SK277 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
it
a thing
Blythe Key
House Manager
Rebecca Bowden
VP Scholarship
Kayla Cole
Vice President
Brooke Dryer
VP Finance
cardiac muscle
heart muscle.
new
fresh or unused
not
denial or refusal
help
to give aid
will
am going to
cardiac arrhythmias
abnormal heart rhythms.
do
to perform an action
want
to wish for something
was
past tense for be
cortisol
the most prevalent corticosteroid hormone found in humans, involved in the stress response.
atherosclerosis
an abnormal circulatory condition characterised by deposits of fat, fibrin, cellular debris and calcium salts on the inside of arterial walls. Build-up of these deposits can block the smaller arteries, either directly or by providing a surface where a blo
bile salts
cholesterol-derived molecules which emulsify fats and so help in their digestion.
cochlea
a coiled snail-shaped tubular structure within the inner ear where sound vibrations are converted into nerve impulses by the organ of Corti.
on
in, into, or onto something
in
within space or a place
cardio-inhibitory centre
parasympathetic nerve centre situated in the medullary region of the brain which gives rise to the 10th cranial nerve vagal nerve that innervates the heart and other structures.
anosmia
loss of the sense of smell.
diuretic
substance naturally occurring or a manufactured drug that induces diuresis, i.e. increases the volume of urine produced.
diving response
the physiological response reduced heart rate, oxygen consumption in aquatic diving mammals, and also present in humans, produced by submersion of body and head.
cytosol
the fluid contents of the cell.
cornea
the curved, transparent layer that covers the front part of the eye, which together with the lens, allows the passage and diffraction of light, and consequently helps the eye to focus.
dendrites
short neuronal processes extensions of the neuronal cell body that conduct information towards the cell body of the neuron.
carbohydrates
collective term for sugars and polysaccharides. All have atoms of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen combined in the ratio 1C:2H:1O.
atrial fibrillation
rapid uncontrolled depolarisation of the atria
calcitonin
a hormone secreted by specialised endocrine cells in the thyroid gland. It controls the levels of calcium and phosphate in the blood; when blood calcium levels are too high, the hormone initiates excretion of calcium and phosphate via the kidney and promo
amenorrhea
the absence of menstrual cycles, characterised by a lack of monthly periods.
antibiotics
drugs that fight infection by neutralising or killing the invading bacterium.
acetylcholine
a neurotransmitter found within the central nervous system 40;where it passes information between neurons41; and the peripheral nervous system 40;where it passes information from neurons to muscle41;. It is also the neurotransmitter released by the parasy
digestion
the process by which macromolecules are broken down into their component small-molecule subunits.
well
in a good or satisfactory manner
dilate
to increase the diameter of blood vessels.
circulatory system
composed of the cardiovascular system and lymphatic system.
circadian rhythm
endogenous rhythmic changes that occur in an organism with a period of approximately 24 hours when the organism is isolated from daily rhythmical changes in its environment.
chyme
the soup-like mixture produced in the stomach by the churning and mixing of food combined with the action of hydrochloric acid HCl.
chromosomes
structures inside the nucleus, made of DNA and protein, which carry the cell's hereditary information.
cerebral cortex
the laminated sheet of unmyelinated neurons grey matter forming the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres.
chemoreceptors
A sensory receptor that is responsive to chemical stimuli.
corpus luteum
endocrine tissue that develops from the follicle cells remaining in the ovary after ovulation. Secretes mainly progesterone and also oestrogens.
carbonic anhydrase
enzyme that catalyses the reaction between CO2 and H2O in the blood to produce carbonic acid H2CO3.
angina pectoris
the pain experienced during exercise that is a sign that there is a narrowing of the coronary artery.
ataxia
refers to an unsteady and clumsy motion of the limbs or trunk due to the failure of fine coordination of muscle movements. This coordination is normally under the control of the cerebellum.
aspermia
the inability to ejaculate sperm; also used for the condition in which there are no sperm in the ejaculate.
baroreceptors
receptors in the body that detect changes in blood pressure.
anticoagulants
Compounds that stop the blood from coagulating by preventing conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin.
antigen specificity
the ability to recognise each individual antigen specifically as a unique molecular entity.
dialysis
the process by which substances are exchanged through a semipermeable membrane. Clinically, it is the treatment used to remove metabolic waste products particularly urea and excess ions from the bloodstream, if kidney function is impaired by disease.
afferent fibres
nerve fibres that carry sensory information for example, regarding touch or painful stimuli towards the brain from the periphery.
allergen
any non-self protein to which the immune system is tolerant in most people, but which can trigger a prolonged inflammatory response in a minority of susceptible individuals, who produce IgE antibodies with binding sites for the substance.
diabetes
a deficiency or impairment of insulin activity.
diuresis
the production of large volumes of urine.
controlled processes
processes that serve to maintain within narrow limits the important variables that are critical for life. Part of the homeostatic machinery.
bipedalism
the human ability to walk permanently on two legs.
brush border
the surface of the intestinal epithelial cells in contact with the lumen. So called because of its appearance due to the presence of numerous microvilli.
atom
the smallest particle of an element, consisting of a core of protons and neurons surrounded by electrons.
auditory nerve
the cranial nerve that transmits signals received from hair cells in the cochlea to the brainstem cochlear nuclei of the pons.
callus
an acquired area of local thickening. Bony form develops between the ends of fractured bone during the healing process.
anatomy
the study of the structure of the human body and its constituent parts. This study can be undertaken from the microscopic level through to the macroscopic level.
diet
the range of foods and drinks consumed by an individual or group of individuals.
concussion
injury to the brain usually from a blow to the head which may cause a temporary loss of consciousness.
chronic bronchitis
inflammation of the mucous membrane in the bronchial tube.
angiotensinogen
protein made in the liver, which is the precursor of angiotensin I.
bronchi
the two major lower divisions of the tracheae.
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder in which the motivation to be slim gets out of control, resulting in self-starvation and sometimes death. The majority 95 of sufferers are female.
Crohn's disease
an inflammatory disease of the bowel with the inflammation reaching deep into the tissues of the intestinal wall.
cochlear implant
a device placed within the cochlea that can stimulate the auditory nerve directly by generating electrical signals in response to vibrations. In this way, it substitutes for the damaged cochlear hair cells.
apical
when used to describe a cell membrane as in the gut epithelial cells it is the surface which is in contact with the lumen of the gut.
caries
regions of decay in teeth, caused by the acidic waste products of microbes which live on the sugary remains of food present in plaque.
cell cycle
the cycle of growth and division whereby one cell becomes two, involving the replication and exact partitioning of the chromosomes, duplication of all cell constituents and transmission of cellular organisation to the two new cells.
cardioversion
this is the conversion of one cardiac rhythm, or pattern of cardiac electrical activity, to another - usually from an abnormal pattern to a normal pattern. It can be achieved using pharmacological medication or by electrical stimulation using a defribilla
actin
a contractile protein that is a major component of muscle.
cortical deafness
results from bilateral damage to the primary auditory cortex. Sufferers are able to interpret either verbal or non-verbal sounds, although they are aware of the occurrence of sound.
anabolic steroids
a group of synthetic steroid hormones, similar in molecular structure to testosterone, that are used to stimulate muscle and bone growth. They have therapeutic uses but are also abused by a small proportion of athletes to boost their performance in compet
axon
the extension of a neuron that carries information away from the cell body.
blastocyst
an early embryo in which the solid ball of cells formed by cleavage of the fertilised oocyte, has developed a cavity a blastocoel.
deoxyribonucleic acid
a macromolecule made up of nucleotides base-sugar-phosphate units, and which carries the cell's hereditary information in the form of the sequence of bases. It is present in the nucleus associated with proteins; these complexes are the chromosomes.
agglutination
the process by which cells, such as bacteria or mismatched transfused red blood cells, bind together in clumps.
depolarisation
a reduction in magnitude of a cell's membrane potential toward zero. In neurons this means a loss of negative membrane resting potential and can result in the generation of an action potential.
biological determinism
the view that every characteristic of an organism's structure and functioning, including mental and emotional states in humans, is determined by the genes an individual has inherited.
blind spot
also called the 'optic disc'; refers to the location at the back of the eye where the optic nerve exits. This region is devoid of any light-sensitive photoreceptor cells.
dichromacy
the complete loss of one type of cone.
corpus callosum
a broad, myelinated bundle of nerve fibres that connects the two cerebral hemispheres at the midline.
cell
the unit of which all living things are composed.
and
a connecting word linking two parts of a sentence
chloride shift
the passive transport of Cl- ions into erythrocytes by a membrane carrier that simultaneously transports bicarbonate ions.
atrium
one of the two upper cavities of the heart receiving blood from the veins.
deoxyribonucleic acid DNA
a macromolecule made up of nucleotides base-sugar-phosphate units, and which carries the cell's hereditary information in the form of the sequence of bases. It is present in the nucleus associated with proteins; these complexes are the chromosomes.
compound
a substance made up of two or more types of atom.
basal ganglia
a group of structures lying on either side of the midline of the brain, which play a crucial role in the control of movement.
distal convoluted tubule
the convoluted portion of the nephron lying between the loop of Henle and the collecting ducts. The final control of urine composition occurs by reabsorption and or secretion in this part of the nephron and it is concerned especially with the concentrati
asphyxiation
a lack of oxygen in the blood causing unconsciousness or death; suffocation.
brainstem
also referred to as the 'stalk' of the brain; it is located below the cerebral hemispheres. It is the major route of communication between the forebrain and the spinal cord and peripheral nerves, and it serves important functions over respiration and the
central nervous system
the division of the nervous system that comprises the brain and spinal cord.
centrally acting drugs
drugs that specifically act on the central nervous system.
Amadori product
name given to the substance formed as a result of protein glycation the binding of glucose to proteins, an abnormal process which can occur when levels of glucose in the circulation remain elevated. It can bind irreversibly to other proteins, exacerbating
Cushings syndrome
a suite of signs and symptoms caused by excessive secretion or therapeutic intake of cortisol. These include muscle wasting in the arms and legs, degeneration of skin structure causing striae stretch marks in abdominal skin, and weight gain in the abdomen
auditory agnosia
a form of 'central deafness' where the individual is unable to interpret recognise non-verbal sounds, but is able to interpret other sounds, such as speech.
autosomal chromosome
any chromosome that is not one of the two sex chromosomes.
computerised tomography CT scanning
a technique used clinically to show images of the brain in cross-section created by means of detecting a series of X-ray beams directed through the head.
body mass index BMI
an index that indicates whether an individual is a healthy weight for their height.
dietary reference values DRVs
the recommended intake levels for all nutrients and energy for males and females throughout life.
control group
a group who are similar in every way to the experimental group except for the one variable that is the expected causal factor.
closed head injuries
the most common type of injuries or trauma sustained to the head, which occur without any outwardly visible open wounds.
adaptive immune system
a collective term for the response of the small lymphocytes to antigens; these cells require contact with an antigen before they develop their defensive mechanisms. Following contact they adapt to become increasingly effective at eradicating the antigen.
atrioventricular AV heart block
condition arising from defects in the electrical conducting systems between the atria and ventricles of the heart.
central nervous system 40;CNS41;
the division of the nervous system that comprises the brain and spinal cord.
cardiac output
the volume of blood pumped out of the heart during one minute equals stroke volume multiplied by heart rate.
coronary artery disease
reduced supply of O2 and nutrients to heart muscle due to decreased blood flow through narrowed coronary arterial circulation.
cognitive behavioural therapy
a form of therapy in which patients are helped to correct false perceptions about their relationship to the world.
central loss of hearing
loss of hearing resulting from damage to the auditory pathways linking the cochlea and the nervous system.
ran
moving fast
Chelsea Cobault
Social Chairman
apoptosis
programmed cell death.
too
in addition, also
big
large in size
good
of high quality
cytokines
short-lived, short-range signalling molecules synthesised and secreted by white cells, which primarily affect the activity of other cells participating in an immune response; many have an 'activating' effect, some are inhibitory. The term is also used for
bradychardia
abnormally slow heart rate.
all
the whole of something
pretty
pleasing to the eye
can
to be able to
chylomicrons
aggregates of fats triacylglycerols, phospholipids, cholesterol and lipid-soluble vitamins; chylomicrons leave the intestinal epithelial cells and enter the circulation via the lymph vessels in the villi.
antibodies
specialised glycoproteins protein with a small amount of sugar bound into the protein molecule. They are secreted by certain white cells of the immune system.
antigens
macromolecules, cells or organisms that trigger a highly specific immune response directed against themselves, when they enter the body of another animal.
antioxidants
molecules, including certain vitamins, that can inactivate harmful free radicals.
asthma
allergic respiratory disease leading to breathing difficulties.
apnoea
a temporary cessation of breathing.
calcification
also called mineralisation: the process of deposition of mineral salts such as calcium and magnesium phosphates into a tissue.
is
3rd person singular of be
go
to move away from something
cartilage
strong, flexible material of which bones are first made and which provides the articulating surface of bones at the joints.
anabolism
metabolic reactions that result in synthesis of materials and in which energy in the form of ATP is consumed.
disaccharide
a two-ring sugar, e.g. sucrose, lactose.
adrenoceptors
specific receptors throughout the body that are stimulated by the neurotransmitter noradrenalin.
aldosterone
steroid hormone produced in the adrenal gland, in response to angiotensin II. It increases sodium reabsorption from the collecting ducts. It does this by stimulating an increase in the synthesis of sodium transport proteins in the epithelial cells lining
androgens
sex steroid hormones associated with males, e.g. testosterone. Also secreted in the ovaries, albeit in small amounts.
carcinogenesis
the development and spread of cancer.
bronchioles
small tubes emerging from branching bronchi in the lungs.
at
describing something in, on, or near
one
the first number in Arabic numerals
Bohr shift
the reduced association between oxygen and haemoglobin when the blood becomes more acidic lower pH.
biopsy
the process of removing tissue from living patients for diagnostic examination.
collagen
a fibrous protein that has great strength and elasticity.
diastole
the period between two contractions of the heart when the heart muscle relaxes and allows the chambers to fill with blood.
altricial
describes the young of mammals and birds which hatch or are born naked, blind, immobile and wholly dependent on their parents.
aorta
the large blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the body.
anus
the lower opening of the digestive tract through which faeces are voided at intervals.
clotting cascade
the complex interlinked chain of biochemical reactions involving specific blood-borne factors responsible for the coagulation of blood.
antagonist
a chemical substance that blocks the physiological effects of a natural chemical e.g. a neurotransmitter and upon binding to the receptor, blocks both its occupation and its effect.
afferent arterioles
arterioles carrying blood towards a site.
ACE inhibitors
inhibitors of the angiotensin I converting enzyme - vasodilators used in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure.
action potential
brief electrical impulses that convey information along the length of an axon.
active immunity
resistance to infection with a specific pathogen acquired as a result either of an earlier infection with that pathogen or through immunisation with harmless products derived from the pathogen.
diurnal rhythm
a distinct pattern over 24 hours.
amino acid
building block of polypeptides and proteins, so named because of the presence of the amino, -NH2, and carboxylic acid, -COOH, groups of atoms in their structure. .
discriminative touch
the perception of pressure, vibration and texture, which relies on four different receptors located in the skin.
diffusion
the passive movement of a substance from a region where it is at a high concentration to a region where it is at a lower concentration.
bronchodilator
a substance that causes widening of the bronchi.
capillary pores
small openings between the endothelial cells in the walls of capillaries. They can allow macromolecules and blood-borne cells to enter the tissue surrounding the capillaries.
eat
to put in the mouth and chew
antigen recognition
a shorthand term for the specific interaction between the binding site of an antigen receptor on a small lymphocyte B cell or T cell and the unique epitope on an antigen which precisely fits that binding site.
connective tissue
the packaging tissue which fills the space around the body's internal structures. It is also present within internal structures.
cultural evolution
the gradual changes to the customs, beliefs, values, knowledge and actions of human societies, which have been occurring for perhaps the past two million years.
catabolism
the breaking down of a molecule into smaller molecules, usually involving the production of ATP.
capacitation
the removal of the surface coating of glycoproteins from sperm that have reached the uterus, a process facilitated by high oestrogen levels in the female reproductive tract. It restores swimming movements, which become much stronger than before, and initi
acidosis
the condition where the pH of arterial blood is low, below its normal level of pH 7.4; i.e. the blood is more acidic than usual, because of the increased concentration of hydrogen ions.
aquaporins
proteins that form water pores in the membrane of the tubular epithelial cells of the kidney. ADH regulates the production and insertion of the AQP2 family that are found in the luminal membrane.
adrenal gland
an endocrine gland. There are two, each located just above a kidney. The cortex, the outer layer, secretes aldosterone and corticosteroid hormones such as cortison; the centre, the medulla, secretes adrenalin and noradrenalin.
cardiogenic shock
situation occurring when the heart is unable to pump enough blood through the circulation to maintain critical blood pressure. The result is that both cardiac output and arterial pressure are reduced. This reduction may severely compromise the function of
Bowman's capsule
the name given to the cup-like structure of the kidney tubule surrounding the glomerulus.
anomalous trichromacy
the most common form of colour blindness; it results from a shift of spectral sensitivity of one type of cone and it usually manifests as a confusion between red and green colours.
amniotic sac
a fluid-filled sac inside the uterus, lined with a tough membrane, which contains the developing embryo and fetus. The sac allows the fetus to grow in three dimensions, and the fluid within cushions the embryo and fetus against shocks.
antigenicity
the ability of an antigen to trigger an immune response, which in turn depends on the ability of the host animal to recognise a substance or cell as an antigen.
cerebral stroke
a neurological condition caused by the lack of oxygen to the brain which can lead to reversible or irreversible damage to the structure and function of neural tissue. The oxygen supply to a group of nerve cells is critically reduced by an interruption in
diastolic pressure
the value recorded while the heart is relaxed and filling with blood.
blood-testis barrier
a physical barrier, made up of two layers of fibrous basement membrane enclosing a tightly knit layer of cells, which separates the seminiferous tubules from the interstitial tissue in the testes. Protects developing spermatozoa are thereby protected from
cleavage
a type of mitosis which begins with a very large mother cell and produces daughter cells of decreasing size until the normal cell size is attained.
cerebrospinal fluid CSF
a clear liquid found within the ventricles of the brain and the subarachnoid space that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. It is produced by the choroid plexi a network of blood vessels and epithelial cells located in the ventricles and helps cushion th
compact bone
a very dense bone tissue which is found wherever bones have to resist the stress of weight placed on them, e.g. on the shafts of long bones such as the thigh bone femur.
adenosine triphosphate ATP
the energy currency of the cell. Energy is stored as ATP in the reaction: ADP Pi ATP and made available as required via the breakdown of ATP to ADP and Pi.
cell membrane
the boundary layer of the cell; a double layer of phospholipid molecules associated with other lipids, including cholesterol, and a variety of proteins.
calcium antagonists
compounds that block the entry of Ca2 into cells through calcium channels.
antidiuretic hormone ADH
also known as vasopressin; a hormone produced by nerve cells in the hypothalamus which have axons projecting into the posterior pituitary gland in response to activation by osmoreceptors, which are also located in the hypothalamus. Its release is stimulat
cranial nerves
any of the 12 paired nerves that originate in the brainstem.
cerebellum
a structure located to the back of and below the cerebral hemispheres, that is concerned with the organisation of balance, posture and locomotion, as well as being involved in fine motor control, attention and time perception.
aneuploidy
the loss or gain of a chromosome or chromosomes that results in the chromosome number of the cell not being an exact multiple of the haploid number.
clonal expansion
the rapid increase by cell division in the number of cells in a clone of small lymphocytes; it follows contact by a member of the clone with the appropriate epitope to which it binds via antigen receptors and with activating signals cytokines from other l
coronary sinus
a blood vessel in the heart that receives most of the cardiac veins and opens directly into the right atrium.
conductive loss of hearing
hearing loss caused by an obstruction such as the build-up of ear wax, the fusion of ossicles, or by disease, e.g. an ear infection, that affects the outer or middle ear. This affects all frequencies of hearing.
axial skeleton
the 80 bones that form the axis or central part of the body, i.e. the bones of the skull, ribcage and spine.
dorsal column-medial lemniscal tract
an ascending pathway in the spinal cord that relays signals from tactile information, joint position and vibration, up to the brain.
blood pressure
the mean force exerted by the flow of blood through blood vessels.
antigen binding site
the area of an antigen receptor which is exactly complementary in its shape and charge profile to that of the epitope to which the receptor can bind.
advanced sleep phase disorder
a condition shown by people whose natural circadian rhythm appears to be less than 24 hours. Such people tend to go to bed and to get up earlier than most people.
delayed sleep phase disorder DSPD
a condition shown by people whose natural circadian rhythm appears to be greater than 24 hours. Such people tend to go to bed later than most people and have great difficulty waking up in the morning.
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