APUSH-Civil Rights Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Who assassinated MLK?
James Earl Ray
Who shot MLK?
James Earl Ray
What did Marcus Garvey preach?
racial separatism
Who was George Wallace?
governor of ALabama
Truman
Established Prez's Committee on Civil Rights, which pushed for southern anti-lynching laws and tried to register more black voters, but was mostly symbolic and had little real effect. He also signed Exec Order 9981 in 1948. This desegregated the military. His support for civil rights cost him southern votes in the 1948 election.
The slogan associated with Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus and Southern opposition to the Brown decision...
"massive resistance"
poorest minority group during the 1960s
Native Americans
15th amendment
gave African Americans right to vote
List the three Moderates
MLK-SCLC-southern christian leadership conference
SNCC- student nonviolence correlating comittee
CORE- congress of racial equality
Nonviolent protest
Sit-ins (e.g. Greensboro), protests at colleges, boycott of segregated biz, etc.
Martin Luther King
SCLC leader, advocate of peaceful resistance, assassinated 1968
Who formed the black panthers?
Stokley Carmichael
Bobby Seale
Hewey newton
who wrote the Souls of Black Folks
WEB DuBois
Who said "cast your buckets down"
Booker T. Washington
Executive Order 9981 (1948)
Desegregated the military. Truman's support for civil rights cost him southern votes in the 1948 election.
Black Nationalism
Started with the Nation of Islam, which supported the "New Negro" and fostered a sense of black pride
Stokley Carmichael
Leader of the SNCC. Co-authored Black Power and campaigned for the U.S. to split into a black country and a white country.
Voting Rights Act
Banned literacy tests and sent thousands of fed voting officials to the south to supervise registration. This got a huge jump in the black voter rate
1978 Bakke Case
Supreme Court held that racial quotas were unconstitutional but race could be taken into account as one factor in college admissions - reverse discrimination
Who pushed for the Back to Africa movement
Marcus Garvey
Who was the editor of "The Crisis" newspaper?
WEB DuBois
Who earned the first PHD from Harvard as an African AMerican?
WEB DuBois
Children's Crusade
MLK organizes a group of high school students to protest as well, hoping that it will shock people when even kids are attacked for their race.
Black Panthers
A party of frustrated activists in CA who wanted immediate equality for all blacks. Violent and militant; patrolled northern and western cities w/ handguns in search of racial violence against blacks. Also operated health and edu clinics for poor blacks. B/c of their extremism and willingness to violence, the gov't cracked down on them in '68 and '69, ending them.
What was the Warren Commission?
an official investigation of JFK's assassination led by Earl Warren - concluded Lee Harvey Oswald was the assassin
Blacks were always last to be hired...
first to be fired
Who founded the Nation of ISlam in the 1930's?
Elijah Mohammed
Who organized CORE and when?
James farmer in the late 1940's
Who were freedom riders?
they were groups of student volunteers who took bus trips through the South to test out new laws prohibiting segregation in travel facilities
Who influenced the Executive Order 11246?
President Johnson that enforces affirmative action
Birmingham Campaign
MLK moves the new center of protest to Birmingham. Black protests work this time: police attack protesters. Unexpectedly, black residents of Birmingham fight back against police and defend the activists. The violence prompts RFK and the justice dept to negotiate w/ city officials and the SCLC. SCLC agrees to end the protests, but only if more blacks are hired and the city enforces desegregation. Segregationists protest the agreement violently, forcing JFK to send fed troops to restore order.
James Meredith
Fed court orders U Miss to accept him, the school's first black transfer student. Miss. gov'na Ross Barnett and state officials won't let him in. Kennedy sent U.S. marshals to get him into the school. Barnett organized a riot to attack the marshals. Kennedy the ordered 5,000 troops to secure the college and escort him to class.
Civil Rights Act of 1957
Established a Civil Rights Commission, but had little real effect and was mostly symbolic
Who is associated with "affirmative action"?
LBJ = Lyndon B. Johnson, Nixon
Who is Medgar Evers
1963 boy who is shot trying to register blacks to vote in Mississippi
How does the SNCC help the movement?
-lunch counter desegregation in Greensboro, NC and Nashville
-tried but failed to help in Albany
-helped to organize Freedom Summer
-Freedom Riders
How many blacks left the rural south to move north to find industrial jobs in 1914 and what was this called?
500,000; the Great Migration
Who did Malcolm X counsel?
Cassius Clay, later known as Mohammed Ali
SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference)
MLK and nearly 100 other black ministers form this organization in 1957 to encourage nonviolent protest to provoke segregationists and win support from moderate southern whites. Although it got more blacks to support the movement, it failed to spark controversy or get white sympathy
County of Oneida v. Oneida Indian Nation (1985)
the Supreme Court's decision raised the possibility that Native Americans might reclaim land lost when the federal government violated old treaties
What did MLKs most famous speech help bring about?
Civil Rights Act of 1964
What comment did Malcolm X make after the assassination of JFK
"chickens coming home to roost"
Who began the Niagra Movement?
WEB DuBois and it evolved into the NAACP in 1909
Where does the Selma-Montgomery march end up targeting to go?
the capital of Alabama to demand rights from George Wallace
Brown Vs. Board of Education (1951)
(SCC) Marshall argues, wins this one. Unanimous vote under the Earl Warren court that "separate but equal" is a false doctrine.
What does the Letter from Birmingham Jail state
that individuals have the moral duty to disobey unjust laws
Who was Marie Anne Anderson?
she moves to Europe and ends up coming back to U.S. where she can only perform for segregated audiences
-she insists on vertical segregation and after concerts signed autographs unsegregated
What happens in the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955?
-Rosa Parks doesnt give up her seat
-blacks begin a year long bus boycott
Who turned their life around a became a disciple of Elijah Mohammed?
Malcolm X and became a muslim
When did MLK give his "I have a Dream" speech
march on Washington in 1963
Who was the Governor of Alabama that was against desegregation, welfare, and forced bussing of students?
George Wallace, who was also a third party candidate in the 1968 election
What main ideas were brought up in the 10 point plan of Black Panthers?
they advocated the use of violence in defense against police brutality, protested the war, and tried to help black families with child care and job oppurtunities
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