APUSH Study Guide Flashcards

Terms Definitions
What was NY called?
First permanent English settlement; located in Virginia. Founded by London Company
Who was "military chieftain"?
Andrew Jackson
A narrow-minded concern for, or devotion to, the interests of one section of a country over the interests of the nation as a whole
Feminism-Woman's Rights
"Separate spheres"/ "cult of domesticity" v. feminism/ Seneca Falls- Antebellum period; reform movements
Andrew Carnegie
United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts; a "robber barron," developed the steel industry; practiced vertical integration; believed in the "Gospel of Wealth"
Who invented the mechanical mower-reaper
Cyrus McCormick
Did Tyler veto the fiscal corporation?
Much of the free blacks were what?
What fraction of white southerners owned slaves or belonged to a slave-holding family?
one forth
Antebellum urbanization
Enlarged population due to largest immigration in US history; migration to cities b/c native farming classes forced off land due to changes in agriculture and immigrants; improved transportation, beginnings of industrialization
Lucretia Mott
Quaker activist in both the abolitionist and women's movements; w/ Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she was a principal organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention
Zenger case
The case that established the precedent that true statements about public officials could not be prosecuted as libel; Newspapers are not financially liable for criticism of government if actually true.
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned against permanent foreign alliances and political parties, called for unity of the country, established precedent of two-term presidency
Neutrality Proclamation
A 1793 statement by President Washington that the United States would not support or aid either France or Britain in their European conflict following the French Revolution
Abraham Lincoln's presidency (1861-1865)
Civil War: effective commander-in-chief, took advantage of Northern materials, destruction of Confederate armies; ignored parts of the Constitution
Conservative coalition
The coalition formed by Republicans and conservative Southern Democrats to block New Deal-liberal legislation of FDR and his successors.
Terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon; led to a focus on eliminating terrorism.
Social Gospel
Late 19th century movement Protestant movement preaching that all true Christians should be concerned with the plight of immigrants and other poor residents of American cities and should financially support efforts to improve lives of these poor urban dwellers. Settlement houses were often financed by funds raised by ministers of this movement.
Who formed the Order of The Star-Spangled Banner?
Which president had a violent temper?
Andrew Jackson
Who was in prison with Jackson?
his brother
This reform program was introduced in 1985 by Mikhail Gorbachev. Meaning "openness," it was designed to rid the country of the old Stalin totalitarian state by easing laws designed to limit the freedoms of Russians
GI Bill
Provided for college or vocational training for returning WWII veterens as well as one year of unemployment compensation. Also provided for loans for returning veterens to buy homes and start businesses.
people in kansas who were militant abolitions movement.
Who was Fredrick Douglass?
an abolitionist and self-educated orator of rare power
Nullification Crisis
Southerners favored freedom of trade & believed in the authority of states over the fed. gov.--> declared federal protective tariffs null and void; South believed individual state cannot defy fed. gov. alone; led to increased sense among Southerners as "minority" & threat of secession rather than nullification was the South's ultimate weapon
Charles Finney
A leading evangelist of the Second Great Awakening, he preached that each person had capacity for spiritual rebirth and salvation and that through individual effort could be saved. His concept of "utility of benevolence" proposed the reformation of society as well as of individuals.
Force Acts (reconstruction)
Gave expanded power to fed. authorities to stop KKK violence & to protect civil rights of citizens in the South.
Lecompton Crisis (1857-1858)
Free-staters refuse to participate in election in Kansas; fraudulent election; opposed by Douglas; constitution resubmitted and rejected by Kansas voters; South angry at Douglas; Kansas admitted as free state
Pontiac's Rebellion
After the French and Indian War, colonists began moving westward and settling on Indian land. This migration led to this conflict in 1763, when a large number of Indian tribes banded together under the Ottawa chief Pontiac to keep the colonists from taking over their land.
Adams-Onis/Transcontinental Treaty
Spain ceded Florida to US; established border between US and Spanish Mexico in 1819
Brown Decision
"Separate but equal" in public school education is inherently unequal; thus, school segregation is unconstitutional
War on Poverty
LBJ's initiative to carry out Kennedy's goal; involved the Economic Opportunity Act which included training programs such as Job Corps, granted loans to rural families + small urban businesses + migrant workers, and launched VISTA.
Alice Paul
Head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. She opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority. Most condemned her way of thinking.
What did NY get in 1842?
piped-in water supply
What is rugged individualism?
Americans depended only upon themselves
Jackson condemned Clay as what?
"Judas of the West"
What battle did Jackson win?
battle of New Orleans
Who took the lead in protesting against the "Tariff of Abominations"?
South Carolinians
Rosa Parks
This volunteer for the local chapter of the NAACP had seen many African American men and women arrested and mistreated for refusing to comply with the Jim Crow laws that ruled the bus system. She decided enough was enough when, on December 11, 1955, she refused to give up her seat to a white man on a city bus. Arrested and fined she ad started the ball rolling for the NAACP.
Camp David Accords
This peace agreement occurred when President Carter invited Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin to meet at the presidential retreat in Maryland. Sadat and Begin discussed peace options while Carter acted as mediator. This peace agreement was signed in September 1978. The treaty served as the first step toward peace in the Middle East since the founding of the states of Israel in 1948.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Because President Hoover was reluctant to give direct aid to Americans who were suffering under the weight of the depression, Congress created this corporation in 1932. The corporation was given authority to issue loans to assist railroads, banks, and municipalities to prevent them from collapsing.
Pearl Harbor
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
U.S. social reformer. she organised the first womens rights movement. she was president of the national womens suffrage association.
What was the Republic of Liberia's capital and who was it named after?
Monrovia; President Monroe
John Deere steel plow
1st commercially successful steel plow used; invented by John Deere
15th Amendment
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote b/c of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Reconstruction southern state governments
Reality after Civil War; unqualified blacks held gov. positions but never achieved dominance; corruption existed but no more than during Gilded Age; increased taxes & public debt - to pay for public schools; new constitutions of southern states - established free public school abolished property & qualifications for voting/jury duty
John C. Calhoun
S. Carolina Senator who advocate for state's rights, limited government, & nullification; damaged relations w/ Jackson
New England colonies
The term for the colonies of Massachusetts bay, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire
Niagara Movement (1905)
Founded by W.E.B. DuBois to promote the education of African Americans in the liberal arts; end segregation & discrimination in unions, courts, & public accommodations; equality of opportunity
Immigration Act of 1965
This act abolished the National Origins system; increased annual admission to 170,000 and put a population cap of 20,000 on immigrants from any single nation.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
A feminist who published "Women + economics." ; called upon women to abandon their dependent status and contribute to the larger life of the community through productive involvement in the economy; wrote "The Yellow Wallpaper"
Marshall Plan
U.S. economic aid to rebuild W. Europe ($13 billion); proposed by State Secretary George Marshall (head of Allied forces in World War II)
What were some characteristics of the Pioneer Americans?
ill-informed, superstitious, provincial, and fiercely individualistic.
Who scorned the irish immigrants the worse?
"proper" Protestant Bostonians
Who was the first president from the west, first nominated at a formal part convention, and only the second without a college education?
Andrew Jackson
What were the "Five Civilized Tribes"?
Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles
Henry Clay
was eliminated as a candidate when the election of 1824 was thrown into the House of Representatives
Saddam Hussein
This Iraqi leader had been a problem for the U.S. since he invaded Kuwait back in 1991. More recently, he refused to cooperate fully with United Nations weapons inspections, so President George W. Bush, along with British Prime Minister Tony Blair, convinced Congress and most of the United States that Iraq posted a serious threat to the United States and the world if let in power. The official invasion of Iraq sanctioned by the UN and was condemned by many of the U.S.'s allies around the world. This man was caught and eventually executed.
Civilian Conservation Corps
Gave young unemployed men jobs in fixing land and erosion problems.
Judicial Reorganization Bill
court packing; proposed that FDR be allowed to name a new federal judge for every sitting judge who had reached the age of seventy and had not retired; soundly defeated in Congress; FDR came under intense criticism for trying to seize too much power
shakers, Oneidas
It is a religion created by native american people
Gen. Robert E. Lee
Part of the Mexican-American war. Later became the Confederate army general.
What did American Slavery As It Is influence?
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Nat Turner rebellion (1831)
Almost 60 whites killed in Virginia; over 100 blacks executed -> increased fear of slave revolt; increased fear of slave revolt; same year as The Liberator began
Squatters and preemption
People who would settle on land that they didn't have a title or claim to
Second Party System: Democrats and Whigs
Whigs (opposed Jackson= Webster, Calhoun, Clay) - fed. gov. aid economic development (American System), cautious of territorial expansion; Democrats (Jackson, Van Buren) - limit fed. gov. power and protect states rights, suspicious of gov. attempts to stimulate commercial/industrial growth, support territorial expansion
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
March 1911 fire in New York factory that trapped young women workers inside locked exit doors; nearly 50 ended up jumping to their death; while 100 died inside the factory; led to the establishment of many factory reforms, including increasing safety precautions for workers
Gustavus Swift and Philip Armour
Founders of the American meat-packing industry. Targeted in Upton Sinclair's muckraker novel The Jungle due to the absence of federal inspections resulting in tainted meat and eventually the passing of the Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906.
What did the national park system begin with?
Yellowstone Park in 1872
What are clipper ships?
Ships that are long, narrow, and majestic. they glide across the sea
Who was accused of having procured a servant girl for the lust of the Russian tsar?
J. Q. Adams
Warren Court
This Court was one of the most liberal in history. In Brown vs Board of Education, its ruling overturned the decision read that "separate facilities were inherently unequal" and had no place in public education. The Court soon ordered the desegregation of all public school facilities with "all deliberate speed." Due to another of this Court, the Little Rock School Board finally integrated the public schools. The Court also ruled that segregation on public buses was unconstitutional.
Black Tuesday
This is the name given to October 29, 1929. This date signaled a selling frenzy on Wall Street--days before, stock prices had plunged to desperate levels. Investors were willing to sell their shares for pennies on the dollar or were simply holding on to the worthless certificates
Gen. George McClellan
Was a major general during the civil war. Got fired by Lincoln a few times.
What was some of the first abolitionists efforts?
transporting blacks back to Africa
Antebellum mass immigration (1840's and 50's)
Migration into cities; largest in US history; majority Irish, then Germans b/c of widespread famine in their native countries
Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom
1779 - Written by Thomas Jefferson, this statute outlawed an established church and called for separation of Church and State. (Disestablishment)
Clinton's budget plan (1993)
A plan to reduce deficit and provide investments to stimulate economy and repair the nation's decaying public infrastructure.
What was the semiseret society founded in ireland to fight rapacious landlords called?
The Ancient Order of Hibernians
What did pioneers call on their government for?
help in building internal improvements
Why did Santa Anna repudiate the agreement as illegal
it was extorted under duress
What was Andrew Jackson's political philosophy based on?
his suspicion of the federal government, focus on individualism, demand of support of subordinates, ignoring the supreme court
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Eisenhower saw the creation of this administration in 1958 to get the United States back in the running with the Soviets with regards to space travel.
Congress of Industrial Organization
This organization was led by John L. Lewis of the United Mine workers. This organization focused on unskilled laborers in America's heavy industrial sector such as steel, automobiles, and mines
Compromise Tariff of 1833
A new tariff proposed by Henry Clay & John Calhoun that gradually lowered the tariff to the level of the tariff of 1816; avoided civil war & prolonged the union for another 30 years.
Frederick Jackson Turner's frontier thesis
Idea that held that the existence of cheap and unsettled land played a key role in making American society more democratic; the frontier helped create the American spirit of democracy and egalitarianism, acted as a safety valve for Americans to escape bad economic conditions, and stimulated nationalism and individualism
Who did Roger B. Taney side with when Boston's Charles River Bridge sued the new Warren Bridge?
The new Warren Bridge
What did the Force Bill do?
authorized the president to use the army and nay, if necessary, to collect federal tariff duties.
How did white Americans treat the Native Americans?
white Americans used trickery and coercion to get Indian land.
What was put it Uncle Tom's Cabin?
an emotional power of slave auction when families were being sold and seperated
Why did most people loose strikes?
They would just be replaced by people fresh off the boat
What did the Independent Treasury Bill do?
system for the retaining of government funds in the United States Treasury and its subtreasuries, independently of the national banking and financial systems.
When was John Quincy Adams charged with having struck a "corrupt bargain?"
when he appointed Clay to become Secretary of State
Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad
Set up a network of white and African American abolitionists who helped slave escape to freedom in the North or Canada. She was the most famous and successful conductor.
What happened when Stephen Austin went to Mexico City in 1833 to negotiate the difference between Mexicans and Texans?
The dictator Santa Anna clapped him in jail for eight months
What did the Force Bill of 1833 state?
That Jackson could send troops to force South Carolina to obey federal law.
Why was Henry Clay out of the running?
was not one of the top three candidates
What 2 frist things did Jackson do as President?
first to be populist pres. and first to use "pocket veto"
Who was Jacksons wife?
Political ideology supported by Southern and Western Democrats, women, "muckrakers", Social Gospel and college-educated, included socialists such as Debs. They wanted government ownership of railroads and control of money supply (bimetallism).
Who were hostile to tariffs?
Gibbons decision
Congress alone regulated interstate commerce
President Dwight Eisenhower
Domestic policy: "Modern Republicanism"; did not repeal New Deal. "New Conservatism": need for government to regulate personal behavior and restore Christian morality. Opposed by libertarian "free man" vs. "good man." Appointed Earl Warren to Supreme Court. End of Joe McCarthy yet continuation of the Red Scare. Sputnik I --> "missile gap" --> education; foreign policy: rejected isolationism: "containment" not "rollback". warned against "military-industrial complex".
Who invented the steel plow?
John Deere
This economic phenomenon occurs when high inflation is coupled with high unemployment.
Where did John C. Calhoun graduate from?
Worcester Decision
Invalidated Georgia law that required U.S. citizens entering Cherokee territory to obtain permission from governor of Georgia
New Amsterdam
Dutch colonial settlement that served as the capital of New Netherland. This later became "New York City"
Fundamental Orders
The first constitution written in North America; granted ALL adult males to vote not just church going land owners as was the policy in Massachutes
Trent affair
Foreign event involving Union seizure of British ship with Confederate diplomats; tensions btw Britain & US eased w/ Lincoln's negotiations
Pullman strike
Strike that resulted from wages slashed 25%; led by Debs, a leading proponent of socialism; shutdown of railroad transportation; injunction issued and Debs served jail time (1893-94)
Watergate Crisis
Descriptive term for all illegal activities of the Nixon Administration ( not only for the break-in of Democratic Administration at Watergate Hotel in Washington, D.C. involved the two different scandals: 1) General pattern of abuses of power by White House ("plumbers") & CREEP (Committee to Re-Elect the President) and 2) Watergate break-in itself & the cover-up.
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
Platt Amendment
forced into Cuban Constitution. Cuba could not make treaties with other nations; US had right to intervene in Cuba; US naval bases on Cuban land
Hull House
Dedicated to helping the urban poor
The people of America were restless and...?
Who was Denmark Vesey?
a free black man
Put the following things in order correctly: (1) South Carolina threated "nullification" of federal law and backs down in the face of Andrew Jackson's military threat (2) a strange four way election puts and icy New Englander in office amid charges of "co
This reform program was introduced in 1985 by Mikhail Gorbachev. Meaning "restructuring," it was aimed at opening up the once-closed Soviet economy to more free market interactions to repair the sluggish economy.
These secret clubs in American cities ere visited by the young and fashionable. To gain entrance, visitors would need to know the password and have whisper to gain entrance
Election of 1860
Lincoln against Breckinridge. Lincoln won and started his first term as president
How much of Britains population drew their livelihood from cotton cloth?
one fifth
Who got expelled for organizing an 18 day debate on slavery?
Peace of Paris (1783)
Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States, agreed to the Mississippi boundary in the west, Florida was passed back to Spain; Loyalist property that had been confiscated would be returned.
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
Pottawatomie Massacre
Abolitionist John Brown and his men killed 5 pro-slavery men in Kansas; response to Sack of Lawrence
Iran-Contra scandal
A major scandal of Reagan's second term that involved shipping arms to Iran to free hostages and diverting the money from the sale of these weapons to the Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
George Kennan's long telegram
Russia (tsarist or Communist) expansionist nation yet cautious; U.S. must oppose expansion & "contain" Soviets politically; no compromise with present Soviet leadership (Stalin) ---> origins of containment
Roosevelt Corollary
Extension of the Monroe Doctrine in 1904 stating that the U.S. had the right to intervene in order to "stabilize" the economic affairs of small states in the Caribbean and Central America, if they were unable to pay their international debts. Established the foundation later for FDR's "Good Neighbor" policy --> establishment of "protectorates"
What was the shadowy irish miners' union that rocked the Pennsylvania coal districts called?
Molly Maguires
What characteristics did the "modern" family have by midcentury?
small, affectionate, child-centered
Who promoted a high tariff bill, expecting to be defeated, which would give a black eye to President J. Q. Adams?
Ardent Jacksonites
What two people did Jackson Hang?
Arbuthnot and Ambrister
What are wildcat banks?
banks that print money wildly
Nikita Khrushchev
In 1958, this Soviet Premier demanded the removal of Westerners from Berlin within six months. He later joined forces with Fidel Castro to threaten U.S. national security.
William "Bill" Clinton
Winner of the 1992 presidential election, this man worked to reform health care and the welfare system. He was challenged by a disunited government--Congress sat in Republican hands. He and House Speaker Newt Gingrich were headed for a showdown, as the president threatened to veto the Republican budget and force the closure of government offices until a new budget was created. Republicans were ultimately forced to back down, opening the doors for this president to emerge unscathed as he compromised to pass a federal budget.
Margaret Sanger
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
First Hundred Days
the extraordinarily productive first 3 months of President Franklin Roosevelt's administration in which a special session of Congress enacted 15 of Roosevelt's New Deal proposals. Emergency Banking Relief Act, Economy Act, Civilian Conservation Corps, abandonment of the gold standard, Federal Emergency Relief Act, Agricultural Adjustment Act, Emergency Farm Mortgage Act, Tennessee Valley Authority Act, Federal Securities Act, Home Owner's Loan Act, National Industrial Recovery Act, Banking Act, Farm Credit Act
Atlantic Charter
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war
people of the church of latter day saints.went to salt lake city to start a Mormon colony.
What two people aided Weld?
bother Arthur and Lewis Tappan
Gadsden Purchase
Agreement w/ Mexico that gave the US parts of present-day New Mexico & Arizona in exchange for $10 million; all but completed the continental expansion envisioned by those who believed in Manifest Destiny.
James Monroe (1817-1825)
The fifth President of the United States (1817-1825).His administration was marked by the acquisition of Florida (1819); the Missouri Compromise (1820), in which Missouri was declared a slave state; and the profession of the Monroe Doctrine (1823), declaring U.S. opposition to European interference in the Americas.
De Witt Clinton
The leader of government officials who came up with the plan to link New York City with the Great Lakes region.
Embargo Act
1807 act which ended all of America's importation and exportation. Jefferson hoped the act would pressure the French and British to recognize U.S. neutrality rights in exchange for U.S. goods. In reality, it hurt Americans and its economy and got repealed in 1809.
First Great Awakening
Religious revival in the colonies in 1730s and 1740s; George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards preached a message of atonement for sins by admitting them to God. The movement attempted to combat the growing secularism and rationalism of mid-eighteenth century America. Religious splits in the colonies became deeper.
Panic of 1819
This was the first widespread economic crisis in the United States which brought deflation, depression, bank failures, and unemployment. This set back nationalism to more sectionalism and hurt the poorer class, which gave way to Jacksonian Democracy.
Treaty of Versailles
Many of Wilson's 14 points rejected. 1) surrender of German Territory, 2) reparations to Britain and France, 3) occupation of Rhineland by Allies, 4) Germany had to admit guilt for starting war 5), League of Nations established with Article X, example of multilateralism
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
This corporation insured individual bank deposits
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Navy officer whose ideas on naval warfare and the importance of sea-power changed how America viewed its navy; wrote "The influence of Sea Power upon History"
National Highway Act/Interstate Highway Act
Creation of interstate highway system by Ike for transportation and defense.
Where were fur trappers setting their trap lines in the 1820s?
Rocky Mountain Region
True or False: Working was fun for the people. They had indoor heating and got good pay.
Adams and his men described Jacksons mother and wife as what?
prostitute and adulteress
What type of wood was the symbol for John Quincy Adams?
What one candidate were the Whigs united behind during the election of 1840?
William Henry Harrison
What was the policy of the Jackson administration toward the eastern Indian tribes?
forced removal
Truman Doctrine
In March 1947, Truman made this speech where he asked Congress for funding to assist Greece and Turkey in repelling a possible communist take-over. The president's speech explained that the United States had a duty to give financial assistance to free nations under communist threat. This policy passed its first test, as both Greece and Turkey successfully thwarted communism.
Brain Trust
This term refers to the group of economists, professors, and politicians appointed by President Roosevelt to advise him on matters of economic and political policy
Ralph waldo Emerson
philosopher and poet. he became associated with German idealism. he evolved the concept of transcendentalism
What did free slave Denmark Vesey lead?
a rebellion in Charleston
Mormon Migration to Utah
Driven from NY b/c of persecution; after Joseph Smith was charged w/treason and killed; led by Brigham Young
Duke tobacco
Began in 1865, by 1890 it had bought out its competitors & created American Tobacco Company ; 1 market that South controlled; 90% of US tobacco production
Open Range
A vast area of grassland owned by the federal government where ranchers could graze their herds for free.
Atomic Bomb Controversy
The controversy over whether or not it was justified to drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of WWII; also involved the exclusion of USSR in the development process which ultimately led them to develop there own -> arms race
What were most of he Irish and German immigrants?
Roman Catholics
What did pioneers call on their neighbors for?
logrolling and barn raising
What did the Spoils System do?
reward political supporters with public office
How long did the uproar of the "corrupt bargain" go on?
nearly four years
The Smith Act
This 1940 act was designed to arrest people who were advocates of overthrowing the government, even if they had no intention of ever doing so
The Dawes Plan
In 1924, the Director of the Budget crafted this loan program that would give money to Germany so that war reparations could be paid, thus lessening the financial crisis in Europe. This plan was successful until the program ended with the U.S. stock market in 1929
a person who lives in the south and is extremly into slavery and would give their lives to keep slavery.
When did abolitionists first stir?
at the time of the revolution, especially among the Quakers
"Copperheads" / Peace Democrats
N. Democrats who opposed the Civil War & sympathized w/ the South; fought against Lincoln, the draft & emancipation
Income tax (16th Amendment)
This legislation gave the right to tax people's income; the more you make, the more you're taxed
What was cult of demesticity?
a wide spreed cultural creed that glorified the customary functions of the homemaker.
Each summer trader ventured from St. Louis to where?
a verdant Rocky Mountain Valley
How was Santa Anna captured?
Houston took full advantaged of the Mexican siesta and wiped out the pursuing force.
What did John Quincy Adams propose as president?
naitonal university, national observatory, and national improvements
Osama Bin Laden
This man, a Saudi national, is t he leader of Al-Qaeda. He had formed a military training camp in Afghanistan to prepare warriors to attack Western targets.
Fair Labor Standards Act
1938 act which provided for a minimum wage and restricted shipments of goods produced with child labor
John Brown's raid at Harper's Ferry
John Brown's failed scheme to invade the South w/ armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, N. abolitionists; seized the fed. arsenal; Brown & remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged; South feared danger if it stayed in Union
Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show
A show made by William Frederick Cody which reenacted famous frontier events and life in the west; justified American cause to take territory; desputed battles performed around the world; used Sitting Bull
What three Indians resisted eviction?
Sauk and Fax braves from Illinois and Wisconsin, ably led by Black Hawk
What did the Whig Congress pass a law to end?
the independent treasury system
What did Twain arouse the Southerners to do?
to fight for a decaying social structure
Why is it called a turnpike?
Because the trucks had to go through the polls and there were pikes and they turned to let the drivers threw
What did Jackson propose because he felt an obligation to rescue "this much injured race"?
a bodily removal of the remaining eastern tribes-chiefly Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles-beyond the Mississippi
What was he purpose behind the Spoils System?
to reward political supporters with public office.
Battle of Gettysburg and Siege of Vicksburg
Turning points of Civil War in 1863; G: bloodiest battle where Lee's army never recovered from casualties; V: placed Mississippi River under control of Union & split Confederacy in 1/2
What terms did Santa Anna agree to when captured?
to withdraw Mexican troops and to recognize the Rio Grande as the extreme southwestern boundary of Texas.
What did the Cherokees do to assimilate themselves into white society?
they learned the ways of the whites, they adopted a system of settled agriculture, they had private property with deeds, had a written legal code, and had cotton plantations and slaves.
What does it mean to "nullify a tariff"?
declare it null and void within their borders
Why did Clay push the renewal of the Banks of the United States' charter four early?
to make it an election issue in 1832
"Perfectionists"; John Humphrey Noyes; rejected traditional notions of family & marriage
Who invented the clippership?
Donald McKay
What was NatTurner?
a visionary black preacher
Jefferson's Presidency (1801-1809)
Democrat-Republican; Major events during his presidency include the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806), as well as escalating tensions with both Britain and France that led to war with Britain in 1812, after he left office.
Toleration Act
Guaranteed religious toleration to trinitarian Christians, but decreed the death penalty to Jews and atheists and others who didn't believe in the divinity of Jesus Christ,
60s youth involved in alternative lifestyles: drug use, long hair, flamboyant clothing, iconoclastic & obscene language - more common, "sexual revolution:", rejection of conventionl, middle- class culture, rock & soul music, creation of new set of norms, Woodstock Music Festival (Aug. 1969), and changes in movies.
Who won the presidency?
J. Q. Adams
Underground railroad
Harriet Tuban started this organization to help slaves go north to canada to be free.
What was the value that cotton accounted for out of all american exports?
Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South; staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state gov.; foundation rested on the idea of racism & white supremacy; waged and aggressive assault on African Americans; political power to white Democrats; lower taxation, lower gov. spending, lower education; advances of Reconstruction gov. dismantled
McCulloch decision
Upheld constitutionality of Bank of the United States ; Established loose/broad construction/interpretation of the Constitution as constitutional
"Mountain Men'"
American adventurers and fur trappers who spent most of their time in the Rocky Mountains; 1st to move into Indian territory, land they would ultimately dominate
Spanish empire
Empire control in Mexico, South America, and Florida, religious empire; Franciscans + mission system, defensive buffers vs. English, French, and Russians. Economic empire.
"Bleeding Kansas"
sequence of violent events involving abolitionists & pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory; dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent; Kansas- symbol of conflict
Louisiana Purchase
Territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million
Term widely used to describe French and American naval conflicts between 1798 to 1800. Neither nation declared war, although they carried out naval operations against each other
Election of 1864
5 political parties supported candidates for the presidency: War Democrats, Peace Democrats, Copperheads, Radical Republicans, & National Union Party; each political party offered a diff. point of view on how the war should be run & what should be done to the Confederate states after the war; National Union Party joined w/ Lincoln, who won the election on the recent northern victories against the South; decided that the Confederacy would lose & that slavery was dead
Free Speech Movement
(Berzerkley 1964) Mario Salvo. Students protested against limits on passing out of literature ---> questioned university & society that created it and this signaled the beginnging of numerous campus protests: People's Park protest (Berzerkly 1969) was the longest campus protest
President Richard Nixon
Continued Vietnam; invasion of Cambodia; ended Vietnam War; detente with China and Russia (better relations); destabilized Chile ; expanded welfare state (social security, protect environment, expand food stamps); forced to resign after Watergate Scandal; end liberal reform; SALT 1; EPA, Clean Air Act
President William McKinley
President during the Spanish-American War. Issued the Open Door policy in China that would lead to the Boxer Rebellion
Fourteen Points
Wilson's Progressive plan for postwar peace; response to Bolsheviks in Russia. 3 main categories: 1) self-determination, 2) principles of international conduct, establishment of League of Nations
population was double every how many years?
Who won the election of 1828?
Andrew Jackson
What dominated American diplomacy and politics in the 1840s?
Territorial Expansion
This NASA space shuttle exploded upon takeoff in February 1986. All seven astronauts aboard, including the first teacher in space, Christa McAuliffe, were killed.
Four Freedoms
Freedom of Speech, Religion, Want, from Fear; used by FDR to justify a loan for Britain, if the loan was made, the protection of these freedoms would be ensured, Freedoms FDR said are worth fighting for: speech, worship, want and fear. Used to justify US involvement in WWII.
also known as the American party, thought to be hostile towards the american values
Who was the barber of Natchez?
William T. Johnson
Bartolomeo de las Casas
16th Century Spanish Historian, Dominican Friar, "Protector of the Indians;" opposed atrocities by colonizers on Indigenous people
Northern whites who moved to the South & served as Republican leaders during reconstruction
Stephen Douglas
Senator from Illinois, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act & the Freeport Doctrine, argues in favor of popular sovereignty; debated Lincoln prior to the 1860 presidential election
Boston Tea Party
Demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
Dorothea Dix
Rights activist; created 1st wave of US mental asylums; began national movement for new methods to treat the mentally ill
Election of 1840
William Henry Harrison (Whig) vs. Martin Van Buren (Democrat); result: Whig victory & a truly national two-party system.
Christopher Columbus
Italian explorer, sailed from Spain in 1492 and reached Americas, greatly increased European awareness of the the North American Continent
Beating of Charles Sumner
Sumner of Massachusetts criticized Bulter of S. Carolina in Senate--> Preston Brooks beat Sumner w/ cane--> angered Northerners
Tiananmen Square Controversy
The crushing of students protesting for democracy by Communist leadership during George H. W. Bush's presidency; Bush muted American protests in 1989.
Truman vs. MacArthur
Dispute between MacArthur and Truman; MacArthur wanted to expand war to China maniland but Truman was all like "We have to limit war man because I fear that this would lead to a WWIII". MacArthur was fired because of public disagreement with Truman's war policy ---> reflection of policy difference between Eurocentrists ("he who controls Europe is well on his way toward controlling the whole world") VS Asianist; origins of containment vs "rollback" anti- Communist U.S. foreign policy
Lusitania incident
British passenger ship sunk by a German U-boat --> 1198 dead including 128 Americans. key issue: American right to sail on belligerent ships. Germany had to stop U-boat attacks, respect neutral rights. Sec. of State William Jennings Bryan resigned (real neutrality did not exist)
Who established the Clermont, a steam engine?
Robert Fulton
Who appeared as the vice-presidential candidate for both Adams and Jackson?
John C. Calhoun
Where did General Sam Houston lure Santa Anna to?
San Jacinto
Who did Clay challenge to a duel?
John Randolph
What did Tyler sign in 1842
a protective tariff
Nationalists (Kuomintang)
This group, under the leadership of Chiang Kai-Shek, received financial aid from the United States to keep the country from falling prey to the Japanese. Once support was removed post-war, this group and the communists, under the leadership of Mao Tse-Tung, reengaged in a war that had been brewing since before World War II. More money was sent, but much of it never made it into their hands. China finally fell to the communists by 1949; Chiang and this group fled to the nearby island of Formosa, now Taiwan.
Section 7a
This part of the National Industrial Recovery Administration legislation formally guaranteed organized labor the right to collectively bargain and organize
National Recovery Administration
Blue Eagle; Worked with businesses. Established standards for output, prices, and working conditions.
"stonewall" Jackson
A confederate general during the civil war, second most important to robert e. lee
What did the south produce half of the worlds supply of?
Hartford Convention
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the rulings of the Republican Party. These actions were viewed as traitorous to the country and had lost the Federalists much influence and respect (The practical end of the Federalist Party).
Freedman's Bureau
Fed. agency set up to help former slaves after the Civil War; focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned & confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools.
Mexican War (1846-1848)
Conflict between the US and Mexico that after the US annexation of Texas, which Mexico still considered its own; US troops fought primarily on foreign soil; covered by mass-circulation newspapers; Whigs opposed
Hamilton's financial program
A financial plan involving the funding of national debt at par value, the assumption of state debts, and the establishment of a national bank
Manifest Destiny
Belief that the US was destined to stretch across the continent; idealistic, sent by God, not for economic or territorial reasons
Carrie Chapman Catt
Conservative leader of the NAWSA from 1915 - 1920 and pushed the suffrage movement nation-wide.
Chinese Revolution
The fall of control to Communist Mao Zedong--> increase in fear -> 2nd Red Scare
Marcus Garvey
Many poor urban blacks turned to him. He was head of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and he urged black economic cooperation and founded a chain of UNIA grocery stores and other business.
What was one of the earliest investment capital companies?
the Boston Assosciates
What did the Specie Circular require for payment of public lands?
gold or silver
What was the banks first priority?
Profit, not public service
How long did the "permanent" frontier last?
about fifteen years
What directed the decision to choose the top three candidates?
The 12th amendment
National Security Council
This organization was provided for in the National Security Act on 1947. This organization wrote a secret document labeled NSC-68, which was released just after China fell to communism and the Korean crisis was about to begin. The document detailed the Soviet's plans for worldwide domination and encouraged an immediate buildup of the nation's military. Where the Truman Doctrine had provided for financial support in preventing the spread of communism, NSC-68 now provided for the use of U.S. troops to achieve containment.
The Berlin Airlift
This program delivered supplies to a German city, day after day, for 11 months. the city had been cut off from Western contact by Joseph Stalin
Jazz Age
This era from 1920 to 1929. also called the Roaring Twenties, was a cultural explosion much like the antebellum period. African American ragtime music began to change as it moved from Deep South into northern cities like Chicago and Philadelphia.
admission of california
people were worried about whether or not it would be a slave state and if it would be fair. it went against the 1850 compromise.
Where did the Cotton Kingdom burst in just a few short decades?
The "Black belt"
Lewis and Clark Expedition
An expedition sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore the northwestern territories (Louisiana territory) of the United States ; led by Merriwether Lewis and William Clark; traveled from St. Louis to the mouth of the Columbia River from 1803 to 1806
Charles Beard's Constitution thesis
A historian who argued that the Constitution was designed to protect the economic self-interest of its framers. Beard's view is largely rejected by contemporary scholars
Hudson Valley School of Art
Pre-photography w/o humans; focus on beauty of landscape--> American pride & nationalism
American Federation of Labor
Led by Samuel Gompers; alliance of skilled workers in craft unions; focus was bread-and butter issues such as higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions
Spanish American War
War that began in 1898 and stemmed from furor in America over treatment of Cubans by Spanish troops that controlled the island; a major result of this was the acquisition of the Phillipines, which made America a major power in the Pacific.
Who was Catherine Beecher?
daughter of a preacher, who encouraged women to join the teaching community
Why was the name Whigs chosen?
to recollect eighteenth century British and Revolutionary American opposition to the monarchy
Where did the strong regional support for the Tariff come from?
The south and Calhoun
Frederick W. Taylor
an engineer that made the book The Principles of Scientific Management.
Who waged an 8 year fight to repeal the Gag Resolution?
John Quincy Adams
Oberlin and Mount Holyoke colleges
1st coed college& 1st American college for women
Trail of Tears (1838)
The route taken by Native Americans as they were relocated to Oklahoma; 20-25% perished before reaching Oklahoma
George C. Marshall
The head of allied forces in World War II; proposed economic aid to to rebuild Western Europe -> Marshall Plan
Peoples-Societies of the Trans-Mississippi West
Refers to a region that had unique socioeconomic developments post-Civil War; contained sources of agricultural goods and raw materials that fed urban and industrial growth; included racial division in which whites used violence to assert their dominance; people living here looked beyond their region for human and financial resources; whites exploited Latinos and forced Indians to assimilate; mining, ranching and agriculture were used initially -> followed by corporations
Who were the new comers?
the new immigrants from Ireland and Germany
Why didn't the Washington Government interpose federal authority on behalf of the Cherokees?
The Georgia governor threatened to resort to arms
What three things were the Whig party?
pro-bank, pro-protective tariff, and pro-internal improvements
The Office of War Information
This office produced radio shows and newsreels to keep Americans apprised of the events overseas.
Why wouldn't Phillips eat can sugar or wear cotton cloth?
They were from the south
Supreme Court "Packing" Plan
Plan in which FDR proposed 6 judges to be added to Supreme Court because justices were overworked and over 70 years of age; plan was heavily criticized; Result: Plan rejected -> Court began to accept New Deal Legislation; some Supreme Court Judges retired and were replaced by pro-New Deal judges
What did laws of "free incorporation" mean?
business men could create corporations without applying for individual charters from the legislature
What two major changes in American politics were demonstrated in the election of 1840?
triumph of populous democratic style and the formation of a vigorous and durable two-party system
What was John C. Calhoun's "South Carolina Exposition" an argument for?
quieting fears, and preserving the union. Calhoun attacked the Tariff as unjust and unconstitutional.
Selective Training and Service Act
1940 law requiring all males aged 21 to 36 to register for military service
Three Mile Island crisis
The event in 1979 in which a plume of radioactive steam spewed from a nuclear reactor at Three Mile Island; support for nuclear energy decreased
Why didn't President Jackson recognize the Court's decisions on The Cherokee tribal council?
He wanted to open Indian lands to white settlement
What was wrong with the "poor white trash"?
they were sick from malnutrition and parasites, especially hookworm
How did people feel about the land and nature in America?
They thought very highly of it
What spot in office was Samuel Swartwout given?
The lucrative post of collector of the customs of the port of New York.
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) II
SALT I was set to expire in 1977, so Carter and the Soviets were set to sign a renewal treaty. This treaty was negotiated and sat ready for ratification when a world crisis got in the way. The USSR invaded the nation of Afghanistan in December 1979 in a move to play a greater role in the Middle East. Americans were now certain the Soviets had intentions to take control of the precious oil transportation region of the Persian Gulf. The United States immediately ceased supplying the USSR with grain shipments and withdrew this treaty from the table.
What was the Bank of the United States denounced as in Andrew Jackson's veto for the recharter bill?
it was denounced a private monopoly that enriched the wealthy and foreigners at the expense of the common people.
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