APUSH VOCAB 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Gerald Ford
Red Cloud War
The Association
1774; Non-importation agreement
Tennessee Valley Authority
most extreme
Amendment 4
No search/seizure without warrants
right to privacy
the belief that native-born Americans are superior to foreigners
Junipero Serra
Spanish missionary who founded Franciscan missions in California (1713-1784)
Anti-Imperialist League
fought the McKinley administration's expansionist moves; included presidents of Stanford and Harvard universities, philosopher William James, novelist Mark Twain, Samuel Gompers, and Andrew Carnegie; said that annexing the Philippines was violating the "consent of the governed" philosophy of the Declaration of Independence
Roger Williams religious toleration
1636 Rhode Island
a borough in S Pennsylvania: Confederate forces defeated in a crucial battle of the Civil War fought near here on July 1–3, 1863; national cemetery and military park. 7194.
Edwin M. Stanton
the arrogant, irascible, vindictive, and double-dealing Democrat who Lincoln named as his secretary of war.
Named after a unique religious ritual - a dance in which they would shake off their sins while chanting their commitment to celibacy.
Credit Mobilier
Grant's vice president and several members of Congress received bargain-priced stock so that they would not hold an investigation of a fraud by this railroad construction company.
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru
boycott/non importation
Feb. 1768 Mass. House of Representatives sent a letter condemning the Townshend Act to the other assemblies, Boston & NY began a boycott of British goods, public support for nonimportation grew, promoted domestic manufacture of cloth
Wilmot Proviso
David Wilmot proposed to outlaw slavery from the territory acquired from Mex.
The colonials hated the British soldiers in the colonies because they worked for very low wages and took jobs away from colonists. On March 4, 1770, a group of colonials started throwing rocks and snowballs at some British soldiers; the soldiers panicked
Boston Massacre
to implant by repeated statement or admonition; teach persistently and earnestly (usually fol. by upon or in):
To put off action, consideration, etc. to a future time:
Toussaint l'Overture
led slave revolt in Haiti; marked Napolean's failure to make France an empire and inspired him to sell the Louisiana Purchase to America
Paxton Boys
A mob of Pennsylvania frontiersmen led by the Paxtons who massacred a group of non-hostile Indians.
Brown, John
Radical abolitionist who leads a raid on pro-slavery settlers in Pottawatomie, Kansas (1856) during Bleeding Kansas and kills five people, presumed to be proslavery supporters.
Panic of 1819
Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of European demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.
Fidel Castro
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
"Second" New Deal Programs
1935-38, reform-minded, more political [2ND]
Declaration of Independence
used ideas from the Enlightenment, "self-evident truths" "all men are created equal" "inalienable rights" "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" and govn't can be overthrown if it fails to meet these requirements. doctrines of individual liberty, popular sovereignty- popular vote rules, and republic rule = defining values
Nuremberg War Trials
War crimes tribunal in Nuremberg, Germany where 24 of the top remaining Nazis were charged with various war crimes (12 were sentenced to death)
Nathan Hale
A captain in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, Nathan Hale famously announced "I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country" just before being executed by the British for being a spy.
A self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, he became the best-known abolitionist speaker. He edited an anti-slavery weekly, the North Star.
Frederick Douglass
of the nature of or characterized by precipices:
Malcolm X
renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on separation of blacks and whites and nationalist impulses to achieve true independence and equality. He eventually changed his views, but was assassinated
Pikes Peak
The discovery of gold in 1858 which sent minors on a frantic rush to the Dakota territory, Montana, and Colorado.
Foreign born percentage
4.4 to 18.7. german and irish immigration opposed by nativist know nothing party which originated in NY in 1843. overwhelmed by the cotholic movment that had to do with the irish.
Dawes Act 1887
Act that offered land and citizenship to Indians.
Fort Sumter
First shots of the Civil War took place here in Charleston harbor in South Carolina. It became a symbol of the South's rebellion against the federal government. What Fort was this?
Charles Townshend
left in command due to Pitt's illness, demanded that colonists pay for troops in America and wanted to reduce British land tax=determined to find new source of revenue in America
Lend Lease
Device that would keep the nation out of the war. America would send a limitless supply of arms to the victims of the aggression, who in turn would finish the job and keep the war on their side of the Atlantic, returning the weapons or their equivalents when the war was over.
Pullman Strike
The Pullman Strike was in 1894. The Pullman Palace Car Company was hurt by the depression. They decided to cut wages about one-third. The workers decided to strike. Attorney General Olney called in the federal troops. He thought that the strikers were interfering with the delivery of mail because railroads all over the country went on strike in support of the Pullman workers. These railroads carried the mail. The strike affected the entire country.
Those revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend immigration, and Congress subsequently acted quickly to implement the suspension of Chinese immigration, a ban that lasted well over 60 years.
Chinese Exclusion Act:
Convention of 1818
also called the Treaty of 1818 in England; northern American border became the 49th parallel and Oregon was jointly occupated
Poor Richard's Almanack, first
Written by Benjamin Franklin, it was filled with witty, insightful, and funny bits of observation and common sense advice (the saying, "Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise," first appeared in this almanac). It was the most popular almanac in the colonies.
Sam Adams
A member of the Sons of Liberty who started the Committee of Correspondence to stir public support for American independence.
pendleton act
Passed in 1883, an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.
This was a project financed and carried out by Sir Walter Raleigh to establish a permanent colony in Virginia.
Lost colony of Roanoke
Liberal Republican revolt of 1872
Minority of Republican party, fed up with corruption in Grant's administration, split from the Republican party to become the Liberal Republicans. Helped Republican party.
New York & New Jersey
- Established in 1664; After British conquered Dutch lands, King Charles II gave the title of the lands to his brother, James, Duke of York.
- James was opposed to representative assemblies.
- Last Dutch governor of NY was Peter Stuyvesant
- Residents called for self-gov't until James relented, only to break this promise when he became King James II of England.
What were some of the reason Black Americans suffered special hardship during the Depresssion?
continued racial discrimination, whites believed they should have jobs before blacks, whites took blacks jobs and drove them away
Andrew Jackson's two pres. terms were marked by...
+ power in the fed. gov.
what was bush's no child left behind act of 2002?
called for sanctions against schools that failed to meet the federal performance standards
Albany Plan

ben franklin
representatives from northern colonies and Iroquois nations
each colonial leg would elect delegates to a national assembly presided over by a royal governer
suggested during french and indian war
Albany Plan of Union
brook's farm
thoreau, emerson, and transcendentalists utopian community
15th Amendment
Constitutional amendment, ratified in 1870, that prohibited states from denying the right to vote because of a person's race or because a person had been a slave.
Edward Jenner
Developed the vaccination for smallpox.
State Sovereignty
powers lie within the states
James Madison
socially inept Virginian (Federalist) who played a large role in writing/ratifying constitution. Arranged cession of NW Territory lands. Served on continental congress. Federalist papers.
"Ohio Fever"
when European immigrants bought large amounts of cheap west American land.
Dorothea Dix
A reformer who, in Massachusetts, began a national movement for new methods of treating the mentally ill.
John Winthrop
Puritan governor of MA bay company
Conscription draft riots
The poor were drafted disproportionately, and in New York in 1863, they rioted, killing at least 73 people.
Major U.S political party that had beliefs different to that of the republic (future federalists)
John Calvin/Calvinism
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.
Cordell Hull
Secretary of State during FDR's presidency; believed in reciprocal trade policy of the New Dealers, as well as a low tariff; led to passage of the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 1934; also believed in Good Neighborism. Hull received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945 for his role in establishing the United Nations,
Compromise of 1850 Delays Civil War for 10 Years
Crop lien System
allowed farmers to receive commodities such as food, supplies, seeds, etc. on loan (or credit) and pay this debt back after their crop was harvested and sold. If you don't pay it back, your crops are now theirs.
overconfident British
8 thousand British blundered in Battle of New Orleans.
Launched a frontal assault on American riflemen and cannoneers.
Lost over 2 thouand men to Andrew Jackson.
Associated Press
When the telegraph system allowed the exchange of national and international news to be shared by different newspapers, in 1846, newspaper publishers from around the nation formed to create an organization to promote cooperative news gathering by wire.
Prior to the Civil War, a transformation occurred in the workforce of the New England textile mills as New England farm girls were replaced by
Irish immigrants
was in charge of the Southern colonies during the revolutionary war. He gave up on the south and tried to take over the two other sections where he was cornered and was not able to fight and finally surrendered
Cherokee Indians
Indians who allied with South Carolina in the Yamasee war of 1715 (to protect British trade access) helped win war
During Radical Reconstruction:
Mississippi elected two black U.S. Senators.
Wilmot Proviso
1846; David Wilmot proposed that any new lands acquired from Mexico be non-slavery states only (to prevent the South from profiting from the war). Anti-slavery Northerners rallied to its cause. The House worked to pass it, but it was shut down in the Southern-dominated Senate. It aroused abolitionists to take political action against slavery. Based upon the free-soil principal.
1970s; it was a situation of stagnate growth that America was in during Nixon’s term that included both high inflation and high unemployment. The costly war and the energy crisis had caused America’s economic woes. Also, demand for American goods was slowing. Nixon tried to help it with tax reduction and deficit spending with little success.
Second Great Awakening
a religious movement started in New England. It produced a mass revival of Christianity throughout the country and often included camp meetings; events consisting of fellowship, sermons, conversions, and relaxation.
log cabins were taken to US from this country
Sons Of Liberty
Secret society formed by Samuel Adams to protest new taxes passed by Parliament. It led the Boston Tea Party and threatened tax collectors; also firm supporters of independence.
Fall of France
Summer, 1941 - Germany invaded France and set up the Vichey government, which lasted until the Allies invaded in 1944.
Stephen Crane (1871-1900)
Writer who introduced grim realism to the American novel. His major work, The Red Badge of Courage is a psychological study of a Civil War soldier. Crane had never been near a war when he wrote it, but later he was a reporter in the Spanish-American War.
107 Jim Crow Laws—
Laws enforcing segregation or control of Blacks in such a manner as to make them unequal after reconstruction.
John Dickinson
author of Letters from a Farmer (1767, pro separation), 2nd Continenntal Congress who became a moderate favoring reconciliation with Britian. Pennsylvanian.
Formal Recognition of Russia/Why?
Recognized them in 1933 over protests of: Anti-communist conservatives,  Roman Catholics (against the Kremlin’s antireligious policies)
Wanted to trade with them, Wanted to have the Soviet Union on friendly terms with the U.S. so that they could counter the power of Germany and Japan
John Wesley Powell
A US soldier, geologist, and explorer of the American West. Famous for a 3 month river trip down the green and colorado rivers that included the first passage through the Grand Canyon.
Florida Purchase Treaty, 1819
Spain ceded Florida and other claims to Oregon in exchange for Texas. This gave land to Mexico but later caused Americans to fight against Mexicans for their old land.
Progressive reformers rejected Social Darwinism because they believed that
conflict and competition did not necessarily improve society
Lexington and Concord
British was sent there under gage to destroy the upcoming rebellion, Britishmen were ambushed as they retreated when they destroyed supply stores
103 Gospel of Wealth—
Belief that those blessed with great wealth earned it through Darwinist competition but also were obligated to improve society and mankind through philanthropy.
82. The results of the Mexican-American War included
I. Acquisition of California by the United States
II. Important military experience that would be put to use in the Civil War
III. Contempt for the abilities of the U.S. Navy
IV. Extension of the 36
b. I and II only
Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)
Act which stated that the government had to buy more silver
Harding scandals: Teapot Dome
1929 - The Naval strategic oil reserve at Elk Hills, also known as "Teapot Dome" was taken out of the Navy's control and placed in the hands of the Department of the Interior, which leased the land to oil companies. Several Cabinet members received huge payments as bribes. Due to the investigation, Daugherty, Denky, and Fall were forced to resign.
Angelina and Sarah Grimike
Angelina was the first white woman to officially speak out against slavery. Sarah wrote these speeches.
Battle of New Orleans
This last battle of the War of 1812 made Andrew Jackson's name known, when he defeated the British out of Louisiana ports
Panic of 1937 and Specie Circular (1837)
Recession caused by Jackson's drastic movement of federal bank deposits to sate and local banks; led to relaxed credit policies and inflation Jackson demanded a Specie Circular, stating that land must be paid for in hard money, not paper or credit; recession lasted into the 1840s
Five Powers Treaty, Four Powers Treaty, Nine Powers Treaty
Five Powers Treaty: Signed as part of the Washington Naval Conference, U.S., Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy set a ten year suspension of construction of large ships and set quotas for the number of ships each country could build. Four Powers Treaty: U.S., Japan, Britain, and France agreed to respect each others possessions in the Pacific. Nine Powers Treaty: Reaffirmed the Open Door Policy in China.
"Make the world safe for democracy"
Wilson gave this as a reason for U.S. involvement in WWI.
56. By the end of the 17th century, which of the following was true of women in New England?
a. They had begun to challenge their subordinate role in society
b. They were a majority in many church congregations
c. They had equal economic opportunit
b. They were a majority in many church congregations
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