bear Flag Revolt
Rebellion of Californians against Mexico that caused California to break from Mexico
Sacco and Vanzetti
Italian immigrant anarchists convicted of murder during armed robbery and sentenced to death after a controversial trial
Platt Amendment
specified conditions under which the US could intervene in Cuba's international affairs, and said that Cuba could not make a treaty with another nation that might impair its independence.
Ghost Dance
A religious movement incorporated into humerous Native American beliefs. AKA the circle dance.
Open Door Policy
opened trade with the world, especially with China
salem witch trials
20 people killed in mass hysteria
Who led the Knights of Labor?
Terence V. Powderly
9 battles, won 3, lost 6
washington's battle record
Stamp Act
purchase stamp on all printed material newspapers, wills, dice, official documents, and countless other written docs.
New Immigrants
The second major wave of immigration to the U.S.
between 1865-1910, 25 million new immigrants arrived
the new immigrants camed mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe
Siege of Vicksburg
Union Army defeated the confederates at Vicksburg
Northwest Territory
land previously belonging to VA and Conn. given up to become slave free, gridded states (Thomas Jefferson wrote ordinances guiding the process)
Wendell L. Willkie/democratic candidate
a Germandescended son of Hoosier, Indiana.  His great appeal lay in his personality,  A complete novice in politics, the delegates finally accepted this political upstart as the only candidate who could possibly beat Roosevelt. Willkie, an outspoken liberal, was opposed not so much to the New Deal as to its extravagances and inefficiencies. Democratic critics branded him “the rich man’s Roosevelt” and “the simple barefoot Wall Street lawyer.”
Cuban Revolution
Castro took over, the US stopped diplomatic relations with Cuba
Christopher Columbus
Explorer trying to get to Asia landed in the West Indies
Kansas Nebraska Act
Bill proposed by Stephen Douglas, he wanted KS and NE to be states in order to allow a transcontinental railroad that would pass thru his home town Chicago. used popular sovereignty to decide whether or not they would be pro slavery. Led to a flood of people to settle KS (bleeding KS)
Revenue Act (1767)
tax on many colonial products, first tax designed solely for revenue
The name give to the U.S.S.R. and the U.S. because of their dominance in the arms race and economic struggle for world power. Both countries had nuclear bombs by the late 1940's and 1950's.
William Byrd
an English composer born in London; a very faithful Catholic
Jazz Age
Describes the period after the end of World War I, through the Roaring Twenties, ending with the onset of the Great Depression. Traditional values of the previous period declined while the American stock market soared. The age takes its name from popular music, which saw a tremendous surge in popularity.
Crash of 1929
most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States
Edward Bellamy, "Looking Backward"
state run economy to provide conflict-free society
National Recovery Administration of 1933
Hugh Johnson
blanket codes: minimum wage, maximum hours, abolished child labor
blue eagle
Section 7(a): right to unionize and recognition of unions [...] Wagner Act
Schechter Case (1935) finds NRA unconstitutional because their business is only in NY
gives the New Dealers a nice excuse to end a policy that they couldn't enforce and was therefore meaningless
the rest is passed in 1938 as the Fair Labor and Standards Act
Chief Justice John Marshall
Federalist whose decisions on the U.S. Supreme Court promoted federal power over state power and established judiciary as a branch of government equal to legislative and executive; established judicial review, which allows Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional. was Jefferson's cousin.
What did not happen in the 1920's?
The Interstate Highway Act
Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914
continuation of the Sherman Antitrust Act and outlawed certain specific business practices
163 Wobblies –
WWI Industrial Workers of the World. A “revolutionary” leftist labour union opposed to the U.S. entry in to WWI and the use of the Selective Services Act (draft).
Reconstruction Act of 1867

it organized the south into 5 military districts that would each be led by a Union commander. It set up for the military occupation of the south by the Union. They had to grant to vote to freedmen. The commanders made sure of this and other things, such as black suffrage. 
Stamp Act Congress
Took place in NYC; 9 of the 13 colonies met and said that they had three major problems - trial by jury, right to self-taxation, and get rid of maritime courts)
Munich Conference, appeasement, Neville Chamberlain
1938 - Hitler wanted to annex the Sudetenland, a portion of Czechoslovakia whose inhabitents were mostly German-speaking. On Sept. 29, Germany, Italy, France, and Great Britain signed the Munich Pact, which gave Germany the Sudetenland. British Prime Minister Chamberlain justified the pact with the belief that appeasing Germany would prevent war.
Battle of Bull Run
First major land battle of civil war, fought in Manassas, Virginia. Confederates won.
Old Northwest beckoned
After the War of 1812, the west had an appeal to European immigrants.
Small down deposits on land, crushing of Indians, building of highways, and the steamboat stimulated boom.
By replacing the Missouri Compromise boundary with the concept of popular sovereignty, Stephen A. Douglas:
fanned the flames of sectional discord and forced moderate political leaders to align with the extremes.
Election of 1856: Republican Party, Know-Nothing Party
Democrat - James Buchanan (won by a narrow margin). Republican - John Fremont. Know- Nothing Party and Whig - Millard Fillmore. First election for the Republican Party. Know- Nothings opposed immigration and Catholic influence. They answered questions from outsiders about the party by saying "I know nothing".
10. The chief purpose of mercantilist policies was to
a. Help colonies to be self-sufficient
b. Strengthen the economy and power of the parent country
c. Defend the colonies from rival powers
d. Maintain tight control over the tobacco industry
b. Strengthen the economy and power of the parent country
Rush-Bagot Agreement
Undoubtable, Genuine[ANT: Suspect]
Hateful, Odious, Objectionable, Disgusting
Annapolis Convention
constitutional convention in Annapolis, MD of 12 delegates from 5 states (New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Deleware and Virginia)
George Calvert
The 1st baron of Baltimore
"Dollar Diplomacy"
Taft; government would protect America's foeign investments with any force needed
Economic philosophy or practice in which England established the colonies to provide raw materials to the Mother country; the colonies receive manufactured goods in return.
The Grange
fraternal organization for American farmers that encourages farm families to band together for their common economic and political well-being
William Bradford
leader of the Leiden Separatists (Pilgrims)
Pontiac's Rebellion
a 1763 conflict between Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great Lakes area
First JQA vs Jax Election
(Start of Second Party System) 
Whiskey Rebellion
1794; In western Pennsylvania, farmers led this rebellion in opposition to Hamilton’s tax on spirits because they claimed that it raised the price of the whiskey that they sold locally, making so that people didn’t want to buy the whiskey, so the demand was lower. The rebellion was crushed by one of Washington’s forces.
Congregational Church
official established church in New England with roots in puritianism. All residents paid taxes to support.
Manumission law
laws that detirmined when/how slaves could be freed by owners. Many semi-slave dependent states adopted it to ease restrictions on emancipation.
Pullman Boycott

 (1894) George M. Pullman invented the sleeping car that was added to railway travel. Because of the Panic of 1893, Pullman cut his wages when business was going badly. He failed to lower the cost of company housing, though, for his workers. Pullman fired a worker’s committee that complained of this, saying there was no connection between his role as landlord and employer. A strike ensued that brought in the American Railway Union. Workers were instructed not to hand the Pullman sleeping cars, as said by the leader of the ARU, Eugene V. Debs. The Pullman Boycott became a secondary boycott because it had to put pressure on the railroads in order to put pressure on Pullman. The railroads went to the government, saying that this feud meddled with the transportation of U.S. mail. Richard Olney, attorney General of Cleveland, later obtained a court injunction that prohibited the ARU from keeping up the strike. Debs and his cohorts resisted and were jailed. 
Monroe Doctrine
(1823) A policy of mutual noninterference between America and Europe ushered in by President Monroe. The Doctrine also declared America's right to interfere anywhere in its own hemisphere.
Social Darwinism
"Survival of the fittest"; used to separate society (said that if you are poor, that's your problem)
Elizabeth I
English queen who defeated the Spanish armada, and ruled a prosperous period in English history, lived at time of Raleigh and Gilbert
Leauge Of Nations
an international organazation up after World War I to prevent futer wars
The form of society in which family line, power, and wealth are passed primarily through the female side.
3/5 compromise
3/5 of a state's slave population counted as people
Alexis De Tocqueville—
French liberal politician who observed the evolution of American political thought, customs and social interaction in the 1830’s. His book Democracy in America is still considered one the most accurate primary sources on American culture.
Charles II
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland 1649-1685.
Puritan Revolution
Pious civil war that caused Puritanism to dominate England
Black Hawk
was  moved out Mississippi by the treaty of 1815
-refused to go
- militia pursued him and drove him back to the river, where almost all of his troop was exterminated
Oklahoma "Sooners"
Term used to describe settlers who entered the unassigned lands of Oklahoma.
Thomas Edison
Man who made movies and invented the light bulb and almost all needed things (electricity, rubber, etc.) during the industrial age
Fishing & Shipbuilding
The two major nonfarming industries of Massachusetts Bay.
Embargo Act of 1807
prohibited trade from American ports; attempted to prevent American involvement in Napoleonic Wars; under Jefferson
Nicholas Biddle
the president of the Bank of the United States, held an immense and possibly unconstitutional amount of power over the nation's financial affairs, went against Andrew Jackson in the bank war
Russo-Japanese War
Russia wanted to take Port Arthur and Japan saw this as a threat. Russia was badly beaten by Japan.
Committee to Defend America First
Advocated American military material support for Britain as the best way to keep the U.S. out of the conflict then raging in Europe. Supported the Lend-Lease Act, they opposed the various Neutrality Acts of the late 1930's and sought their revision or repeal.
McKinley Tariff Act
Boosted tariffs to highest peactime level ever
Satellite Countries
The U.S.S.R. did not turst the Western Bloc so it created a buffer zone between itself and the Western nations (this zone was Easter Europe). This buffer consisted of Soviet Satellites (contries dominated by the U.S.S.R.)
Samuel De champlain
led the establishing of quebec and got the name father of new france
James G. Blaine, Pan-Americanism
The 1884 nomination for the Republican presidential candidate. Pan-Americanism stated that events in the Americans affected the US and we thus had reason to intervene.
Liberal land laws in Pennsylvania
William Penn allowed anyone to emigrate to Pennsylvania, in order to provide a haven for persecuted religions.
Irish and German Immigration 1840s
Saw drastic increase in Irish immigration due to potato famine, poverty for Irish immigrants caused settlement in eastern cities and competition for jobs, 1850s had increases in German immigration due to failed revolution in 1848; settled in the upper-Midwest portion of the US because they had money and other resources; NYC was the melting pot of the US
James Garfield
did not last in the president role, he gave many pensions
The Missouri Compromise
So that the balance of 11 free states and 11 slave states is not upset, Missouri is allowed to be admitted as a slave state, but Maine is admitted as a free state.
Robert La Follette & Hiram Johnson
From Wisconsin and CA respectively, introduced reforms in their states that allowed citizens to have a more direct role in the political process.
League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC)
organization created to combat the discrimination that Mexican Americans faced in the United States Southwest
The Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) did which of the following?
Sanctioned separate but equal public facilities for African Americans.
65. Which of the following best describes changes in the American economy in the 1820's?
a. Improved transportation in the West, depressed conditions in the South
b. Industrialization in the Northeast, diversified farming in the South
c. Improved t
c. Improved transportation in the West, industrialization in the North
Illegal immigrants and why were they illegal?
Japanese and Chinese.  B/c of the Chinese exclusion act. 
77. The Ordinances of 1785 and 1787 were notable accomplishments because they
a. Established the principle that western lands are the joint property of all the states
b. Initiated a territorial policy that provided for the orderly creation of new st
b. Initiated a territorial policy that provided for the orderly creation of new states
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