APUSH Terms 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Ronald Reagan
Hawley Smoot Tariff
lincoln and the constitution
William James
psychologist; philosopher; PRAGMATISM; author
an arrangement or understanding between two or more nations agreeing to follow a particular policy with regard to affairs of international concern.
Opponents of ratification of the Constitution and of a strong central government generally.
Know-Nothing party
a nativist political movement empowered by popular fears that the country was being overwhelmed by German and Irish Catholic immigrants. The party called for restrictions on immigration and on naturalized citizenship.
Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin met at Yalta. They made final plans for smashing the buckling German lines and shackling the beaten axis foe. Stalin agreed that Poland with revised boundaries should have a representative government based on free elections. Talked about the UN
A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare i
John Adams
Non-Importation Agreements
Enter your back text here.
Harvester that heads and threshes and cleans grain while moving across the field.
Gold Standard Act
gold standard established; stopped bimetallism (McKinley)
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
1807 The American ship Chesapeake refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on Chesapeake. As a result of the incident, the U.S expelled all British ships from its waters until Britain issued an apology. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
Amerigo Vespucci
- Italian member of Portuguese expedition.
- Explored South America.
- When his 1497 voyage was published, a cartographer thought he found America before Columbus thus named the continent after him.
vertical integration
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
New England Colonies
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut
: an American abolitionist, writer, and suffragist, Letters on the Equality of the Sexes and the Condition of Women, Quaker
Sarah Grimke:
to form by blending unlike elements; make homogeneous.
Anne Hutchinson
swift and sharp in theological argument; banished for extreme heresy (Rhode Island); moved to New York and killed by Indians
Alexander Graham Bell
the 1876 inventor of the telephone
Yellow Peril
A color metaphor for race that originated in the late nineteenth century with immigration of Chinese laborers to various Western countries, notably the United States.
Horatio Alger
author; mostly juvenile novels - most famous - Ragged Dick
New Nationalism
Roosevelt ran this platform in the Election of 1918. It called for better regulation of large corporations, the creation of a tariff commission, workers benefits, etc.
Lucretia Mott
A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848
Mixed and Balanced Constitution
kings, lords, commons- reflects society, had a sort of limit of power. In the colonies, king=crown-appointed governor, lords=appointed assembly, and commons=elected assembly.
john c calhoun
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
Emergency Quota Act
Newcomers from Europe were restricted in any given year to a definite quota, which was set at 3 percent of the people of their nationality who had been licing in the United States in 1910.
who claimed responsibility for 9/11 events
osama bin laden
the process of promoting and hiring government employees based on their ability to perform a job, rather than on their political connections.
merit system
one of the band of Puritans who founded the colony of Plymouth, Mass., in 1620.
Pequot War
1637 The Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot. The colonists burned down their village and 400 were killed.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Tariff of 1789
Designed to raise revenue for the federal government, resulted in a government surplus.
Treaty of Paris 1783
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and form the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.
Dawes Plan (1924)
to make German reparations from WWI more accessible to Germans; evacuation of troops from Germany, reorganization of the Reichsbank, and foreign loans
underground railroad
a system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada
Loose interpretation of Necessairy and Proper
people who favor something,
An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence.
Patrick Henry
mexican war
the war between the U.S. and Mexico, 1846–48.
Point Four Program
plan to lend US money and technical aid to underdeveloped lands to help them help themselves
New England Confederation
1643 - Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies.
Teapot Dome Scandal
a bribery incident which took place in the United States in 1922-1923, during the administration of President Warren G. Harding. Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall leased Navy petroleum reserves at Teapot Dome to private oil companies, without competitive bidding, at low rates. In 1922 and 1923, the leases became the subject of a sensational investigation. Fall was later convicted of accepting bribes from the oil companies
King Philip's War
late 1670's in New England; series of battles in New Hampshire b/w colonists and Pokanokets, led by a chief known as King Philip; war was started when Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians; colonists won with help of Mohawks, which opened up additional Indian lands for expansion
1830 - This bill proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clay's state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didn't like Clay, and Martin Van Buren pointed out that New York and Pennsylvania paid for their transportation improvements with state m
Maysville Road veto
New Englanders developed a Bible/Puritan belief based on good versus evil as exemplified by the Salem "Witch Trials".
What are the fundamental beliefs of those who settled in the New England colonies?
Mary Elizabeth Lease
"raise less corn and more hell" led to the organization of the populist movement
is a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink merchant ships without warning.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare:
British Orders in council
The Orders in Council of 1807 were a specific use of an order of the British Privy Council, made under the Royal prerogative, during the Napoleonic Wars. They had the effect of authorizing the Royal Navy to blockade the seaports of France and her European allies.
SPG - Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (in Foreign Parts)
A group which worked to spread Christianity to other parts of the world through missionaries in the late 1800s.
Hull House
Spanish American War
founder of Mormonism
Joseph Smith
Joann Robinson
organized Montgomery bus boycott
to beat or whip severely.
the female factory workers had relatively high working standards.
very radical Puritans, determined to worship as they saw fit
Nat Turner
1831 slave uprising in Virginia-result=slave states strengthened measures against slaves
a defeat attended with disorderly flight; dispersal of a defeated force in complete disorder:
division of power between the national and state governments
George Dewey
a United States naval officer remembered for his victory at Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War
Hobbes (1588-1679)
English philosopher who believed that people are motivated mainly by greed and fear, and need a strong government to keep them under control. He developed the theory that kings are given their position by divine right, and thus should have absolute power.
Thomas Edison
Inventor of lightbulb, phonograph and numerous other innovations
Lincoln Steffens
brillian NY reporter (muckraker), 1902 launched a series of articles in McClure's titled "The Shame of Cities", unmasked corrupt alliance between big business and municipal gov't
Square Deal
Roosevelt's program which included the 3 Cs: control of the corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources
to abolish or annul by authority; nullify
This is a Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency.
State Department
to withdraw formally from an alliance, federation, or association, as from a political union, a religious organization, etc.
Townshend Acts (1767)
Enter your back text here.
Department of Defense
the federal department responsible for safeguarding national security of the UnitedStates
Panic of 1819
Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of Europena demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
USA/ Britain - neither has exclusive Panama Canal rights
Annexed in 1898 by McKinley after US settlers led a revolt against Queen Liliuokalani. Produced sugar, pineapple, was important to US tourism, and became a very important military base.
Thomas Jefferson
Main author of the Declaration of Independence
panic of 1873
Crooke's banking firm, the nation's largest dealer in gov't securities, went bankrupt setting off a series of financial failures
idk why the term says covenant cause gewgle says its actually the Half-Way Covenant, whatev. soo, in 1662 a couple congregations in the Massachusetts Bay Colony met up and decided it would be mad sweet of them to make it easier to become members of the church, only some congregations liked it and it caused heads to split about church issues because some people were chillers and others were tight-asses
After the Revolutionary War, many states claimed all of the western land between their northernmost and southernmost borders, which meant that many strips of land were claimed by more than one state. The Continental Congress was trying to get the states t
Western land claims
U-2 incident
Russians shoot down US U-2 spy plance
More tension rising
the activity, spirit, or time of the great revival of art, literature, and learning in Europe beginning in the 14th century and extending to the 17th century, marking the transition from the medieval to the modern world.
Essex Junto
a group of New England states who wanted to break away from America and chose Aaron Burr to be their new leader; caused Hamilton to be able to further damage Aaron Burr's reputation
Louisiana Purchase (1803)
passed onto the French and the Americans wanted in so that they could use the trading port in New Orleans so they got all the land in the Lousiana territory
Lord North
Prime Minister of England from 1770 to 1782. Although he repealed the Townshend Acts, he generally went along with King George III's repressive policies towards the colonies even though he personally considered them wrong. He hoped for an early peace during the Revolutionary War and resigned after Cornwallis' surrender in 1781.
banking failures
banks were unable to collect on loans because of the Great Depression
banks couldn't return money to depositors, leading to bank closures
on march 5, 1933, FDR reacted by closing all banks and instituting the Emergency banking act, which gave him the power to reorganize insolvent national banks
anglicizing of colonial America
(mid 1700s) Because of increasing population, the colonists were forced to revert to British techniques such as the first son inheriting the majority, higher dependence on British imports, gentry, fashion, mansions newspapers.
Big Sister Policy
policy pushed by secretary of state James G. Blaine that displayed America's developing international interest; aimed to rally Latin Americans behind the US and open Latin American markets to US interests. The Pan-American Conference was a product of this policy.
Election 1844: Liberty Party
The first abolitionist party - believed in ending slavery.
third party that largely appealed to and drew its leadership from former anti-slavery members, Its main purpose was opposing the expansion of slavery into the western territories
Free Soil party
bill of rights
a formal statement of the fundamental rights of the people of the United States, incorporated in the Constitution as Amendments 1–10, and in all state constitutions.
Gulf of Tonkin Incident
an alleged attack by N. Vietnamese Navy on US destroyers which led Pres. Johnson to order a direct bombing attack on North Vietnam
Gibbons v. Ogden
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.
Timber and Stone Act
Land that was deemed "unfit for farming" was sold to those who might want to "timber and stone" (logging and mining) upon the land. The act was used by speculators who were able to get great expanses declared "unfit for farming" allowing them to increase their land holdings at minimal expense.
Reciprocal Trade Agreement
1934. An act passed by Congress and was deigned to lift American export trade from the depression doldroms, aimed at both relief and recovery, while activating the low-tariff policy of the New Dealers.
was the chief of the Wallowa band of Nez Perce Indians during General Oliver O. Howard's attempt to forcibly remove his band and the other "non-treaty" Indians to a reservation in Idaho. For his principled resistance to the removal, he became renowned as
Chief Joseph:
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Rhode Island - founders established churches
Pennsylvania: Founded by William Penn, a Quaker, to provide protection for Quakers. Maryland: Formed as a colony where Catholics would be free from persecution. Rhode Island: Formed to provide a haven for all persecuted religions, including all Christian denominations and Jews.
(Theodore) Roosevelt (TR)
the cowboy hero of San Juan Hill, he had been elected governor of NY, where the local political bosses decided to "kick him upstairs" into the vice presidency; became president after McKinley was assassinated (youngest president; youngest elected pres was JFK); was an egoist who overshadowed everyone; his cowboy image was inspiring
Interstate Highway Act of 1956
$27 billion plan to build forty two thousand miles of sleek, fast motorways
an act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific Ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes
Pacific Railroad Act:
What happened at the Tonkin Gulf in 1964
At an allegedly unprovoked attack the North Vietnamese fired at 2 US destroyers. However, we had been cooperating with the S. Vietnamese gunboats in raids. Johnson ordered a retaliatory air raid against the N. Vietnamese bases.
pro constitution
Imply[ANT: State Clearly]
Pinckney's Treaty with Spain, 1796
Radical Republicans:
gained strength in 1866.
Protestant Reformation
Sixteenth century religious reform movement begun by Martin Luther
A frontier farmer who illegally occupied land owned by others, or not yet officially opened for settlement.
guerrilla warfare
Unconventional combat by small military units using hit and run tactics
Wearied, Tired by rich living[ANT: Naive]
Joseph Henry Noyes
leader of the Oneida Community
visible saints
in Calvinism, those who publicly proclaimed their experience of conversion and were expected to lead godly lives
Bonus Army
veterans from WWI sought their pensions early; denied and run out of Washington (by MacArthur)
Whig party
Whigs were conservatives who supported government programs, reforms, and public schools. They called for internal improvements like canals, railroads, and telegraph lines. The Whigs claimed to be defenders of the common man and declared the Democrats the party of corruption. They supported the natural harmony of society and the value of community. They favored a renewed national bank, protective tariffs, internal improvements, public schools, and moral reforms, such as the prohibition of liquor and the abolition of slavery.
Social Darwinism
application of Darwins theories of national selection to a business oriented society
argued new self-made captains of industry were wealthy because they'd proven themseleves the best among men and the poor stayed poor because of their own inferiority
a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority, e.g, Old Testament commentaries use the term to describe the levies of labor used to build the Temple, but it is most often used in the specific sense of government policies that require citizens to serve in their armed forces. It is known by various names — for example, the most recent conscription program in the United States was known colloquially as "the draft". Many nations do not maintain conscription forces, instead relying on a volunteer, or professional military, although many of these countries still reserve the possibility of conscription for wartime and "crises" of supply.
Kitchen debate
series of impromptu exchanges between then U.S. Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev at the opening of the American National Exhibition
Yalta Conference

 p. 773; Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met in 1945 and discussed post war arrangements. Roosevelt focused on the Allies unity after the war. They didn’t reach a solid agreement dealing with the expansion of Russian territory, but agreed they would divide Germany into four zones.
Freedmans Bureau
Agency established in 1865 to aid former slaves in their transition to freedom, especially by administering relief and sponsoring education.
religious revival
religion appeals to heart rather than mind
Paxton Boys and Regulators
Scots-Irish frontiersmen who protested against colonial elites of Pennsylvania and North Carolina
William Pitt (1708-1778)

British secretary of state during the French and Indian War. He brought the British/colonial army under tight British control and started drafting colonists, which led to riots.
Bretton Woods Conference
Bretton Woods Conference: Meeting of Allied governments in 1944. From the Bretton Woods Agreement, foreign currencies would be valued in relation to the dollar and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and World Bank were created.
“a faith that revered God for the marvels of His universe rather than for His power over humankind”; followers included Ben Franklin
Frederick Douglass
Escaped slaves that published his own newspaper, the North Star; favored the use of political methods of reform
Gifford Pinchot
first Chief of the United States Forest Service, Governer of Pennsylvania, progressive politician
Two-Party System
Political systems in which only two political parties effectively compete for government office. Under a two-party system, one of the two parties typically holds a majority in the legislature and is usually referred to as the majority party while the other is the minority party.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Ruled that "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional under 14th amendment. Legalized segregation
Captain John Smith
Captain from Britain, who writes all of his accounts and talks about Jamestown
Jay's Treaty
A treaty with the United States and Britain trying to avoid the start of a war. It resulted in opposition from the democratic-republicans. It tried to insure obedience to the Treaty of Paris.
Middle passage
the portion of a slave ship's journey in which slaves were carried from Africa to the Americas
Wade Davis Act
Congress would only authorize a state government in former confederate states when the majority of voters took an ironclad oath and stating they were loyal to the Union.
NAACP: goal and strategies
1910 Estab by Civil Rights Activist Ida B. Wells  and promoted women's suffrage
Launched a campaign against lynching and still a common atrocity in many parts of the country (most black victims)
Led by N. White liberals and black leaders such a DuBois .
Robert de La Salle
He was responsible for naming Louisiana. He was the 1st European to float down the Mississippi River to tip from Canada and upon seeing the beauty of the valley he named it Louisianna after King Louis XIV in 1682
National Bank
The First Bank of the United States was needed because the government had a debt from the Revolutionary War, and each state had a different form of currency. It was built while Philadelphia was still the nation's capital. Alexander Hamilton conceived of the bank to handle the colossal war debt — and to create a standard form of currency.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American poet and a leading voice of the transcendentalists
Act for Religious Toleration
Made Maryland the second colony to affirm libery of worship, but didn't protect non-Christians, nor did it separate church and state (punished religious offense)
Panay Incident
1937 - On the Yantze River in China, Japanese aircraft sank an American gunboat escorting tankers. The U.S. accepted Japan's appologies.
Washington’s retreat through New York and New Jersey
Washington’s failed efforts in New York during the Middle Atlantic stage (1776-1778) of the war for Independence forced them to retreat there. We had no navy, a small and inexperienced army, and inexperienced leaders.
Selective Service Act
Act passed by congress during WW1 that allowed men age 18 or above to be drafted for war
Thomas A. Edison
One of the most prolific inventors in U.S. history. He invented the phonograph, light bulb, electric battery, mimeograph and moving picture.
The most unpopular and least successful or President Thomas Jefferson's policies was his
adherence to neutrality in dealing with England and France
Florence Kelly (National Consumer's League)
She was the first chief factory inspector of Illinois and fought for improved factory conditions. She took control of the National Consumer's League and called for female consumers to press for protection of working women and children.
Henry George, Progress and Poverty
A journalist author who believed that progress and poverty were linked. Believed 100% tax on landowner properties would eliminate inequalities.
Federal Emergency Relief Administration
led by Harry Hopkins it was to help ppl find work thousands hired from funds distributed to sates by the Public Works Administration (many schools, highways, and hospitals were build under it)
Emergency Banking Act of 1933
did what the bank holdiday said to do
4. The dramatic increase in the South's slave labor force between 1810 and 1860 was due to
a. An increase in African slave trade
b. The importation of slaves from the West Indies
c. An increase in the severity of fugitive slave laws
d. The acquisi
e. The natural population increase of American-born slaves
What was a part of the GI Bills for veterans?
Loans for farms and homes etc.
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